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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: symult
cipher variations:
tznvmu uaownv vbpxow wcqypx xdrzqy
yesarz zftbsa aguctb bhvduc ciwevd
djxfwe ekygxf flzhyg gmaizh hnbjai
iockbj jpdlck kqemdl lrfnem msgofn
nthpgo ouiqhp pvjriq qwksjr rxltks

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: symult
Cipher: hbnfog

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: symult

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: symult
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: symult
Cipher: flzhyg

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: symult
Cipher: 344523541344

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: symult
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s y m u l t 
3 4 2 5 1 4 
4 5 3 4 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: symult
Cipher: swqyss

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Method #3

Plaintext: symult
method variations:
tkxdso kxdsot xdsotk
dsotkx sotkxd otkxds

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: symult

all 720 cipher variations:
symult symutl symlut symltu symtlu symtul syumlt syumtl syulmt syultm syutlm
syutml sylumt sylutm sylmut sylmtu syltmu syltum sytulm sytuml sytlum sytlmu
sytmlu sytmul smyult smyutl smylut smyltu smytlu smytul smuylt smuytl smulyt
smulty smutly smutyl smluyt smluty smlyut smlytu smltyu smltuy smtuly smtuyl
smtluy smtlyu smtylu smtyul sumylt sumytl sumlyt sumlty sumtly sumtyl suymlt
suymtl suylmt suyltm suytlm suytml sulymt sulytm sulmyt sulmty sultmy sultym
sutylm sutyml sutlym sutlmy sutmly sutmyl slmuyt slmuty slmyut slmytu slmtyu
slmtuy slumyt slumty sluymt sluytm slutym slutmy slyumt slyutm slymut slymtu
slytmu slytum sltuym sltumy sltyum sltymu sltmyu sltmuy stmuly stmuyl stmluy
stmlyu stmylu stmyul stumly stumyl stulmy stulym stuylm stuyml stlumy stluym
stlmuy stlmyu stlymu stlyum styulm styuml stylum stylmu stymlu stymul ysmult
ysmutl ysmlut ysmltu ysmtlu ysmtul ysumlt ysumtl ysulmt ysultm ysutlm ysutml
yslumt yslutm yslmut yslmtu ysltmu ysltum ystulm ystuml ystlum ystlmu ystmlu
ystmul ymsult ymsutl ymslut ymsltu ymstlu ymstul ymuslt ymustl ymulst ymults
ymutls ymutsl ymlust ymluts ymlsut ymlstu ymltsu ymltus ymtuls ymtusl ymtlus
ymtlsu ymtslu ymtsul yumslt yumstl yumlst yumlts yumtls yumtsl yusmlt yusmtl
yuslmt yusltm yustlm yustml yulsmt yulstm yulmst yulmts yultms yultsm yutslm
yutsml yutlsm yutlms yutmls yutmsl ylmust ylmuts ylmsut ylmstu ylmtsu ylmtus
ylumst ylumts ylusmt ylustm ylutsm ylutms ylsumt ylsutm ylsmut ylsmtu ylstmu
ylstum yltusm yltums yltsum yltsmu yltmsu yltmus ytmuls ytmusl ytmlus ytmlsu
ytmslu ytmsul ytumls ytumsl ytulms ytulsm ytuslm ytusml ytlums ytlusm ytlmus
ytlmsu ytlsmu ytlsum ytsulm ytsuml ytslum ytslmu ytsmlu ytsmul mysult mysutl
myslut mysltu mystlu mystul myuslt myustl myulst myults myutls myutsl mylust
myluts mylsut mylstu myltsu myltus mytuls mytusl mytlus mytlsu mytslu mytsul
msyult msyutl msylut msyltu msytlu msytul msuylt msuytl msulyt msulty msutly
msutyl msluyt msluty mslyut mslytu msltyu msltuy mstuly mstuyl mstluy mstlyu
