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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: spelts
cipher variations:
tqfmut urgnvu vshowv wtipxw xujqyx
yvkrzy zwlsaz axmtba bynucb czovdc
dapwed ebqxfe fcrygf gdszhg hetaih
ifubji jgvckj khwdlk lixeml mjyfnm
nkzgon olahpo pmbiqp qncjrq rodksr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: spelts
Cipher: hkvogh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: spelts
Cipher: BAAAB ABBBA AABAA ABABA BAABA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: spelts
cipher variations:
tqfmutdunigdnyvesnxcdaexhglwqhrktscrlsjkalvwrgmv
fazcyfpehykpzipuwzjmxqijurgnvuevojheozwftoydebfy
ihmxrislutdsmtklbmwxshnwgbadzgqfizlqajqvxaknyrjk
vshowvfwpkifpaxgupzefcgzjinysjtmvuetnulmcnxytiox
hcbeahrgjamrbkrwyblozsklwtipxwgxqljgqbyhvqafgdha
kjoztkunwvfuovmndoyzujpyidcfbishkbnsclsxzcmpatlm
xujqyxhyrmkhrcziwrbgheiblkpaulvoxwgvpwnoepzavkqz
jedgcjtilcotdmtyadnqbumnyvkrzyizsnlisdajxschifjc
mlqbvmwpyxhwqxopfqabwlrakfehdkujmdpuenuzbeorcvno
zwlsazjatomjtebkytdijgkdnmrcwnxqzyixrypqgrbcxmsb
lgfielvkneqvfovacfpsdwopaxmtbakbupnkufclzuejkhle
onsdxoyrazjyszqrhscdyntcmhgjfmwlofrwgpwbdgqtexpq
bynucblcvqolvgdmavfklimfpoteypzsbakztarsitdezoud
nihkgnxmpgsxhqxcehrufyqrczovdcmdwrpmwhenbwglmjng
qpufzqatcblaubstjuefapveojilhoynqhtyirydfisvgzrs
dapwednexsqnxifocxhmnkohrqvgarbudcmbvctukvfgbqwf
pkjmipzoriuzjszegjtwhastebqxfeofytroyjgpdyinolpi
srwhbscvedncwduvlwghcrxgqlknjqapsjvaktafhkuxibtu
fcrygfpgzuspzkhqezjopmqjtsxictdwfeodxevwmxhidsyh
rmlokrbqtkwblubgilvyjcuvgdszhgqhavtqalirfakpqnrk
utyjduexgfpeyfwxnyijetzisnmplscrulxcmvchjmwzkdvw
hetaihribwurbmjsgblqroslvuzkevfyhgqfzgxyozjkfuaj
tonqmtdsvmydnwdiknxalewxifubjisjcxvscnkthcmrsptm
wvalfwgzihrgahyzpaklgvbkupornuetwnzeoxejloybmfxy
jgvckjtkdywtdoluidnstqunxwbmgxhajishbizaqblmhwcl
vqpsovfuxoafpyfkmpzcngyzkhwdlkulezxuepmvjeoturvo
yxcnhyibkjticjabrcmnixdmwrqtpwgvypbgqzglnqadohza
lixemlvmfayvfqnwkfpuvswpzydoizjclkujdkbcsdnojyen
xsruqxhwzqchrahmorbepiabmjyfnmwngbzwgroxlgqvwtxq
azepjakdmlvkelcdteopkzfoytsvryixardisbinpscfqjbc
nkzgonxohcaxhspymhrwxuyrbafqkblenmwlfmdeufpqlagp
zutwszjybsejtcjoqtdgrkcdolahpoypidbyitqznisxyvzs
cbgrlcmfonxmgnefvgqrmbhqavuxtakzctfkudkpruehslde
pmbiqpzqjeczjuraojtyzwatdchsmdngpoynhofgwhrsncir
bwvyubladuglvelqsvfitmefqncjrqarkfdakvsbpkuzaxbu
editneohqpzoipghxistodjscxwzvcmbevhmwfmrtwgjunfg
rodksrbslgeblwtcqlvabycvfejuofpirqapjqhiyjtupekt
dyxawdncfwinxgnsuxhkvoghspeltsctmhfcmxudrmwbczdw
gfkvpgqjsrbqkrijzkuvqfluezybxeodgxjoyhotvyilwphi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: spelts
Cipher: fcrygf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: spelts
Cipher: 345351134434

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: spelts
method variations:
xukqyxczpvdcheuaihnkzfon

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s p e l t s 
3 5 5 1 4 3 
4 3 1 3 4 4 
They are then read out in rows:
355143431344
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: spelts
Cipher: xeoolt

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: spelts
method variations:
yxasoo xasooy asooyx
sooyxa ooyxas oyxaso

