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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: shamba
cipher variations:
tibncb ujcodc vkdped wleqfe xmfrgf
yngshg zohtih apiuji bqjvkj crkwlk
dslxml etmynm funzon gvoapo hwpbqp
ixqcrq jyrdsr kzsets latfut mbugvu
ncvhwv odwixw pexjyx qfykzy rgzlaz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: shamba
Cipher: hsznyz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: shamba
Cipher: BAAAB AABBB AAAAA ABABB AAAAB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: shamba
cipher variations:
tibncbdwblebnkbjgbxybhibhmbfkbrabdmblcbzqbvqbxsb
febvubpsbtwbzgbrybjubpabujcodcexcmfcolckhcyzcijc
incglcsbcencmdcarcwrcytcgfcwvcqtcuxcahcszckvcqbc
vkdpedfydngdpmdlidzadjkdjodhmdtcdfodnedbsdxsdzud
hgdxwdrudvydbidtadlwdrcdwleqfegzeoheqnemjeabekle
kpeineudegpeofecteyteaveiheyxesvewzecjeubemxesde
xmfrgfhafpifrofnkfbcflmflqfjofvefhqfpgfdufzufbwf
jifzyftwfxafdkfvcfnyftefyngshgibgqjgspgolgcdgmng
mrgkpgwfgirgqhgevgavgcxgkjgazguxgybgelgwdgozgufg
zohtihjchrkhtqhpmhdehnohnshlqhxghjshrihfwhbwhdyh
lkhbahvyhzchfmhxehpahvghapiujikdisliuriqniefiopi
otimriyhiktisjigxicxiezimlicbiwziadigniyfiqbiwhi
bqjvkjlejtmjvsjrojfgjpqjpujnsjzijlujtkjhyjdyjfaj
nmjdcjxajbejhojzgjrcjxijcrkwlkmfkunkwtkspkghkqrk
qvkotkajkmvkulkizkezkgbkonkedkybkcfkipkahksdkyjk
dslxmlnglvolxultqlhilrslrwlpulbklnwlvmljalfalhcl
polfelzcldgljqlbiltelzkletmynmohmwpmyvmurmijmstm
sxmqvmclmoxmwnmkbmgbmidmqpmgfmadmehmkrmcjmufmalm
funzonpinxqnzwnvsnjkntuntynrwndmnpynxonlcnhcnjen
rqnhgnbenfinlsndknvgnbmngvoapoqjoyroaxowtoklouvo
uzosxoenoqzoypomdoidokfosroihocfogjomtoelowhocno
hwpbqprkpzspbypxuplmpvwpvaptypfoprapzqpnepjeplgp
tspjipdgphkpnupfmpxipdopixqcrqslqatqczqyvqmnqwxq
wbquzqgpqsbqarqofqkfqmhqutqkjqehqilqovqgnqyjqepq
jyrdsrtmrburdarzwrnorxyrxcrvarhqrtcrbsrpgrlgrnir
vurlkrfirjmrpwrhorzkrfqrkzsetsunscvsebsaxsopsyzs
ydswbsirsudsctsqhsmhsojswvsmlsgjsknsqxsipsalsgrs
latfutvotdwtfctbytpqtzatzetxctjstvetdutritnitpkt
xwtnmthktlotrytjqtbmthstmbugvuwpuexugduczuqruabu
afuyduktuwfuevusjuojuqluyxuonuilumpuszukrucnuitu
ncvhwvxqvfyvhevdavrsvbcvbgvzevluvxgvfwvtkvpkvrmv
zyvpovjmvnqvtavlsvdovjuvodwixwyrwgzwifwebwstwcdw
chwafwmvwyhwgxwulwqlwsnwazwqpwknworwubwmtwepwkvw
pexjyxzsxhaxjgxfcxtuxdexdixbgxnwxzixhyxvmxrmxtox
baxrqxloxpsxvcxnuxfqxlwxqfykzyatyibykhygdyuvyefy
ejychyoxyajyizywnysnyupycbysrympyqtywdyovygrymxy
rgzlazbuzjczlizhezvwzfgzfkzdizpyzbkzjazxoztozvqz
dcztsznqzruzxezpwzhsznyzshambacvakdamjaifawxagha
glaejaqzaclakbaypaupawraedautaorasvayfaqxaitaoza

