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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: snuggs
cipher variations:
tovhht upwiiu vqxjjv wrykkw xszllx
ytammy zubnnz avcooa bwdppb cxeqqc
dyfrrd ezgsse fahttf gbiuug hcjvvh
idkwwi jelxxj kfmyyk lgnzzl mhoaam
nipbbn ojqcco pkrddp qlseeq rmtffr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: snuggs
Cipher: hmftth

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: snuggs
Cipher: BAAAB ABBAA BAABB AABBA AABBA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: snuggs
cipher variations:
tovhhtdojttdnoxffnxolrrxhozddhronpprlopnnlvodzzv
forllfpofxxpzotjjzjohvvjupwiiuepkuueopyggoypmssy
ipaeeispoqqsmpqoomwpeaawgpsmmgqpgyyqapukkakpiwwk
vqxjjvfqlvvfpqzhhpzqnttzjqbffjtqprrtnqrppnxqfbbx
hqtnnhrqhzzrbqvllblqjxxlwrykkwgrmwwgqraiiqarouua
krcggkurqssuorsqqoyrgccyiruooisriaascrwmmcmrkyym
xszllxhsnxxhrsbjjrbspvvblsdhhlvsrttvpstrrpzshddz
jsvppjtsjbbtdsxnndnslzznytammyitoyyistckksctqwwc
mteiimwtsuuwqtussqatieeaktwqqkutkccuetyooeotmaao
zubnnzjupzzjtudlltdurxxdnufjjnxutvvxruvttrbujffb
luxrrlvulddvfuzppfpunbbpavcooakvqaakuvemmuevsyye
ovgkkoyvuwwysvwuuscvkggcmvyssmwvmeewgvaqqgqvoccq
bwdppblwrbblvwfnnvfwtzzfpwhllpzwvxxztwxvvtdwlhhd
nwzttnxwnffxhwbrrhrwpddrcxeqqcmxsccmwxgoowgxuaag
qximmqaxwyyauxywwuexmiieoxauuoyxoggyixcssisxqees
dyfrrdnytddnxyhppxhyvbbhryjnnrbyxzzbvyzxxvfynjjf
pybvvpzyphhzjydttjtyrfftezgsseozueeoyziqqyizwcci
szkoosczyaacwzayywgzokkgqzcwwqazqiiakzeuukuzsggu
fahttfpavffpzajrrzjaxddjtalpptdazbbdxabzzxhapllh
radxxrbarjjblafvvlvathhvgbiuugqbwggqabkssakbyeek
ubmqquebacceybcaayibqmmisbeyyscbskkcmbgwwmwbuiiw
hcjvvhrcxhhrbclttblczfflvcnrrvfcbddfzcdbbzjcrnnj
tcfzztdctlldnchxxnxcvjjxidkwwisdyiiscdmuucmdaggm
wdosswgdceegadeccakdsookudgaauedummeodiyyoydwkky
jelxxjtezjjtdenvvdnebhhnxepttxhedffhbefddbletppl
vehbbvfevnnfpejzzpzexllzkfmyykufakkuefowweofciio
yfquuyifeggicfgeecmfuqqmwficcwgfwoogqfkaaqafymma
lgnzzlvgbllvfgpxxfpgdjjpzgrvvzjgfhhjdghffdngvrrn
xgjddxhgxpphrglbbrbgznnbmhoaamwhcmmwghqyygqhekkq
ahswwakhgiikehiggeohwssoyhkeeyihyqqishmccschaooc
nipbbnxidnnxhirzzhrifllrbitxxblihjjlfijhhfpixttp
zilffzjizrrjtinddtdibppdojqccoyjeooyijsaaisjgmms
cjuyycmjikkmgjkiigqjyuuqajmggakjasskujoeeuejcqqe
pkrddpzkfppzjktbbjtkhnntdkvzzdnkjllnhkljjhrkzvvr
bknhhblkbttlvkpffvfkdrrfqlseeqalgqqaklucckulioou
elwaaeolkmmoilmkkislawwscloiicmlcuumwlqggwglessg
rmtffrbmhrrblmvddlvmjppvfmxbbfpmlnnpjmnlljtmbxxt
dmpjjdnmdvvnxmrhhxhmftthsnuggscnisscmnweemwnkqqw
gnyccgqnmooqknommkuncyyuenqkkeonewwoynsiiyinguui