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: spelts

all 720 cipher variations:
spelts spelst spetls spetsl spestl speslt splets splest spltes spltse splste
splset sptles sptlse sptels sptesl sptsel sptsle spslte spslet spstle spstel
spsetl spselt seplts seplst septls septsl sepstl sepslt selpts selpst seltps
seltsp selstp selspt setlps setlsp setpls setpsl setspl setslp sesltp seslpt
sestlp sestpl sesptl sesplt slepts slepst sletps sletsp slestp slespt slpets
slpest slptes slptse slpste slpset sltpes sltpse slteps sltesp sltsep sltspe
slspte slspet slstpe slstep slsetp slsept stelps stelsp stepls stepsl stespl
steslp stleps stlesp stlpes stlpse stlspe stlsep stples stplse stpels stpesl
stpsel stpsle stslpe stslep stsple stspel stsepl stselp sseltp sselpt ssetlp
ssetpl sseptl sseplt ssletp sslept ssltep ssltpe sslpte sslpet sstlep sstlpe
sstelp sstepl sstpel sstple ssplte ssplet ssptle ssptel sspetl sspelt pselts
pselst psetls psetsl psestl pseslt pslets pslest psltes psltse pslste pslset
pstles pstlse pstels pstesl pstsel pstsle psslte psslet psstle psstel pssetl
psselt peslts peslst pestls pestsl pesstl pesslt pelsts pelsst peltss peltss
pelsts pelsst petlss petlss petsls petssl petssl petsls peslts peslst pestls
pestsl pesstl pesslt plests plesst pletss pletss plests plesst plsets plsest
plstes plstse plsste plsset pltses pltsse pltess pltess pltses pltsse plsste
plsset plstse plstes plsets plsest ptelss ptelss ptesls ptessl ptessl ptesls
ptless ptless ptlses ptlsse ptlsse ptlses ptsles ptslse ptsels ptsesl ptssel
ptssle ptslse ptsles ptssle ptssel ptsesl ptsels pselts pselst psetls psetsl
psestl pseslt pslets pslest psltes psltse pslste pslset pstles pstlse pstels
pstesl pstsel pstsle psslte psslet psstle psstel pssetl psselt epslts epslst
epstls epstsl epsstl epsslt eplsts eplsst epltss epltss eplsts eplsst eptlss
eptlss eptsls eptssl eptssl eptsls epslts epslst epstls epstsl epsstl epsslt
esplts esplst esptls esptsl espstl espslt eslpts eslpst esltps esltsp eslstp
eslspt estlps estlsp estpls estpsl estspl estslp essltp esslpt esstlp esstpl
essptl essplt elspts elspst elstps elstsp elsstp elsspt elpsts elpsst elptss
elptss elpsts elpsst eltpss eltpss eltsps eltssp eltssp eltsps elspts elspst
elstps elstsp elsstp elsspt etslps etslsp etspls etspsl etsspl etsslp etlsps
etlssp etlpss etlpss etlsps etlssp etplss etplss etpsls etpssl etpssl etpsls
etslps etslsp etspls etspsl etsspl etsslp essltp esslpt esstlp esstpl essptl
essplt eslstp eslspt esltsp esltps eslpts eslpst estlsp estlps estslp estspl
estpsl estpls esplts esplst esptls esptsl espstl espslt lpests lpesst lpetss
lpetss lpests lpesst lpsets lpsest lpstes lpstse lpsste lpsset lptses lptsse
lptess lptess lptses lptsse lpsste lpsset lpstse lpstes lpsets lpsest lepsts
lepsst leptss leptss lepsts lepsst lespts lespst lestps lestsp lesstp lesspt
letsps letssp letpss letpss letsps letssp lesstp lesspt lestsp lestps lespts
lespst lsepts lsepst lsetps lsetsp lsestp lsespt lspets lspest lsptes lsptse
lspste lspset lstpes lstpse lsteps lstesp lstsep lstspe lsspte lsspet lsstpe
lsstep lssetp lssept ltesps ltessp ltepss ltepss ltesps ltessp ltseps ltsesp
ltspes ltspse ltsspe ltssep ltpses ltpsse ltpess ltpess ltpses ltpsse ltsspe
ltssep ltspse ltspes ltseps ltsesp lsestp lsespt lsetsp lsetps lsepts lsepst
lssetp lssept lsstep lsstpe lsspte lsspet lstsep lstspe lstesp lsteps lstpes
lstpse lspste lspset lsptse lsptes lspets lspest tpelss tpelss tpesls tpessl
tpessl tpesls tpless tpless tplses tplsse tplsse tplses tpsles tpslse tpsels
tpsesl tpssel tpssle tpslse tpsles tpssle tpssel tpsesl tpsels teplss teplss
tepsls tepssl tepssl tepsls telpss telpss telsps telssp telssp telsps teslps
teslsp tespls tespsl tesspl tesslp teslsp teslps tesslp tesspl tespsl tespls
tlepss tlepss tlesps tlessp tlessp tlesps tlpess tlpess tlpses tlpsse tlpsse
tlpses tlspes tlspse tlseps tlsesp tlssep tlsspe tlspse tlspes tlsspe tlssep
tlsesp tlseps tselps tselsp tsepls tsepsl tsespl tseslp tsleps tslesp tslpes
tslpse tslspe tslsep tsples tsplse tspels tspesl tspsel tspsle tsslpe tsslep
tssple tsspel tssepl tsselp tselsp tselps tseslp tsespl tsepsl tsepls tslesp
tsleps tslsep tslspe tslpse tslpes tsslep tsslpe tsselp tssepl tsspel tssple
tsplse tsples tspsle tspsel tspesl tspels spelts spelst spetls spetsl spestl
speslt splets splest spltes spltse splste splset sptles sptlse sptels sptesl
sptsel sptsle spslte spslet spstle spstel spsetl spselt seplts seplst septls
septsl sepstl sepslt selpts selpst seltps seltsp selstp selspt setlps setlsp
setpls setpsl setspl setslp sesltp seslpt sestlp sestpl sesptl sesplt slepts
slepst sletps sletsp slestp slespt slpets slpest slptes slptse slpste slpset
sltpes sltpse slteps sltesp sltsep sltspe slspte slspet slstpe slstep slsetp
slsept stelps stelsp stepls stepsl stespl steslp stleps stlesp stlpes stlpse
stlspe stlsep stples stplse stpels stpesl stpsel stpsle stslpe stslep stsple
stspel stsepl stselp sseltp sselpt ssetlp ssetpl sseptl sseplt ssletp sslept
ssltep ssltpe sslpte sslpet sstlep sstlpe sstelp sstepl sstpel sstple ssplte
ssplet ssptle ssptel sspetl sspelt

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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