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: shamba
Cipher: funzon

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: shamba
Cipher: 343211232111

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: shamba
method variations:
xnfrgfcslwmlhxqbrqncvgwv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s h a m b a 
3 3 1 2 2 1 
4 2 1 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
331221421311
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: shamba
Cipher: nfbila

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: shamba
method variations:
obfhal bfhalo fhalob
halobf alobfh lobfha

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: shamba

all 720 cipher variations:
shamba shamab shabma shabam shaabm shaamb shmaba shmaab shmbaa shmbaa shmaba
shmaab shbmaa shbmaa shbama shbaam shbaam shbama shamba shamab shabma shabam
shaabm shaamb sahmba sahmab sahbma sahbam sahabm sahamb samhba samhab sambha
sambah samabh samahb sabmha sabmah sabhma sabham sabahm sabamh saambh saamhb
saabmh saabhm saahbm saahmb smahba smahab smabha smabah smaabh smaahb smhaba
smhaab smhbaa smhbaa smhaba smhaab smbhaa smbhaa smbaha smbaah smbaah smbaha
smahba smahab smabha smabah smaabh smaahb sbamha sbamah sbahma sbaham sbaahm
sbaamh sbmaha sbmaah sbmhaa sbmhaa sbmaha sbmaah sbhmaa sbhmaa sbhama sbhaam
sbhaam sbhama sbamha sbamah sbahma sbaham sbaahm sbaamh saambh saamhb saabmh
saabhm saahbm saahmb samabh samahb sambah sambha samhba samhab sabmah sabmha
sabamh sabahm sabham sabhma sahmba sahmab sahbma sahbam sahabm sahamb hsamba
hsamab hsabma hsabam hsaabm hsaamb hsmaba hsmaab hsmbaa hsmbaa hsmaba hsmaab
hsbmaa hsbmaa hsbama hsbaam hsbaam hsbama hsamba hsamab hsabma hsabam hsaabm
hsaamb hasmba hasmab hasbma hasbam hasabm hasamb hamsba hamsab hambsa hambas
hamabs hamasb habmsa habmas habsma habsam habasm habams haambs haamsb haabms
haabsm haasbm haasmb hmasba hmasab hmabsa hmabas hmaabs hmaasb hmsaba hmsaab
hmsbaa hmsbaa hmsaba hmsaab hmbsaa hmbsaa hmbasa hmbaas hmbaas hmbasa hmasba
hmasab hmabsa hmabas hmaabs hmaasb hbamsa hbamas hbasma hbasam hbaasm hbaams
hbmasa hbmaas hbmsaa hbmsaa hbmasa hbmaas hbsmaa hbsmaa hbsama hbsaam hbsaam
hbsama hbamsa hbamas hbasma hbasam hbaasm hbaams haambs haamsb haabms haabsm
haasbm haasmb hamabs hamasb hambas hambsa hamsba hamsab habmas habmsa habams
habasm habsam habsma hasmba hasmab hasbma hasbam hasabm hasamb ahsmba ahsmab
ahsbma ahsbam ahsabm ahsamb ahmsba ahmsab ahmbsa ahmbas ahmabs ahmasb ahbmsa
ahbmas ahbsma ahbsam ahbasm ahbams ahambs ahamsb ahabms ahabsm ahasbm ahasmb
ashmba ashmab ashbma ashbam ashabm ashamb asmhba asmhab asmbha asmbah asmabh
asmahb asbmha asbmah asbhma asbham asbahm asbamh asambh asamhb asabmh asabhm
asahbm asahmb amshba amshab amsbha amsbah amsabh amsahb amhsba amhsab amhbsa
amhbas amhabs amhasb ambhsa ambhas ambsha ambsah ambash ambahs amahbs amahsb
amabhs amabsh amasbh amashb absmha absmah abshma absham absahm absamh abmsha
