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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: sneads
cipher variations:
tofbet upgcfu vqhdgv wriehw xsjfix
ytkgjy zulhkz avmila bwnjmb cxoknc
dyplod ezqmpe farnqf gbsorg hctpsh
iduqti jevruj kfwsvk lgxtwl mhyuxm
nizvyn ojawzo pkbxap qlcybq rmdzcr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: sneads
Cipher: hmvzwh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: sneads
Cipher: BAAAB ABBAA AABAA AAAAA AAABB BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: sneads
cipher variations:
tofbetdonbkdnovbqnxodbwxholbchrotbirlojbulvorbav
fozbgfpohbmpzopbszjoxbyjupgcfuepocleopwcroypecxy
ipmcdispucjsmpkcvmwpscbwgpachgqpicnqapqctakpyczk
vqhdgvfqpdmfpqxdspzqfdyzjqndejtqvdktnqldwnxqtdcx
hqbdihrqjdorbqrdublqzdalwriehwgrqengqryetqargeza
kroefkurweluormexoyruedyircejisrkepscrsevcmraebm
xsjfixhsrfohrszfurbshfablspfglvsxfmvpsnfypzsvfez
jsdfkjtslfqtdstfwdnsbfcnytkgjyitsgpistagvsctigbc
mtqghmwtygnwqtogzqatwgfakteglkutmgruetugxeotcgdo
zulhkzjuthqjtubhwtdujhcdnurhinxuzhoxrupharbuxhgb
lufhmlvunhsvfuvhyfpudhepavmilakvuirkuvcixuevkide
ovsijoyvaipysvqibscvyihcmvginmwvoitwgvwizgqveifq
bwnjmblwvjslvwdjyvfwljefpwtjkpzwbjqztwrjctdwzjid
nwhjonxwpjuxhwxjahrwfjgrcxokncmxwktmwxekzwgxmkfg
qxuklqaxckrauxskduexakjeoxikpoyxqkvyixykbisxgkhs
dyplodnyxlunxyflaxhynlghryvlmrbydlsbvytlevfyblkf
pyjlqpzyrlwzjyzlcjtyhlitezqmpeozymvoyzgmbyizomhi
szwmnsczemtcwzumfwgzcmlgqzkmrqazsmxakzamdkuzimju
farnqfpaznwpzahnczjapnijtaxnotdafnudxavngxhadnmh
ralnsrbatnyblabnelvajnkvgbsorgqbaoxqabiodakbqojk
ubyopuebgoveybwohyibeonisbmotscbuozcmbcofmwbkolw
hctpshrcbpyrbcjpeblcrpklvczpqvfchpwfzcxpizjcfpoj
tcnputdcvpadncdpgnxclpmxiduqtisdcqzscdkqfcmdsqlm
wdaqrwgdiqxgadyqjakdgqpkudoqvuedwqbeodeqhoydmqny
jevrujtedratdelrgdnetrmnxebrsxhejryhbezrkblehrql
veprwvfexrcfpefripzenrozkfwsvkufesbuefmsheofusno
yfcstyifkszicfaslcmfisrmwfqsxwgfysdgqfgsjqafospa
lgxtwlvgftcvfgntifpgvtopzgdtuzjgltajdgbtmdngjtsn
xgrtyxhgztehrghtkrbgptqbmhyuxmwhgudwghoujgqhwupq
aheuvakhmubkehcuneohkutoyhsuzyihaufishiulschqurc
nizvynxihvexhipvkhrixvqrbifvwblinvclfidvofpilvup
zitvazjibvgjtijvmtdirvsdojawzoyjiwfyijqwlisjywrs
cjgwxcmjowdmgjewpgqjmwvqajuwbakjcwhkujkwnuejswte
pkbxapzkjxgzjkrxmjtkzxstdkhxydnkpxenhkfxqhrknxwr
bkvxcblkdxilvklxovfktxufqlcybqalkyhaklsynkulaytu
eliyzeolqyfoilgyrisloyxsclwydcmleyjmwlmypwgluyvg
rmdzcrbmlziblmtzolvmbzuvfmjzafpmrzgpjmhzsjtmpzyt
dmxzednmfzknxmnzqxhmvzwhsneadscnmajcmnuapmwncavw
gnkabgqnsahqkniatkunqazuenyafeongaloynoaryinwaxi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: sneads
Cipher: farnqf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: sneads
Cipher: 343351114134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: sneads
method variations:
xskfixcxplochcuqthnhzvyn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s n e a d s 
3 3 5 1 4 3 
4 3 1 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
335143431114
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: sneads
Cipher: neooaq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: sneads
method variations:
oxaqlo xaqloo aqloox
qlooxa looxaq ooxaql