mstylu mstyul musylt musytl muslyt muslty mustly mustyl muyslt muystl muylst
muylts muytls muytsl mulyst mulyts mulsyt mulsty multsy multys mutyls mutysl
mutlys mutlsy mutsly mutsyl mlsuyt mlsuty mlsyut mlsytu mlstyu mlstuy mlusyt
mlusty mluyst mluyts mlutys mlutsy mlyust mlyuts mlysut mlystu mlytsu mlytus
mltuys mltusy mltyus mltysu mltsyu mltsuy mtsuly mtsuyl mtsluy mtslyu mtsylu
mtsyul mtusly mtusyl mtulsy mtulys mtuyls mtuysl mtlusy mtluys mtlsuy mtlsyu
mtlysu mtlyus mtyuls mtyusl mtylus mtylsu mtyslu mtysul uymslt uymstl uymlst
uymlts uymtls uymtsl uysmlt uysmtl uyslmt uysltm uystlm uystml uylsmt uylstm
uylmst uylmts uyltms uyltsm uytslm uytsml uytlsm uytlms uytmls uytmsl umyslt
umystl umylst umylts umytls umytsl umsylt umsytl umslyt umslty umstly umstyl
umlsyt umlsty umlyst umlyts umltys umltsy umtsly umtsyl umtlsy umtlys umtyls
umtysl usmylt usmytl usmlyt usmlty usmtly usmtyl usymlt usymtl usylmt usyltm
usytlm usytml uslymt uslytm uslmyt uslmty usltmy usltym ustylm ustyml ustlym
ustlmy ustmly ustmyl ulmsyt ulmsty ulmyst ulmyts ulmtys ulmtsy ulsmyt ulsmty
ulsymt ulsytm ulstym ulstmy ulysmt ulystm ulymst ulymts ulytms ulytsm ultsym
ultsmy ultysm ultyms ultmys ultmsy utmsly utmsyl utmlsy utmlys utmyls utmysl
utsmly utsmyl utslmy utslym utsylm utsyml utlsmy utlsym utlmsy utlmys utlyms
utlysm utyslm utysml utylsm utylms utymls utymsl lymust lymuts lymsut lymstu
lymtsu lymtus lyumst lyumts lyusmt lyustm lyutsm lyutms lysumt lysutm lysmut
lysmtu lystmu lystum lytusm lytums lytsum lytsmu lytmsu lytmus lmyust lmyuts
lmysut lmystu lmytsu lmytus lmuyst lmuyts lmusyt lmusty lmutsy lmutys lmsuyt
lmsuty lmsyut lmsytu lmstyu lmstuy lmtusy lmtuys lmtsuy lmtsyu lmtysu lmtyus
lumyst lumyts lumsyt lumsty lumtsy lumtys luymst luymts luysmt luystm luytsm
luytms lusymt lusytm lusmyt lusmty lustmy lustym lutysm lutyms lutsym lutsmy
lutmsy lutmys lsmuyt lsmuty lsmyut lsmytu lsmtyu lsmtuy lsumyt lsumty lsuymt
lsuytm lsutym lsutmy lsyumt lsyutm lsymut lsymtu lsytmu lsytum lstuym lstumy
lstyum lstymu lstmyu lstmuy ltmusy ltmuys ltmsuy ltmsyu ltmysu ltmyus ltumsy
ltumys ltusmy ltusym ltuysm ltuyms ltsumy ltsuym ltsmuy ltsmyu ltsymu ltsyum
ltyusm ltyums ltysum ltysmu ltymsu ltymus tymuls tymusl tymlus tymlsu tymslu
tymsul tyumls tyumsl tyulms tyulsm tyuslm tyusml tylums tylusm tylmus tylmsu
tylsmu tylsum tysulm tysuml tyslum tyslmu tysmlu tysmul tmyuls tmyusl tmylus
tmylsu tmyslu tmysul tmuyls tmuysl tmulys tmulsy tmusly tmusyl tmluys tmlusy
tmlyus tmlysu tmlsyu tmlsuy tmsuly tmsuyl tmsluy tmslyu tmsylu tmsyul tumyls
tumysl tumlys tumlsy tumsly tumsyl tuymls tuymsl tuylms tuylsm tuyslm tuysml
tulyms tulysm tulmys tulmsy tulsmy tulsym tusylm tusyml tuslym tuslmy tusmly
tusmyl tlmuys tlmusy tlmyus tlmysu tlmsyu tlmsuy tlumys tlumsy tluyms tluysm
tlusym tlusmy tlyums tlyusm tlymus tlymsu tlysmu tlysum tlsuym tlsumy tlsyum
tlsymu tlsmyu tlsmuy tsmuly tsmuyl tsmluy tsmlyu tsmylu tsmyul tsumly tsumyl
tsulmy tsulym tsuylm tsuyml tslumy tsluym tslmuy tslmyu tslymu tslyum tsyulm
tsyuml tsylum tsylmu tsymlu tsymul

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History of cryptography
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