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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: silenz
cipher variations:
tjmfoa ukngpb vlohqc wmpird xnqjse
yorktf zpslug aqtmvh brunwi csvoxj
dtwpyk euxqzl fvyram gwzsbn hxatco
iybudp jzcveq kadwfr lbexgs mcfyht
ndgziu oehajv pfibkw qgjclx rhkdmy

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: silenz
Cipher: hrovma

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: silenz

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: silenz
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: silenz
Cipher: fvyram

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: silenz
Cipher: 344213513355

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: silenz
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s i l e n z 
3 4 1 5 3 5 
4 2 3 1 3 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: silenz
Cipher: svxicx

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Method #3

Plaintext: silenz
method variations:
tbxlxp bxlxpt xlxptb
lxptbx xptbxl ptbxlx

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: silenz

all 720 cipher variations:
silenz silezn silnez silnze silzne silzen sielnz sielzn sienlz sienzl sieznl
siezln sinelz sinezl sinlez sinlze sinzle sinzel sizenl sizeln siznel siznle
sizlne sizlen slienz sliezn slinez slinze slizne slizen sleinz sleizn sleniz
slenzi slezni slezin slneiz slnezi slniez slnize slnzie slnzei slzeni slzein
slznei slznie slzine slzien selinz selizn selniz selnzi selzni selzin seilnz
seilzn seinlz seinzl seiznl seizln senilz senizl senliz senlzi senzli senzil
sezinl seziln seznil seznli sezlni sezlin snleiz snlezi snliez snlize snlzie
snlzei sneliz snelzi sneilz sneizl snezil snezli snielz sniezl snilez snilze
snizle snizel snzeil snzeli snziel snzile snzlie snzlei szleni szlein szlnei
szlnie szline szlien szelni szelin szenli szenil szeinl szeiln szneli szneil
sznlei sznlie sznile szniel szienl szieln szinel szinle szilne szilen islenz
islezn islnez islnze islzne islzen iselnz iselzn isenlz isenzl iseznl isezln
isnelz isnezl isnlez isnlze isnzle isnzel iszenl iszeln isznel isznle iszlne
iszlen ilsenz ilsezn ilsnez ilsnze ilszne ilszen ilesnz ileszn ilensz ilenzs
ilezns ilezsn ilnesz ilnezs ilnsez ilnsze ilnzse ilnzes ilzens ilzesn ilznes
ilznse ilzsne ilzsen ielsnz ielszn ielnsz ielnzs ielzns ielzsn ieslnz ieslzn
iesnlz iesnzl iesznl ieszln ienslz ienszl ienlsz ienlzs ienzls ienzsl iezsnl
iezsln ieznsl ieznls iezlns iezlsn inlesz inlezs inlsez inlsze inlzse inlzes
inelsz inelzs ineslz ineszl inezsl inezls inselz insezl inslez inslze inszle
inszel inzesl inzels inzsel inzsle inzlse inzles izlens izlesn izlnes izlnse
izlsne izlsen izelns izelsn izenls izensl izesnl izesln iznels iznesl iznles
iznlse iznsle iznsel izsenl izseln izsnel izsnle izslne izslen lisenz lisezn
lisnez lisnze liszne liszen liesnz lieszn liensz lienzs liezns liezsn linesz
linezs linsez linsze linzse linzes lizens lizesn liznes liznse lizsne lizsen
lsienz lsiezn lsinez lsinze lsizne lsizen lseinz lseizn lseniz lsenzi lsezni
lsezin lsneiz lsnezi lsniez lsnize lsnzie lsnzei lszeni lszein lsznei lsznie