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: snuggs
Cipher: fahttf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: snuggs
Cipher: 343354222234

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: snuggs
method variations:
xszmmxcxerrchckwwhnhpbbn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s n u g g s 
3 3 5 2 2 3 
4 3 4 2 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
335223434224
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: snuggs
Cipher: nkmoir

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: snuggs
method variations:
oxigmo xigmoo igmoox
gmooxi mooxig ooxigm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: snuggs

all 720 cipher variations:
snuggs snugsg snuggs snugsg snusgg snusgg sngugs sngusg snggus snggsu sngsgu
sngsug snggus snggsu sngugs sngusg sngsug sngsgu snsggu snsgug snsggu snsgug
snsugg snsugg sunggs sungsg sunggs sungsg sunsgg sunsgg sugngs sugnsg suggns
suggsn sugsgn sugsng suggns suggsn sugngs sugnsg sugsng sugsgn susggn susgng
susggn susgng susngg susngg sgungs sgunsg sgugns sgugsn sgusgn sgusng sgnugs
sgnusg sgngus sgngsu sgnsgu sgnsug sggnus sggnsu sgguns sggusn sggsun sggsnu
sgsngu sgsnug sgsgnu sgsgun sgsugn sgsung sgugns sgugsn sgungs sgunsg sgusng
sgusgn sgguns sggusn sggnus sggnsu sggsnu sggsun sgngus sgngsu sgnugs sgnusg
sgnsug sgnsgu sgsgnu sgsgun sgsngu sgsnug sgsung sgsugn ssuggn ssugng ssuggn
ssugng ssungg ssungg ssgugn ssgung ssggun ssggnu ssgngu ssgnug ssggun ssggnu
ssgugn ssgung ssgnug ssgngu ssnggu ssngug ssnggu ssngug ssnugg ssnugg nsuggs
nsugsg nsuggs nsugsg nsusgg nsusgg nsgugs nsgusg nsggus nsggsu nsgsgu nsgsug
nsggus nsggsu nsgugs nsgusg nsgsug nsgsgu nssggu nssgug nssggu nssgug nssugg
nssugg nusggs nusgsg nusggs nusgsg nussgg nussgg nugsgs nugssg nuggss nuggss
nugsgs nugssg nuggss nuggss nugsgs nugssg nugssg nugsgs nusggs nusgsg nusggs
nusgsg nussgg nussgg ngusgs ngussg ngugss ngugss ngusgs ngussg ngsugs ngsusg
ngsgus ngsgsu ngssgu ngssug nggsus nggssu ngguss ngguss nggsus nggssu ngssgu
ngssug ngsgsu ngsgus ngsugs ngsusg ngugss ngugss ngusgs ngussg ngussg ngusgs
ngguss ngguss nggsus nggssu nggssu nggsus ngsgus ngsgsu ngsugs ngsusg ngssug
ngssgu ngsgsu ngsgus ngssgu ngssug ngsusg ngsugs nsuggs nsugsg nsuggs nsugsg
nsusgg nsusgg nsgugs nsgusg nsggus nsggsu nsgsgu nsgsug nsggus nsggsu nsgugs
nsgusg nsgsug nsgsgu nssggu nssgug nssggu nssgug nssugg nssugg unsggs unsgsg
unsggs unsgsg unssgg unssgg ungsgs ungssg unggss unggss ungsgs ungssg unggss
unggss ungsgs ungssg ungssg ungsgs unsggs unsgsg unsggs unsgsg unssgg unssgg
usnggs usngsg usnggs usngsg usnsgg usnsgg usgngs usgnsg usggns usggsn usgsgn
usgsng usggns usggsn usgngs usgnsg usgsng usgsgn ussggn ussgng ussggn ussgng
ussngg ussngg ugsngs ugsnsg ugsgns ugsgsn ugssgn ugssng ugnsgs ugnssg ugngss
ugngss ugnsgs ugnssg uggnss uggnss uggsns uggssn uggssn uggsns ugsngs ugsnsg
ugsgns ugsgsn ugssgn ugssng ugsgns ugsgsn ugsngs ugsnsg ugssng ugssgn uggsns
