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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: swords
cipher variations:
txpset uyqtfu vzrugv wasvhw xbtwix
ycuxjy zdvykz aewzla bfxamb cgybnc
dhzcod eiadpe fjbeqf gkcfrg hldgsh
imehti jnfiuj kogjvk lphkwl mqilxm
nrjmyn osknzo ptloap qumpbq rvnqcr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: swords
Cipher: hdliwh

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: swords
Cipher: BAAAB BABAA ABBAB BAAAA AAABB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: swords
cipher variations:
txpsetdprakdnhtiqnxzvqwxhrxychrjzgirltdwulvlfeav
fdhmgfpvjumpznlcszjfnkyjuyqtfueqsbleoiujroyawrxy
isyzdiskahjsmuexvmwmgfbwgeinhgqwkvnqaomdtakgolzk
vzrugvfrtcmfpjvkspzbxsyzjtzaejtlbiktnvfywnxnhgcx
hfjoihrxlworbpneublhpmalwasvhwgsudngqkwltqacytza
kuabfkumcjluowgzxoyoihdyigkpjisymxpscqofvcmiqnbm
xbtwixhtveohrlxmurbdzuablvbcglvndkmvpxhaypzpjiez
jhlqkjtznyqtdrpgwdnjrocnycuxjyiuwfpismynvsceavbc
mwcdhmwoelnwqyibzqaqkjfakimrlkuaozruesqhxeokspdo
zdvykzjvxgqjtnzowtdfbwcdnxdeinxpfmoxrzjcarbrlkgb
ljnsmlvbpasvftriyfpltqepaewzlakwyhrkuoapxuegcxde
oyefjoyqgnpysakdbscsmlhcmkotnmwcqbtwgusjzgqmurfq
bfxamblxzislvpbqyvfhdyefpzfgkpzrhoqztblectdtnmid
nlpuonxdrcuxhvtkahrnvsgrcgybncmyajtmwqcrzwgiezfg
qaghlqasipraucmfdueuonjeomqvpoyesdvyiwulbisowths
dhzcodnzbkunxrdsaxhjfaghrbhimrbtjqsbvdngevfvpokf
pnrwqpzftewzjxvmcjtpxuiteiadpeoaclvoysetbyikgbhi
scijnscukrtcweohfwgwqplgqosxrqagufxakywndkuqyvju
fjbeqfpbdmwpztfuczjlhcijtdjkotdvlsudxfpigxhxrqmh
rptysrbhvgyblzxoelvrzwkvgkcfrgqcenxqaugvdakmidjk
ueklpuewmtveygqjhyiysrnisquztsciwhzcmaypfmwsaxlw
hldgshrdfoyrbvhweblnjeklvflmqvfxnuwfzhrkizjztsoj
trvautdjxiadnbzqgnxtbymximehtisegpzscwixfcmokflm
wgmnrwgyovxgaisljakautpkuswbvuekyjbeocarhoyuczny
jnfiujtfhqatdxjygdnplgmnxhnosxhzpwyhbjtmkblbvuql
vtxcwvflzkcfpdbsipzvdaozkogjvkugirbueykzheoqmhno
yioptyiaqxzickunlcmcwvrmwuydxwgmaldgqectjqawebpa
lphkwlvhjscvfzlaifprniopzjpquzjbryajdlvomdndxwsn
xvzeyxhnbmehrfdukrbxfcqbmqilxmwiktdwgambjgqsojpq
akqrvakcszbkemwpneoeyxtoywafzyiocnfisgevlscygdrc
nrjmynxjluexhbnckhrtpkqrblrswbldtaclfnxqofpfzyup
zxbgazjpdogjthfwmtdzhesdosknzoykmvfyicodlisuqlrs
cmstxcmeubdmgoyrpgqgazvqaychbakqephkuigxnueaifte
ptloapzlnwgzjdpemjtvrmstdntuydnfvcenhpzsqhrhbawr
bzdicblrfqilvjhyovfbjgufqumpbqamoxhakeqfnkuwsntu
eouvzeogwdfoiqatrisicbxscaejdcmsgrjmwkizpwgckhvg
rvnqcrbnpyiblfrgolvxtouvfpvwafphxegpjrbusjtjdcyt
dbfkednthsknxljaqxhdliwhswordscoqzjcmgshpmwyupvw
gqwxbgqiyfhqkscvtkukedzuecglfeouitloymkbryiemjxi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: swords
Cipher: fjbeqf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: swords
Cipher: 342543244134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: swords
method variations:
xbtwixcgybochmdgthnrimyn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s w o r d s 
