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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: tamora
cipher variations:
ubnpsb vcoqtc wdprud xeqsve yfrtwf
zgsuxg ahtvyh biuwzi cjvxaj dkwybk
elxzcl fmyadm gnzben hoacfo ipbdgp
jqcehq krdfir lsegjs mtfhkt nugilu
ovhjmv pwiknw qxjlox rykmpy szlnqz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: tamora
Cipher: gznliz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: tamora
Cipher: BAABA AAAAA ABABB ABBAB BAAAA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: tamora
cipher variations:
ubnpsbgblrabsbjtibebhvqbqbfxybcbdzgbabzdwbmbxfeb
ybvhmbkbtjubwbrlcbibpnkbvcoqtchcmsbctckujcfciwrc
rcgyzcdceahcbcaexcncygfczcwinclcukvcxcsmdcjcqolc
wdprudidntcdudlvkdgdjxsdsdhzadedfbidcdbfydodzhgd
adxjodmdvlwdydtnedkdrpmdxeqsvejeoudevemwlehekyte
teiabefegcjedecgzepeaihebeykpenewmxezeuofelesqne
yfrtwfkfpvefwfnxmfiflzufufjbcfgfhdkfefdhafqfbjif
cfzlqfofxnyfafvpgfmftrofzgsuxglgqwfgxgoyngjgmavg
vgkcdghgielgfgeibgrgckjgdgamrgpgyozgbgwqhgnguspg
ahtvyhmhrxghyhpzohkhnbwhwhldehihjfmhghfjchshdlkh
ehbnshqhzpahchxrihohvtqhbiuwzinisyhiziqapiliocxi
ximefijikgnihigkditiemlificotiriaqbidiysjipiwuri
cjvxajojtzijajrbqjmjpdyjyjnfgjkjlhojijhlejujfnmj
gjdpujsjbrcjejztkjqjxvsjdkwybkpkuajkbkscrknkqezk
zkoghklkmipkjkimfkvkgonkhkeqvktkcsdkfkaulkrkywtk
elxzclqlvbklcltdslolrfalalphilmlnjqlkljnglwlhpol
ilfrwluldtelglbvmlslzxulfmyadmrmwclmdmuetmpmsgbm
bmqijmnmokrmlmkohmxmiqpmjmgsxmvmeufmhmcwnmtmayvm
gnzbensnxdmnenvfunqnthcncnrjknonplsnmnlpinynjrqn
knhtynwnfvgnindxonunbzwnhoacfotoyenofowgvorouido
dosklopoqmtonomqjozoksroloiuzoxogwhojoeypovocaxo
ipbdgpupzfopgpxhwpspvjepeptlmpqprnupopnrkpapltsp
mpjvapyphxipkpfzqpwpdbypjqcehqvqagpqhqyixqtqwkfq
fqumnqrqsovqpqoslqbqmutqnqkwbqzqiyjqlqgarqxqeczq
krdfirwrbhqrirzjyrurxlgrgrvnorsrtpwrqrptmrcrnvur
orlxcrarjzkrmrhbsryrfdarlsegjsxscirsjsakzsvsymhs
hswopstsuqxsrsqunsdsowvspsmydsbskalsnsictszsgebs
mtfhktytdjstktblatwtznititxpqtutvrytstrvotetpxwt
qtnzetctlbmtotjdutathfctnugiluzuektulucmbuxuaoju
juyqruvuwszutuswpufuqyxuruoafudumcnupukevubuigdu
ovhjmvavfluvmvdncvyvbpkvkvzrsvwvxtavuvtxqvgvrzyv
svpbgvevndovqvlfwvcvjhevpwiknwbwgmvwnweodwzwcqlw
lwastwxwyubwvwuyrwhwsazwtwqchwfwoepwrwmgxwdwkifw
qxjloxcxhnwxoxfpexaxdrmxmxbtuxyxzvcxwxvzsxixtbax
uxrdixgxpfqxsxnhyxexljgxrykmpydyioxypygqfybyesny
nycuvyzyawdyxywatyjyucbyvysejyhyqgrytyoizyfymkhy
szlnqzezjpyzqzhrgzczftozozdvwzazbxezyzxbuzkzvdcz
wztfkzizrhszuzpjazgznliztamorafakqzaraishadagupa
paewxabacyfazaycvalawedaxauglajasitavaqkbahaomja

