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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tearle
cipher variations:
ufbsmf vgctng whduoh xievpi yjfwqj
zkgxrk alhysl bmiztm cnjaun dokbvo
eplcwp fqmdxq grneyr hsofzs itpgat
juqhbu kvricv lwsjdw mxtkex nyulfy
ozvmgz pawnha qbxoib rcypjc sdzqkd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tearle
Cipher: gvziov

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tearle
Cipher: BAABA AABAA AAAAA BAAAA ABABA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tearle
cipher variations:
ufbsmfgnbainsvbievedbqadqlbywlctbgstajbwkjmrbegr
yzbmczkhbuyhwpbcupixbkqxvgctnghocbjotwcjfwfecrbe
rmczxmduchtubkcxlknscfhszacndalicvzixqcdvqjyclry
whduohipdckpuxdkgxgfdscfsndaynevdiuvcldymlotdgit
abdoebmjdwajyrdewrkzdmszxievpijqedlqvyelhyhgetdg
toebzofwejvwdmeznmpuehjubcepfcnkexbkzsefxslaenta
yjfwqjkrfemrwzfmizihfuehupfcapgxfkwxenfaonqvfikv
cdfqgdolfyclatfgytmbfoubzkgxrklsgfnsxagnjajigvfi
vqgdbqhyglxyfogbporwgjlwdegrhepmgzdmbughzuncgpvc
alhyslmthgotybhokbkjhwgjwrhecrizhmyzgphcqpsxhkmx
efhsifqnhaencvhiavodhqwdbmiztmnuihpuzciplclkixhk
xsifdsjainzahqidrqtyilnyfgitjgroibfodwijbwpeirxe
cnjaunovjiqvadjqmdmljyilytjgetkbjoabirjesruzjmoz
ghjukhspjcgpexjkcxqfjsyfdokbvopwkjrwbekrnenmkzjm
zukhfulckpbcjskftsvaknpahikvlitqkdhqfykldyrgktzg
eplcwpqxlksxcflsofonlaknavligvmdlqcdktlgutwbloqb
ijlwmjurleirgzlmezshluahfqmdxqrymltydgmtpgpomblo
bwmjhwnemrdelumhvuxcmprcjkmxnkvsmfjshamnfatimvbi
grneyrsznmuzehnuqhqpncmpcxnkixofnsefmvniwvydnqsd
klnyolwtngktibnogbujnwcjhsofzstaonvafiovrirqodnq
dyoljypgotfgnwojxwzeortelmozpmxuohlujcophcvkoxdk
itpgatubpowbgjpwsjsrpeorezpmkzqhpughoxpkyxafpsuf
mnpaqnyvpimvkdpqidwlpyeljuqhbuvcqpxchkqxtktsqfps
faqnlariqvhipyqlzybgqtvgnoqbrozwqjnwleqrjexmqzfm
kvricvwdrqydilryulutrgqtgbrombsjrwijqzrmazchruwh
oprcspaxrkoxmfrskfynragnlwsjdwxesrzejmszvmvushru
hcspnctksxjkrasnbadisvxipqsdtqbyslpyngstlgzosbho
mxtkexyftsafkntawnwvtisvidtqodultyklsbtocbejtwyj
qrteurcztmqzohtumhaptcipnyulfyzgutbgloubxoxwujtw
jeurpevmuzlmtcupdcfkuxzkrsufvsdaunrapiuvnibqudjq
ozvmgzahvuchmpvcypyxvkuxkfvsqfwnvamnudvqedglvyal
stvgwtebvosbqjvwojcrvekrpawnhabiwvdinqwdzqzywlvy
lgwtrgxowbnovewrfehmwzbmtuwhxufcwptcrkwxpkdswfls
qbxoibcjxwejorxearazxmwzmhxushypxcopwfxsgfinxacn
uvxiyvgdxqudslxyqletxgmtrcypjcdkyxfkpsyfbsbaynxa
niyvtizqydpqxgythgjoybdovwyjzwheyrvetmyzrmfuyhnu
sdzqkdelzyglqtzgctcbzoybojzwujarzeqryhzuihkpzcep
wxzkaxifzswfunzasngvziovtearlefmazhmruahdudcapzc
pkaxvkbsafrsziavjilqadfqxyalbyjgatxgvoabtohwajpw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tearle
Cipher: grneyr

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tearle
Cipher: 445111241351

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tearle
method variations:
ykfwqkdplbvpiuqgauozvmfz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t e a r l e 
4 5 1 2 1 5 
4 1 1 4 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
451215411431
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tearle
Cipher: yfvdqc