3 2 4 2 4 3 
4 5 3 4 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
324243453414
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: swords
Cipher: hioysq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: swords
method variations:
iuhtlo uhtloi htloiu
tloiuh loiuht oiuhtl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: swords

all 720 cipher variations:
swords sworsd swodrs swodsr swosdr swosrd swrods swrosd swrdos swrdso swrsdo
swrsod swdros swdrso swdors swdosr swdsor swdsro swsrdo swsrod swsdro swsdor
swsodr swsord sowrds sowrsd sowdrs sowdsr sowsdr sowsrd sorwds sorwsd sordws
sordsw sorsdw sorswd sodrws sodrsw sodwrs sodwsr sodswr sodsrw sosrdw sosrwd
sosdrw sosdwr soswdr soswrd srowds srowsd srodws srodsw srosdw sroswd srwods
srwosd srwdos srwdso srwsdo srwsod srdwos srdwso srdows srdosw srdsow srdswo
srswdo srswod srsdwo srsdow srsodw srsowd sdorws sdorsw sdowrs sdowsr sdoswr
sdosrw sdrows sdrosw sdrwos sdrwso sdrswo sdrsow sdwros sdwrso sdwors sdwosr
sdwsor sdwsro sdsrwo sdsrow sdswro sdswor sdsowr sdsorw ssordw ssorwd ssodrw
ssodwr ssowdr ssowrd ssrodw ssrowd ssrdow ssrdwo ssrwdo ssrwod ssdrow ssdrwo
ssdorw ssdowr ssdwor ssdwro sswrdo sswrod sswdro sswdor sswodr ssword wsords
wsorsd wsodrs wsodsr wsosdr wsosrd wsrods wsrosd wsrdos wsrdso wsrsdo wsrsod
wsdros wsdrso wsdors wsdosr wsdsor wsdsro wssrdo wssrod wssdro wssdor wssodr
wssord wosrds wosrsd wosdrs wosdsr wossdr wossrd worsds worssd wordss wordss
worsds worssd wodrss wodrss wodsrs wodssr wodssr wodsrs wosrds wosrsd wosdrs
wosdsr wossdr wossrd wrosds wrossd wrodss wrodss wrosds wrossd wrsods wrsosd
wrsdos wrsdso wrssdo wrssod wrdsos wrdsso wrdoss wrdoss wrdsos wrdsso wrssdo
wrssod wrsdso wrsdos wrsods wrsosd wdorss wdorss wdosrs wdossr wdossr wdosrs
wdross wdross wdrsos wdrsso wdrsso wdrsos wdsros wdsrso wdsors wdsosr wdssor
wdssro wdsrso wdsros wdssro wdssor wdsosr wdsors wsords wsorsd wsodrs wsodsr
wsosdr wsosrd wsrods wsrosd wsrdos wsrdso wsrsdo wsrsod wsdros wsdrso wsdors
wsdosr wsdsor wsdsro wssrdo wssrod wssdro wssdor wssodr wssord owsrds owsrsd
owsdrs owsdsr owssdr owssrd owrsds owrssd owrdss owrdss owrsds owrssd owdrss
owdrss owdsrs owdssr owdssr owdsrs owsrds owsrsd owsdrs owsdsr owssdr owssrd
oswrds oswrsd oswdrs oswdsr oswsdr oswsrd osrwds osrwsd osrdws osrdsw osrsdw
osrswd osdrws osdrsw osdwrs osdwsr osdswr osdsrw ossrdw ossrwd ossdrw ossdwr
osswdr osswrd orswds orswsd orsdws orsdsw orssdw orsswd orwsds orwssd orwdss
orwdss orwsds orwssd ordwss ordwss ordsws ordssw ordssw ordsws orswds orswsd
orsdws orsdsw orssdw orsswd odsrws odsrsw odswrs odswsr odsswr odssrw odrsws
odrssw odrwss odrwss odrsws odrssw odwrss odwrss odwsrs odwssr odwssr odwsrs
odsrws odsrsw odswrs odswsr odsswr odssrw ossrdw ossrwd ossdrw ossdwr osswdr