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: tamora
Cipher: gnzben

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: tamora
Cipher: 441123432411

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: tamora
method variations:
yfrtwfdlwybliqbdgqovgimv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
t a m o r a 
4 1 2 4 2 1 
4 1 3 3 4 1 
They are then read out in rows:
412421413341
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: tamora
Cipher: drbdnd

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: tamora
method variations:
dfshdq fshdqd shdqdf
hdqdfs dqdfsh qdfshd

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: tamora

all 720 cipher variations:
tamora tamoar tamroa tamrao tamaro tamaor taomra taomar taorma taoram taoarm
taoamr taroma taroam tarmoa tarmao taramo taraom taaorm taaomr taarom taarmo
taamro taamor tmaora tmaoar tmaroa tmarao tmaaro tmaaor tmoara tmoaar tmoraa
tmoraa tmoara tmoaar tmroaa tmroaa tmraoa tmraao tmraao tmraoa tmaora tmaoar
tmaroa tmarao tmaaro tmaaor tomara tomaar tomraa tomraa tomara tomaar toamra
toamar toarma toaram toaarm toaamr torama toraam tormaa tormaa torama toraam
toaarm toaamr toaram toarma toamra toamar trmoaa trmoaa trmaoa trmaao trmaao
trmaoa tromaa tromaa troama troaam troaam troama traoma traoam tramoa tramao
traamo traaom traoam traoma traaom traamo tramao tramoa tamora tamoar tamroa
tamrao tamaro tamaor taomra taomar taorma taoram taoarm taoamr taroma taroam
tarmoa tarmao taramo taraom taaorm taaomr taarom taarmo taamro taamor atmora
atmoar atmroa atmrao atmaro atmaor atomra atomar atorma atoram atoarm atoamr
atroma atroam atrmoa atrmao atramo atraom ataorm ataomr atarom atarmo atamro
atamor amtora amtoar amtroa amtrao amtaro amtaor amotra amotar amorta amorat
amoart amoatr amrota amroat amrtoa amrtao amrato amraot amaort amaotr amarot
amarto amatro amator aomtra aomtar aomrta aomrat aomart aomatr aotmra aotmar
aotrma aotram aotarm aotamr aortma aortam aormta aormat aoramt aoratm aoatrm
aoatmr aoartm aoarmt aoamrt aoamtr armota armoat armtoa armtao armato armaot
aromta aromat arotma arotam aroatm aroamt artoma artoam artmoa artmao artamo
artaom araotm araomt aratom aratmo aramto aramot aamort aamotr aamrot aamrto
aamtro aamtor aaomrt aaomtr aaormt aaortm aaotrm aaotmr aaromt aarotm aarmot
aarmto aartmo aartom aatorm aatomr aatrom aatrmo aatmro aatmor matora matoar
matroa matrao mataro mataor maotra maotar maorta maorat maoart maoatr marota
maroat martoa martao marato maraot maaort maaotr maarot maarto maatro maator
mtaora mtaoar mtaroa mtarao mtaaro mtaaor mtoara mtoaar mtoraa mtoraa mtoara
mtoaar mtroaa mtroaa mtraoa mtraao mtraao mtraoa mtaora mtaoar mtaroa mtarao
mtaaro mtaaor motara motaar motraa motraa motara motaar moatra moatar moarta
moarat moaart moaatr morata moraat mortaa mortaa morata moraat moaart moaatr
moarat moarta moatra moatar mrtoaa mrtoaa mrtaoa mrtaao mrtaao mrtaoa mrotaa
