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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: sunbim
cipher variations:
tvocjn uwpdko vxqelp wyrfmq xzsgnr
yathos zbuipt acvjqu bdwkrv cexlsw
dfymtx egznuy fhaovz gibpwa hjcqxb
ikdryc jleszd kmftae lngubf mohvcg
npiwdh oqjxei prkyfj qslzgk rtmahl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: sunbim
Cipher: hfmyrn

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: sunbim

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: sunbim
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: sunbim
Cipher: fhaovz

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: sunbim
Cipher: 345433214223

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: sunbim
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s u n b i m 
3 5 3 2 4 2 
4 4 3 1 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: sunbim
Cipher: xhitcm

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Method #3

Plaintext: sunbim
method variations:
yohqgn ohqgny hqgnyo
qgnyoh gnyohq nyohqg

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: sunbim

all 720 cipher variations:
sunbim sunbmi sunibm sunimb sunmib sunmbi subnim subnmi subinm subimn submin
submni suibnm suibmn suinbm suinmb suimnb suimbn sumbin sumbni sumibn suminb
sumnib sumnbi snubim snubmi snuibm snuimb snumib snumbi snbuim snbumi snbium
snbimu snbmiu snbmui snibum snibmu sniubm sniumb snimub snimbu snmbiu snmbui
snmibu snmiub snmuib snmubi sbnuim sbnumi sbnium sbnimu sbnmiu sbnmui sbunim
sbunmi sbuinm sbuimn sbumin sbumni sbiunm sbiumn sbinum sbinmu sbimnu sbimun
sbmuin sbmuni sbmiun sbminu sbmniu sbmnui sinbum sinbmu sinubm sinumb sinmub
sinmbu sibnum sibnmu sibunm sibumn sibmun sibmnu siubnm siubmn siunbm siunmb
siumnb siumbn simbun simbnu simubn simunb simnub simnbu smnbiu smnbui smnibu
smniub smnuib smnubi smbniu smbnui smbinu smbiun smbuin smbuni smibnu smibun
sminbu sminub smiunb smiubn smubin smubni smuibn smuinb smunib smunbi usnbim
usnbmi usnibm usnimb usnmib usnmbi usbnim usbnmi usbinm usbimn usbmin usbmni
usibnm usibmn usinbm usinmb usimnb usimbn usmbin usmbni usmibn usminb usmnib
usmnbi unsbim unsbmi unsibm unsimb unsmib unsmbi unbsim unbsmi unbism unbims
unbmis unbmsi unibsm unibms unisbm unismb unimsb unimbs unmbis unmbsi unmibs
unmisb unmsib unmsbi ubnsim ubnsmi ubnism ubnims ubnmis ubnmsi ubsnim ubsnmi
ubsinm ubsimn ubsmin ubsmni ubisnm ubismn ubinsm ubinms ubimns ubimsn ubmsin
ubmsni ubmisn ubmins ubmnis ubmnsi uinbsm uinbms uinsbm uinsmb uinmsb uinmbs
uibnsm uibnms uibsnm uibsmn uibmsn uibmns uisbnm uisbmn uisnbm uisnmb uismnb
uismbn uimbsn uimbns uimsbn uimsnb uimnsb uimnbs umnbis umnbsi umnibs umnisb
umnsib umnsbi umbnis umbnsi umbins umbisn umbsin umbsni umibns umibsn uminbs
uminsb umisnb umisbn umsbin umsbni umsibn umsinb umsnib umsnbi nusbim nusbmi
nusibm nusimb nusmib nusmbi nubsim nubsmi nubism nubims nubmis nubmsi nuibsm
nuibms nuisbm nuismb nuimsb nuimbs numbis numbsi numibs numisb numsib numsbi
nsubim nsubmi nsuibm nsuimb nsumib nsumbi nsbuim nsbumi nsbium nsbimu nsbmiu
nsbmui nsibum nsibmu nsiubm nsiumb nsimub nsimbu nsmbiu nsmbui nsmibu nsmiub