uggssn uggnss uggnss uggsns uggssn ugngss ugngss ugnsgs ugnssg ugnssg ugnsgs
ugsgns ugsgsn ugsngs ugsnsg ugssng ugssgn ussggn ussgng ussggn ussgng ussngg
ussngg usgsgn usgsng usggsn usggns usgngs usgnsg usggsn usggns usgsgn usgsng
usgnsg usgngs usnggs usngsg usnggs usngsg usnsgg usnsgg gnusgs gnussg gnugss
gnugss gnusgs gnussg gnsugs gnsusg gnsgus gnsgsu gnssgu gnssug gngsus gngssu
gnguss gnguss gngsus gngssu gnssgu gnssug gnsgsu gnsgus gnsugs gnsusg gunsgs
gunssg gungss gungss gunsgs gunssg gusngs gusnsg gusgns gusgsn gussgn gussng
gugsns gugssn gugnss gugnss gugsns gugssn gussgn gussng gusgsn gusgns gusngs
gusnsg gsungs gsunsg gsugns gsugsn gsusgn gsusng gsnugs gsnusg gsngus gsngsu
gsnsgu gsnsug gsgnus gsgnsu gsguns gsgusn gsgsun gsgsnu gssngu gssnug gssgnu
gssgun gssugn gssung ggusns ggussn ggunss ggunss ggusns ggussn ggsuns ggsusn
ggsnus ggsnsu ggssnu ggssun ggnsus ggnssu ggnuss ggnuss ggnsus ggnssu ggssnu
ggssun ggsnsu ggsnus ggsuns ggsusn gsusgn gsusng gsugsn gsugns gsungs gsunsg
gssugn gssung gssgun gssgnu gssngu gssnug gsgsun gsgsnu gsgusn gsguns gsgnus
gsgnsu gsnsgu gsnsug gsngsu gsngus gsnugs gsnusg gnugss gnugss gnusgs gnussg
gnussg gnusgs gnguss gnguss gngsus gngssu gngssu gngsus gnsgus gnsgsu gnsugs
gnsusg gnssug gnssgu gnsgsu gnsgus gnssgu gnssug gnsusg gnsugs gungss gungss
gunsgs gunssg gunssg gunsgs gugnss gugnss gugsns gugssn gugssn gugsns gusgns
gusgsn gusngs gusnsg gussng gussgn gusgsn gusgns gussgn gussng gusnsg gusngs
ggunss ggunss ggusns ggussn ggussn ggusns ggnuss ggnuss ggnsus ggnssu ggnssu
ggnsus ggsnus ggsnsu ggsuns ggsusn ggssun ggssnu ggsnsu ggsnus ggssnu ggssun
ggsusn ggsuns gsugns gsugsn gsungs gsunsg gsusng gsusgn gsguns gsgusn gsgnus
gsgnsu gsgsnu gsgsun gsngus gsngsu gsnugs gsnusg gsnsug gsnsgu gssgnu gssgun
gssngu gssnug gssung gssugn gsugsn gsugns gsusgn gsusng gsunsg gsungs gsgusn
gsguns gsgsun gsgsnu gsgnsu gsgnus gssgun gssgnu gssugn gssung gssnug gssngu
gsngsu gsngus gsnsgu gsnsug gsnusg gsnugs snuggs snugsg snuggs snugsg snusgg
snusgg sngugs sngusg snggus snggsu sngsgu sngsug snggus snggsu sngugs sngusg
sngsug sngsgu snsggu snsgug snsggu snsgug snsugg snsugg sunggs sungsg sunggs
sungsg sunsgg sunsgg sugngs sugnsg suggns suggsn sugsgn sugsng suggns suggsn
sugngs sugnsg sugsng sugsgn susggn susgng susggn susgng susngg susngg sgungs
sgunsg sgugns sgugsn sgusgn sgusng sgnugs sgnusg sgngus sgngsu sgnsgu sgnsug
sggnus sggnsu sgguns sggusn sggsun sggsnu sgsngu sgsnug sgsgnu sgsgun sgsugn
sgsung sgugns sgugsn sgungs sgunsg sgusng sgusgn sgguns sggusn sggnus sggnsu
sggsnu sggsun sgngus sgngsu sgnugs sgnusg sgnsug sgnsgu sgsgnu sgsgun sgsngu
sgsnug sgsung sgsugn ssuggn ssugng ssuggn ssugng ssungg ssungg ssgugn ssgung
ssggun ssggnu ssgngu ssgnug ssggun ssggnu ssgugn ssgung ssgnug ssgngu ssnggu
ssngug ssnggu ssngug ssnugg ssnugg

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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