mrotaa mroata mroaat mroaat mroata mraota mraoat mratoa mratao mraato mraaot
mraoat mraota mraaot mraato mratao mratoa matora matoar matroa matrao mataro
mataor maotra maotar maorta maorat maoart maoatr marota maroat martoa martao
marato maraot maaort maaotr maarot maarto maatro maator oamtra oamtar oamrta
oamrat oamart oamatr oatmra oatmar oatrma oatram oatarm oatamr oartma oartam
oarmta oarmat oaramt oaratm oaatrm oaatmr oaartm oaarmt oaamrt oaamtr omatra
omatar omarta omarat omaart omaatr omtara omtaar omtraa omtraa omtara omtaar
omrtaa omrtaa omrata omraat omraat omrata omatra omatar omarta omarat omaart
omaatr otmara otmaar otmraa otmraa otmara otmaar otamra otamar otarma otaram
otaarm otaamr otrama otraam otrmaa otrmaa otrama otraam otaarm otaamr otaram
otarma otamra otamar ormtaa ormtaa ormata ormaat ormaat ormata ortmaa ortmaa
ortama ortaam ortaam ortama oratma oratam oramta oramat oraamt oraatm oratam
oratma oraatm oraamt oramat oramta oamtra oamtar oamrta oamrat oamart oamatr
oatmra oatmar oatrma oatram oatarm oatamr oartma oartam oarmta oarmat oaramt
oaratm oaatrm oaatmr oaartm oaarmt oaamrt oaamtr ramota ramoat ramtoa ramtao
ramato ramaot raomta raomat raotma raotam raoatm raoamt ratoma ratoam ratmoa
ratmao ratamo rataom raaotm raaomt raatom raatmo raamto raamot rmaota rmaoat
rmatoa rmatao rmaato rmaaot rmoata rmoaat rmotaa rmotaa rmoata rmoaat rmtoaa
rmtoaa rmtaoa rmtaao rmtaao rmtaoa rmaota rmaoat rmatoa rmatao rmaato rmaaot
romata romaat romtaa romtaa romata romaat roamta roamat roatma roatam roaatm
roaamt rotama rotaam rotmaa rotmaa rotama rotaam roaatm roaamt roatam roatma
roamta roamat rtmoaa rtmoaa rtmaoa rtmaao rtmaao rtmaoa rtomaa rtomaa rtoama
rtoaam rtoaam rtoama rtaoma rtaoam rtamoa rtamao rtaamo rtaaom rtaoam rtaoma
rtaaom rtaamo rtamao rtamoa ramota ramoat ramtoa ramtao ramato ramaot raomta
raomat raotma raotam raoatm raoamt ratoma ratoam ratmoa ratmao ratamo rataom
raaotm raaomt raatom raatmo raamto raamot aamort aamotr aamrot aamrto aamtro
aamtor aaomrt aaomtr aaormt aaortm aaotrm aaotmr aaromt aarotm aarmot aarmto
aartmo aartom aatorm aatomr aatrom aatrmo aatmro aatmor amaort amaotr amarot
amarto amatro amator amoart amoatr amorat amorta amotra amotar amroat amrota
amraot amrato amrtao amrtoa amtora amtoar amtroa amtrao amtaro amtaor aomart
aomatr aomrat aomrta aomtra aomtar aoamrt aoamtr aoarmt aoartm aoatrm aoatmr
aoramt aoratm aormat aormta aortma aortam aotarm aotamr aotram aotrma aotmra
aotmar armoat armota armaot armato armtao armtoa aromat aromta aroamt aroatm
arotam arotma araomt araotm aramot aramto aratmo aratom artoam artoma artaom
artamo artmao artmoa atmora atmoar atmroa atmrao atmaro atmaor atomra atomar
atorma atoram atoarm atoamr atroma atroam atrmoa atrmao atramo atraom ataorm
ataomr atarom atarmo atamro atamor

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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