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: sneads

all 720 cipher variations:
sneads sneasd snedas snedsa snesda snesad snaeds snaesd snades snadse snasde
snased sndaes sndase sndeas sndesa sndsea sndsae snsade snsaed snsdae snsdea
snseda snsead senads senasd sendas sendsa sensda sensad seands seansd seadns
seadsn seasdn seasnd sedans sedasn sednas sednsa sedsna sedsan sesadn sesand
sesdan sesdna sesnda sesnad saends saensd saedns saedsn saesdn saesnd saneds
sanesd sandes sandse sansde sansed sadnes sadnse sadens sadesn sadsen sadsne
sasnde sasned sasdne sasden sasedn sasend sdeans sdeasn sdenas sdensa sdesna
sdesan sdaens sdaesn sdanes sdanse sdasne sdasen sdnaes sdnase sdneas sdnesa
sdnsea sdnsae sdsane sdsaen sdsnae sdsnea sdsena sdsean sseadn sseand ssedan
ssedna ssenda ssenad ssaedn ssaend ssaden ssadne ssande ssaned ssdaen ssdane
ssdean ssdena ssdnea ssdnae ssnade ssnaed ssndae ssndea ssneda ssnead nseads
nseasd nsedas nsedsa nsesda nsesad nsaeds nsaesd nsades nsadse nsasde nsased
nsdaes nsdase nsdeas nsdesa nsdsea nsdsae nssade nssaed nssdae nssdea nsseda
nssead nesads nesasd nesdas nesdsa nessda nessad neasds neassd neadss neadss
neasds neassd nedass nedass nedsas nedssa nedssa nedsas nesads nesasd nesdas
nesdsa nessda nessad naesds naessd naedss naedss naesds naessd naseds nasesd
nasdes nasdse nassde nassed nadses nadsse nadess nadess nadses nadsse nassde
nassed nasdse nasdes naseds nasesd ndeass ndeass ndesas ndessa ndessa ndesas
ndaess ndaess ndases ndasse ndasse ndases ndsaes ndsase ndseas ndsesa ndssea
ndssae ndsase ndsaes ndssae ndssea ndsesa ndseas nseads nseasd nsedas nsedsa
nsesda nsesad nsaeds nsaesd nsades nsadse nsasde nsased nsdaes nsdase nsdeas
nsdesa nsdsea nsdsae nssade nssaed nssdae nssdea nsseda nssead ensads ensasd
ensdas ensdsa enssda enssad enasds enassd enadss enadss enasds enassd endass
endass endsas endssa endssa endsas ensads ensasd ensdas ensdsa enssda enssad
esnads esnasd esndas esndsa esnsda esnsad esands esansd esadns esadsn esasdn
esasnd esdans esdasn esdnas esdnsa esdsna esdsan essadn essand essdan essdna
essnda essnad easnds easnsd easdns easdsn eassdn eassnd eansds eanssd eandss
eandss eansds eanssd eadnss eadnss eadsns eadssn eadssn eadsns easnds easnsd
easdns easdsn eassdn eassnd edsans edsasn edsnas edsnsa edssna edssan edasns
edassn edanss edanss edasns edassn ednass ednass ednsas ednssa ednssa ednsas
edsans edsasn edsnas edsnsa edssna edssan essadn essand essdan essdna essnda
essnad esasdn esasnd esadsn esadns esands esansd esdasn esdans esdsan esdsna
esdnsa esdnas esnads esnasd esndas esndsa esnsda esnsad anesds anessd anedss
anedss anesds anessd anseds ansesd ansdes ansdse anssde anssed andses andsse
andess andess andses andsse anssde anssed ansdse ansdes anseds ansesd aensds
aenssd aendss aendss aensds aenssd aesnds aesnsd aesdns aesdsn aessdn aessnd
aedsns aedssn aednss aednss aedsns aedssn aessdn aessnd aesdsn aesdns aesnds
aesnsd asends asensd asedns asedsn asesdn asesnd asneds asnesd asndes asndse
asnsde asnsed asdnes asdnse asdens asdesn asdsen asdsne assnde assned assdne
assden assedn assend adesns adessn adenss adenss adesns adessn adsens adsesn
adsnes adsnse adssne adssen adnses adnsse adness adness adnses adnsse adssne
adssen adsnse adsnes adsens adsesn asesdn asesnd asedsn asedns asends asensd
assedn assend assden assdne assnde assned asdsen asdsne asdesn asdens asdnes
asdnse asnsde asnsed asndse asndes asneds asnesd dneass dneass dnesas dnessa
dnessa dnesas dnaess dnaess dnases dnasse dnasse dnases dnsaes dnsase dnseas
dnsesa dnssea dnssae dnsase dnsaes dnssae dnssea dnsesa dnseas denass denass
densas denssa denssa densas deanss deanss deasns deassn deassn deasns desans
desasn desnas desnsa dessna dessan desasn desans dessan dessna desnsa desnas
daenss daenss daesns daessn daessn daesns daness daness danses dansse dansse
danses dasnes dasnse dasens dasesn dassen dassne dasnse dasnes dassne dassen
dasesn dasens dseans dseasn dsenas dsensa dsesna dsesan dsaens dsaesn dsanes
dsanse dsasne dsasen dsnaes dsnase dsneas dsnesa dsnsea dsnsae dssane dssaen
dssnae dssnea dssena dssean dseasn dseans dsesan dsesna dsensa dsenas dsaesn
dsaens dsasen dsasne dsanse dsanes dssaen dssane dssean dssena dssnea dssnae
dsnase dsnaes dsnsae dsnsea dsnesa dsneas sneads sneasd snedas snedsa snesda
snesad snaeds snaesd snades snadse snasde snased sndaes sndase sndeas sndesa
sndsea sndsae snsade snsaed snsdae snsdea snseda snsead senads senasd sendas
sendsa sensda sensad seands seansd seadns seadsn seasdn seasnd sedans sedasn
sednas sednsa sedsna sedsan sesadn sesand sesdan sesdna sesnda sesnad saends
saensd saedns saedsn saesdn saesnd saneds sanesd sandes sandse sansde sansed
sadnes sadnse sadens sadesn sadsen sadsne sasnde sasned sasdne sasden sasedn
sasend sdeans sdeasn sdenas sdensa sdesna sdesan sdaens sdaesn sdanes sdanse
sdasne sdasen sdnaes sdnase sdneas sdnesa sdnsea sdnsae sdsane sdsaen sdsnae
sdsnea sdsena sdsean sseadn sseand ssedan ssedna ssenda ssenad ssaedn ssaend
ssaden ssadne ssande ssaned ssdaen ssdane ssdean ssdena ssdnea ssdnae ssnade
ssnaed ssndae ssndea ssneda ssnead

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