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Method #3

Plaintext: tearle
method variations:
yafdxq afdxqy fdxqya
dxqyaf xqyafd qyafdx

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tearle

all 720 cipher variations:
tearle tearel tealre tealer teaelr teaerl terale terael terlae terlea terela
tereal telrae telrea telare telaer telear telera teerla teeral teelra teelar
teealr teearl taerle taerel taelre taeler taeelr taeerl tarele tareel tarlee
tarlee tarele tareel talree talree talere taleer taleer talere taerle taerel
taelre taeler taeelr taeerl traele traeel tralee tralee traele traeel treale
treael trelae trelea treela treeal trleae trleea trlaee trlaee trleae trleea
treela treeal trelea trelae treale treael tlaree tlaree tlaere tlaeer tlaeer
tlaere tlraee tlraee tlreae tlreea tlreea tlreae tlerae tlerea tleare tleaer
tleear tleera tlerea tlerae tleera tleear tleaer tleare tearle tearel tealre
tealer teaelr teaerl terale terael terlae terlea terela tereal telrae telrea
telare telaer telear telera teerla teeral teelra teelar teealr teearl etarle
etarel etalre etaler etaelr etaerl etrale etrael etrlae etrlea etrela etreal
etlrae etlrea etlare etlaer etlear etlera eterla eteral etelra etelar etealr
etearl eatrle eatrel eatlre eatler eatelr eaterl eartle eartel earlte earlet
earelt earetl ealrte ealret ealtre ealter ealetr ealert eaerlt eaertl eaelrt
eaeltr eaetlr eaetrl eratle eratel eralte eralet eraelt eraetl ertale ertael
ertlae ertlea ertela erteal erltae erltea erlate erlaet erleat erleta eretla
eretal erelta erelat erealt ereatl elarte elaret elatre elater elaetr elaert
elrate elraet elrtae elrtea elreta elreat eltrae eltrea eltare eltaer eltear
eltera elerta elerat eletra eletar eleatr eleart eearlt eeartl eealrt eealtr
eeatlr eeatrl eeralt eeratl eerlat eerlta eertla eertal eelrat eelrta eelart
eelatr eeltar eeltra eetrla eetral eetlra eetlar eetalr eetarl aetrle aetrel
aetlre aetler aetelr aeterl aertle aertel aerlte aerlet aerelt aeretl aelrte
aelret aeltre aelter aeletr aelert aeerlt aeertl aeelrt aeeltr aeetlr aeetrl
aterle aterel atelre ateler ateelr ateerl atrele atreel atrlee atrlee atrele
atreel atlree atlree atlere atleer atleer atlere aterle aterel atelre ateler
ateelr ateerl artele arteel artlee artlee artele arteel aretle aretel arelte
arelet areelt areetl arlete arleet arltee arltee arlete arleet areelt areetl
arelet arelte aretle aretel altree altree altere alteer alteer altere alrtee
alrtee alrete alreet alreet alrete alerte aleret aletre aleter aleetr aleert
aleret alerte aleert aleetr aleter aletre aetrle aetrel aetlre aetler aetelr
aeterl aertle aertel aerlte aerlet aerelt aeretl aelrte aelret aeltre aelter
aeletr aelert aeerlt aeertl aeelrt aeeltr aeetlr aeetrl reatle reatel realte
realet reaelt reaetl retale retael retlae retlea retela reteal reltae reltea
relate relaet releat releta reetla reetal reelta reelat reealt reeatl raetle
raetel raelte raelet raeelt raeetl ratele rateel ratlee ratlee ratele rateel
raltee raltee ralete raleet raleet ralete raetle raetel raelte raelet raeelt
raeetl rtaele rtaeel rtalee rtalee rtaele rtaeel rteale rteael rtelae rtelea
rteela rteeal rtleae rtleea rtlaee rtlaee rtleae rtleea rteela rteeal rtelea
rtelae rteale rteael rlatee rlatee rlaete rlaeet rlaeet rlaete rltaee rltaee
rlteae rlteea rlteea rlteae rletae rletea rleate rleaet rleeat rleeta rletea
rletae rleeta rleeat rleaet rleate reatle reatel realte realet reaelt reaetl
retale retael retlae retlea retela reteal reltae reltea relate relaet releat
releta reetla reetal reelta reelat reealt reeatl learte learet leatre leater
leaetr leaert lerate leraet lertae lertea lereta lereat letrae letrea letare
letaer letear letera leerta leerat leetra leetar leeatr leeart laerte laeret
laetre laeter laeetr laeert larete lareet lartee lartee larete lareet latree
latree latere lateer lateer latere laerte laeret laetre laeter laeetr laeert
lraete lraeet lratee lratee lraete lraeet lreate lreaet lretae lretea lreeta
lreeat lrteae lrteea lrtaee lrtaee lrteae lrteea lreeta lreeat lretea lretae
lreate lreaet ltaree ltaree ltaere ltaeer ltaeer ltaere ltraee ltraee ltreae
ltreea ltreea ltreae lterae lterea lteare lteaer lteear lteera lterea lterae
lteera lteear lteaer lteare learte learet leatre leater leaetr leaert lerate
leraet lertae lertea lereta lereat letrae letrea letare letaer letear letera
leerta leerat leetra leetar leeatr leeart eearlt eeartl eealrt eealtr eeatlr
eeatrl eeralt eeratl eerlat eerlta eertla eertal eelrat eelrta eelart eelatr
eeltar eeltra eetrla eetral eetlra eetlar eetalr eetarl eaerlt eaertl eaelrt
eaeltr eaetlr eaetrl earelt earetl earlet earlte eartle eartel ealret ealrte
ealert ealetr ealter ealtre eatrle eatrel eatlre eatler eatelr eaterl eraelt
eraetl eralet eralte eratle eratel erealt ereatl erelat erelta eretla eretal
erleat erleta erlaet erlate erltae erltea ertela erteal ertlea ertlae ertale
ertael elaret elarte elaert elaetr elater elatre elraet elrate elreat elreta
elrtea elrtae elerat elerta eleart eleatr eletar eletra eltrea eltrae eltera
eltear eltaer eltare etarle etarel etalre etaler etaelr etaerl etrale etrael
etrlae etrlea etrela etreal etlrae etlrea etlare etlaer etlear etlera eterla
eteral etelra etelar etealr etearl

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