lszine lszien lesinz lesizn lesniz lesnzi leszni leszin leisnz leiszn leinsz
leinzs leizns leizsn lenisz lenizs lensiz lenszi lenzsi lenzis lezins lezisn
leznis leznsi lezsni lezsin lnseiz lnsezi lnsiez lnsize lnszie lnszei lnesiz
lneszi lneisz lneizs lnezis lnezsi lniesz lniezs lnisez lnisze lnizse lnizes
lnzeis lnzesi lnzies lnzise lnzsie lnzsei lzseni lzsein lzsnei lzsnie lzsine
lzsien lzesni lzesin lzensi lzenis lzeins lzeisn lznesi lzneis lznsei lznsie
lznise lznies lziens lziesn lzines lzinse lzisne lzisen eilsnz eilszn eilnsz
eilnzs eilzns eilzsn eislnz eislzn eisnlz eisnzl eisznl eiszln einslz einszl
einlsz einlzs einzls einzsl eizsnl eizsln eiznsl eiznls eizlns eizlsn elisnz
eliszn elinsz elinzs elizns elizsn elsinz elsizn elsniz elsnzi elszni elszin
elnsiz elnszi elnisz elnizs elnzis elnzsi elzsni elzsin elznsi elznis elzins
elzisn eslinz eslizn eslniz eslnzi eslzni eslzin esilnz esilzn esinlz esinzl
esiznl esizln esnilz esnizl esnliz esnlzi esnzli esnzil eszinl esziln esznil
esznli eszlni eszlin enlsiz enlszi enlisz enlizs enlzis enlzsi ensliz enslzi
ensilz ensizl enszil enszli enislz eniszl enilsz enilzs enizls enizsl enzsil
enzsli enzisl enzils enzlis enzlsi ezlsni ezlsin ezlnsi ezlnis ezlins ezlisn
ezslni ezslin ezsnli ezsnil ezsinl ezsiln eznsli eznsil eznlsi eznlis eznils
eznisl ezisnl ezisln ezinsl ezinls ezilns ezilsn nilesz nilezs nilsez nilsze
nilzse nilzes nielsz nielzs nieslz nieszl niezsl niezls niselz nisezl nislez
nislze niszle niszel nizesl nizels nizsel nizsle nizlse nizles nliesz nliezs
nlisez nlisze nlizse nlizes nleisz nleizs nlesiz nleszi nlezsi nlezis nlseiz
nlsezi nlsiez nlsize nlszie nlszei nlzesi nlzeis nlzsei nlzsie nlzise nlzies
nelisz nelizs nelsiz nelszi nelzsi nelzis neilsz neilzs neislz neiszl neizsl
neizls nesilz nesizl nesliz neslzi neszli neszil nezisl nezils nezsil nezsli
nezlsi nezlis nsleiz nslezi nsliez nslize nslzie nslzei nseliz nselzi nseilz
nseizl nsezil nsezli nsielz nsiezl nsilez nsilze nsizle nsizel nszeil nszeli
nsziel nszile nszlie nszlei nzlesi nzleis nzlsei nzlsie nzlise nzlies nzelsi
nzelis nzesli nzesil nzeisl nzeils nzseli nzseil nzslei nzslie nzsile nzsiel
nziesl nziels nzisel nzisle nzilse nziles zilens zilesn zilnes zilnse zilsne
zilsen zielns zielsn zienls ziensl ziesnl ziesln zinels zinesl zinles zinlse
zinsle zinsel zisenl ziseln zisnel zisnle zislne zislen zliens zliesn zlines
zlinse zlisne zlisen zleins zleisn zlenis zlensi zlesni zlesin zlneis zlnesi
zlnies zlnise zlnsie zlnsei zlseni zlsein zlsnei zlsnie zlsine zlsien zelins
zelisn zelnis zelnsi zelsni zelsin zeilns zeilsn zeinls zeinsl zeisnl zeisln
zenils zenisl zenlis zenlsi zensli zensil zesinl zesiln zesnil zesnli zeslni
zeslin znleis znlesi znlies znlise znlsie znlsei znelis znelsi zneils zneisl
znesil znesli zniels zniesl zniles znilse znisle znisel znseil znseli znsiel
znsile znslie znslei zsleni zslein zslnei zslnie zsline zslien zselni zselin
zsenli zsenil zseinl zseiln zsneli zsneil zsnlei zsnlie zsnile zsniel zsienl
zsieln zsinel zsinle zsilne zsilen

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History of cryptography
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