nsmuib nsmubi nbsuim nbsumi nbsium nbsimu nbsmiu nbsmui nbusim nbusmi nbuism
nbuims nbumis nbumsi nbiusm nbiums nbisum nbismu nbimsu nbimus nbmuis nbmusi
nbmius nbmisu nbmsiu nbmsui nisbum nisbmu nisubm nisumb nismub nismbu nibsum
nibsmu nibusm nibums nibmus nibmsu niubsm niubms niusbm niusmb niumsb niumbs
nimbus nimbsu nimubs nimusb nimsub nimsbu nmsbiu nmsbui nmsibu nmsiub nmsuib
nmsubi nmbsiu nmbsui nmbisu nmbius nmbuis nmbusi nmibsu nmibus nmisbu nmisub
nmiusb nmiubs nmubis nmubsi nmuibs nmuisb nmusib nmusbi bunsim bunsmi bunism
bunims bunmis bunmsi busnim busnmi businm busimn busmin busmni buisnm buismn
buinsm buinms buimns buimsn bumsin bumsni bumisn bumins bumnis bumnsi bnusim
bnusmi bnuism bnuims bnumis bnumsi bnsuim bnsumi bnsium bnsimu bnsmiu bnsmui
bnisum bnismu bniusm bniums bnimus bnimsu bnmsiu bnmsui bnmisu bnmius bnmuis
bnmusi bsnuim bsnumi bsnium bsnimu bsnmiu bsnmui bsunim bsunmi bsuinm bsuimn
bsumin bsumni bsiunm bsiumn bsinum bsinmu bsimnu bsimun bsmuin bsmuni bsmiun
bsminu bsmniu bsmnui binsum binsmu binusm binums binmus binmsu bisnum bisnmu
bisunm bisumn bismun bismnu biusnm biusmn biunsm biunms biumns biumsn bimsun
bimsnu bimusn bimuns bimnus bimnsu bmnsiu bmnsui bmnisu bmnius bmnuis bmnusi
bmsniu bmsnui bmsinu bmsiun bmsuin bmsuni bmisnu bmisun bminsu bminus bmiuns
bmiusn bmusin bmusni bmuisn bmuins bmunis bmunsi iunbsm iunbms iunsbm iunsmb
iunmsb iunmbs iubnsm iubnms iubsnm iubsmn iubmsn iubmns iusbnm iusbmn iusnbm
iusnmb iusmnb iusmbn iumbsn iumbns iumsbn iumsnb iumnsb iumnbs inubsm inubms
inusbm inusmb inumsb inumbs inbusm inbums inbsum inbsmu inbmsu inbmus insbum
insbmu insubm insumb insmub insmbu inmbsu inmbus inmsbu inmsub inmusb inmubs
ibnusm ibnums ibnsum ibnsmu ibnmsu ibnmus ibunsm ibunms ibusnm ibusmn ibumsn
ibumns ibsunm ibsumn ibsnum ibsnmu ibsmnu ibsmun ibmusn ibmuns ibmsun ibmsnu
ibmnsu ibmnus isnbum isnbmu isnubm isnumb isnmub isnmbu isbnum isbnmu isbunm
isbumn isbmun isbmnu isubnm isubmn isunbm isunmb isumnb isumbn ismbun ismbnu
ismubn ismunb ismnub ismnbu imnbsu imnbus imnsbu imnsub imnusb imnubs imbnsu
imbnus imbsnu imbsun imbusn imbuns imsbnu imsbun imsnbu imsnub imsunb imsubn
imubsn imubns imusbn imusnb imunsb imunbs munbis munbsi munibs munisb munsib
munsbi mubnis mubnsi mubins mubisn mubsin mubsni muibns muibsn muinbs muinsb
muisnb muisbn musbin musbni musibn musinb musnib musnbi mnubis mnubsi mnuibs
mnuisb mnusib mnusbi mnbuis mnbusi mnbius mnbisu mnbsiu mnbsui mnibus mnibsu
mniubs mniusb mnisub mnisbu mnsbiu mnsbui mnsibu mnsiub mnsuib mnsubi mbnuis
mbnusi mbnius mbnisu mbnsiu mbnsui mbunis mbunsi mbuins mbuisn mbusin mbusni
mbiuns mbiusn mbinus mbinsu mbisnu mbisun mbsuin mbsuni mbsiun mbsinu mbsniu
mbsnui minbus minbsu minubs minusb minsub minsbu mibnus mibnsu mibuns mibusn
mibsun mibsnu miubns miubsn miunbs miunsb miusnb miusbn misbun misbnu misubn
misunb misnub misnbu msnbiu msnbui msnibu msniub msnuib msnubi msbniu msbnui
msbinu msbiun msbuin msbuni msibnu msibun msinbu msinub msiunb msiubn msubin
msubni msuibn msuinb msunib msunbi

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History of cryptography
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