osswrd osrsdw osrswd osrdsw osrdws osrwds osrwsd osdrsw osdrws osdsrw osdswr
osdwsr osdwrs oswrds oswrsd oswdrs oswdsr oswsdr oswsrd rwosds rwossd rwodss
rwodss rwosds rwossd rwsods rwsosd rwsdos rwsdso rwssdo rwssod rwdsos rwdsso
rwdoss rwdoss rwdsos rwdsso rwssdo rwssod rwsdso rwsdos rwsods rwsosd rowsds
rowssd rowdss rowdss rowsds rowssd roswds roswsd rosdws rosdsw rossdw rosswd
rodsws rodssw rodwss rodwss rodsws rodssw rossdw rosswd rosdsw rosdws roswds
roswsd rsowds rsowsd rsodws rsodsw rsosdw rsoswd rswods rswosd rswdos rswdso
rswsdo rswsod rsdwos rsdwso rsdows rsdosw rsdsow rsdswo rsswdo rsswod rssdwo
rssdow rssodw rssowd rdosws rdossw rdowss rdowss rdosws rdossw rdsows rdsosw
rdswos rdswso rdsswo rdssow rdwsos rdwsso rdwoss rdwoss rdwsos rdwsso rdsswo
rdssow rdswso rdswos rdsows rdsosw rsosdw rsoswd rsodsw rsodws rsowds rsowsd
rssodw rssowd rssdow rssdwo rsswdo rsswod rsdsow rsdswo rsdosw rsdows rsdwos
rsdwso rswsdo rswsod rswdso rswdos rswods rswosd dworss dworss dwosrs dwossr
dwossr dwosrs dwross dwross dwrsos dwrsso dwrsso dwrsos dwsros dwsrso dwsors
dwsosr dwssor dwssro dwsrso dwsros dwssro dwssor dwsosr dwsors dowrss dowrss
dowsrs dowssr dowssr dowsrs dorwss dorwss dorsws dorssw dorssw dorsws dosrws
dosrsw doswrs doswsr dosswr dossrw dosrsw dosrws dossrw dosswr doswsr doswrs
drowss drowss drosws drossw drossw drosws drwoss drwoss drwsos drwsso drwsso
drwsos drswos drswso drsows drsosw drssow drsswo drswso drswos drsswo drssow
drsosw drsows dsorws dsorsw dsowrs dsowsr dsoswr dsosrw dsrows dsrosw dsrwos
dsrwso dsrswo dsrsow dswros dswrso dswors dswosr dswsor dswsro dssrwo dssrow
dsswro dsswor dssowr dssorw dsorsw dsorws dsosrw dsoswr dsowsr dsowrs dsrosw
dsrows dsrsow dsrswo dsrwso dsrwos dssrow dssrwo dssorw dssowr dsswor dsswro
dswrso dswros dswsro dswsor dswosr dswors swords sworsd swodrs swodsr swosdr
swosrd swrods swrosd swrdos swrdso swrsdo swrsod swdros swdrso swdors swdosr
swdsor swdsro swsrdo swsrod swsdro swsdor swsodr swsord sowrds sowrsd sowdrs
sowdsr sowsdr sowsrd sorwds sorwsd sordws sordsw sorsdw sorswd sodrws sodrsw
sodwrs sodwsr sodswr sodsrw sosrdw sosrwd sosdrw sosdwr soswdr soswrd srowds
srowsd srodws srodsw srosdw sroswd srwods srwosd srwdos srwdso srwsdo srwsod
srdwos srdwso srdows srdosw srdsow srdswo srswdo srswod srsdwo srsdow srsodw
srsowd sdorws sdorsw sdowrs sdowsr sdoswr sdosrw sdrows sdrosw sdrwos sdrwso
sdrswo sdrsow sdwros sdwrso sdwors sdwosr sdwsor sdwsro sdsrwo sdsrow sdswro
sdswor sdsowr sdsorw ssordw ssorwd ssodrw ssodwr ssowdr ssowrd ssrodw ssrowd
ssrdow ssrdwo ssrwdo ssrwod ssdrow ssdrwo ssdorw ssdowr ssdwor ssdwro sswrdo
sswrod sswdro sswdor sswodr ssword

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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