abmsah abmhsa abmhas abmahs abmash abhmsa abhmas abhsma abhsam abhasm abhams
abamhs abamsh abahms abahsm abashm abasmh aasmbh aasmhb aasbmh aasbhm aashbm
aashmb aamsbh aamshb aambsh aambhs aamhbs aamhsb aabmsh aabmhs aabsmh aabshm
aabhsm aabhms aahmbs aahmsb aahbms aahbsm aahsbm aahsmb mhasba mhasab mhabsa
mhabas mhaabs mhaasb mhsaba mhsaab mhsbaa mhsbaa mhsaba mhsaab mhbsaa mhbsaa
mhbasa mhbaas mhbaas mhbasa mhasba mhasab mhabsa mhabas mhaabs mhaasb mahsba
mahsab mahbsa mahbas mahabs mahasb mashba mashab masbha masbah masabh masahb
mabsha mabsah mabhsa mabhas mabahs mabash maasbh maashb maabsh maabhs maahbs
maahsb msahba msahab msabha msabah msaabh msaahb mshaba mshaab mshbaa mshbaa
mshaba mshaab msbhaa msbhaa msbaha msbaah msbaah msbaha msahba msahab msabha
msabah msaabh msaahb mbasha mbasah mbahsa mbahas mbaahs mbaash mbsaha mbsaah
mbshaa mbshaa mbsaha mbsaah mbhsaa mbhsaa mbhasa mbhaas mbhaas mbhasa mbasha
mbasah mbahsa mbahas mbaahs mbaash maasbh maashb maabsh maabhs maahbs maahsb
masabh masahb masbah masbha mashba mashab mabsah mabsha mabash mabahs mabhas
mabhsa mahsba mahsab mahbsa mahbas mahabs mahasb bhamsa bhamas bhasma bhasam
bhaasm bhaams bhmasa bhmaas bhmsaa bhmsaa bhmasa bhmaas bhsmaa bhsmaa bhsama
bhsaam bhsaam bhsama bhamsa bhamas bhasma bhasam bhaasm bhaams bahmsa bahmas
bahsma bahsam bahasm bahams bamhsa bamhas bamsha bamsah bamash bamahs basmha
basmah bashma basham basahm basamh baamsh baamhs baasmh baashm baahsm baahms
bmahsa bmahas bmasha bmasah bmaash bmaahs bmhasa bmhaas bmhsaa bmhsaa bmhasa
bmhaas bmshaa bmshaa bmsaha bmsaah bmsaah bmsaha bmahsa bmahas bmasha bmasah
bmaash bmaahs bsamha bsamah bsahma bsaham bsaahm bsaamh bsmaha bsmaah bsmhaa
bsmhaa bsmaha bsmaah bshmaa bshmaa bshama bshaam bshaam bshama bsamha bsamah
bsahma bsaham bsaahm bsaamh baamsh baamhs baasmh baashm baahsm baahms bamash
bamahs bamsah bamsha bamhsa bamhas basmah basmha basamh basahm basham bashma
bahmsa bahmas bahsma bahsam bahasm bahams ahambs ahamsb ahabms ahabsm ahasbm
ahasmb ahmabs ahmasb ahmbas ahmbsa ahmsba ahmsab ahbmas ahbmsa ahbams ahbasm
ahbsam ahbsma ahsmba ahsmab ahsbma ahsbam ahsabm ahsamb aahmbs aahmsb aahbms
aahbsm aahsbm aahsmb aamhbs aamhsb aambhs aambsh aamsbh aamshb aabmhs aabmsh
aabhms aabhsm aabshm aabsmh aasmbh aasmhb aasbmh aasbhm aashbm aashmb amahbs
amahsb amabhs amabsh amasbh amashb amhabs amhasb amhbas amhbsa amhsba amhsab
ambhas ambhsa ambahs ambash ambsah ambsha amshba amshab amsbha amsbah amsabh
amsahb abamhs abamsh abahms abahsm abashm abasmh abmahs abmash abmhas abmhsa
abmsha abmsah abhmas abhmsa abhams abhasm abhsam abhsma absmha absmah abshma
absham absahm absamh asambh asamhb asabmh asabhm asahbm asahmb asmabh asmahb
asmbah asmbha asmhba asmhab asbmah asbmha asbamh asbahm asbham asbhma ashmba
ashmab ashbma ashbam ashabm ashamb

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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