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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: seisin
cipher variations:
tfjtjo ugkukp vhlvlq wimwmr xjnxns
ykoyot zlpzpu amqaqv bnrbrw coscsx
dptdty equeuz frvfva gswgwb htxhxc
iuyiyd jvzjze kwakaf lxblbg mycmch
nzdndi oaeoej pbfpfk qcgqgl rdhrhm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: seisin
Cipher: hvrhrm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: seisin
Cipher: BAAAB AABAA ABAAA BAAAB ABAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: seisin
cipher variations:
tfjtjodnzdzonvpnpoxdfxfohlvhvortlrloljrlrovrhvho
fzxfxophnpnozpdzdojxtjtougkukpeoaeapowqoqpyegygp
imwiwpsumsmpmksmspwsiwipgaygypqioqopaqeaepkyukup
vhlvlqfpbfbqpxrprqzfhzhqjnxjxqtvntnqnltntqxtjxjq
hbzhzqrjprpqbrfbfqlzvlvqwimwmrgqcgcrqysqsragiair
koykyruwouoromuouryukykricaiarskqsqrcsgcgrmawmwr
xjnxnshrdhdsrztrtsbhjbjslpzlzsvxpvpspnvpvszvlzls
jdbjbstlrtrsdthdhsnbxnxsykoyotiseietsausutcikckt
mqamatwyqwqtqowqwtawmamtkeckctumsusteuieitocyoyt
zlpzpujtfjfutbvtvudjldlunrbnbuxzrxrurpxrxubxnbnu
lfdlduvntvtufvjfjupdzpzuamqaqvkugkgvucwuwvekmemv
oscocvyasysvsqysyvcyocovmgemevwouwuvgwkgkvqeaqav
bnrbrwlvhlhwvdxvxwflnfnwptdpdwzbtztwtrztzwdzpdpw
nhfnfwxpvxvwhxlhlwrfbrbwcoscsxmwimixweywyxgmogox
queqexacuauxusauaxeaqeqxoigogxyqwywxiymimxsgcscx
dptdtynxjnjyxfzxzyhnphpyrvfrfybdvbvyvtbvbyfbrfry
pjhphyzrxzxyjznjnythdtdyequeuzoykokzygayazioqiqz
swgsgzcewcwzwucwczgcsgszqkiqizasyayzkaokozuieuez
frvfvapzlplazhbzbajprjratxhthadfxdxaxvdxdahdthta
rljrjabtzbzalbplpavjfvfagswgwbqamqmbaicacbkqsksb
uyiuibegyeybyweyebieuiubsmkskbcuacabmcqmqbwkgwgb
htxhxcrbnrncbjdbdclrtltcvzjvjcfhzfzczxfzfcjfvjvc
tnltlcdvbdbcndrnrcxlhxhciuyiydscosodckecedmsumud
wakwkdgiagadaygagdkgwkwduomumdewcecdoesosdymiyid
jvzjzetdptpedlfdfentvnvexblxlehjbhbebzhbhelhxlxe
vpnvnefxdfdepftpteznjzjekwakafuequqfemgegfouwowf
ycmymfikcicfcaicifmiymyfwqowofgyegefqguqufaokakf
lxblbgvfrvrgfnhfhgpvxpxgzdnzngjldjdgdbjdjgnjznzg
xrpxpghzfhfgrhvrvgbplblgmycmchwgswshgoigihqwyqyh
aeoaohkmekeheckekhokaoahysqyqhiagighsiwswhcqmcmh
nzdndixhtxtihpjhjirxzrzibfpbpilnflfifdlfliplbpbi
ztrzrijbhjhitjxtxidrndnioaeoejyiuyujiqkikjsyasaj
cgqcqjmogmgjgemgmjqmcqcjausasjkcikijukyuyjesoeoj
pbfpfkzjvzvkjrljlktzbtbkdhrdrknphnhkhfnhnkrndrdk
bvtbtkldjljkvlzvzkftpfpkqcgqglakwawlksmkmluacucl
eisesloqioiligoiolsoeselcwuculmekmklwmawalguqgql
rdhrhmblxbxmltnlnmvbdvdmfjtftmprjpjmjhpjpmtpftfm
dxvdvmnflnlmxnbxbmhvrhrmseisincmycynmuomonwcewen
gkugunqskqknkiqkqnuqgugneywewnogmomnyocycniwsisn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: seisin
Cipher: frvfva

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: seisin
Cipher: 345142344233

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: seisin
method variations:
xkoxoscptctxhuyhycnzdndh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s e i s i n 
3 5 4 3 4 3 
4 1 2 4 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
354343412423
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: seisin
Cipher: xoodrm

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: seisin
method variations:
yqmtmn qmtmny mtmnyq
tmnyqm mnyqmt nyqmtm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: seisin

all 720 cipher variations:
seisin seisni seiisn seiins seinis seinsi sesiin sesini sesiin sesini sesnii
sesnii seisin seisni seiisn seiins seinis seinsi sensii sensii senisi seniis
seniis senisi siesin siesni sieisn sieins sienis siensi sisein siseni sisien
sisine sisnie sisnei siisen siisne siiesn siiens siines siinse sinsie sinsei
sinise sinies sineis sinesi ssiein ssieni ssiien ssiine ssinie ssinei sseiin
sseini sseiin sseini ssenii ssenii ssiein ssieni ssiien ssiine ssinie ssinei
ssneii ssneii ssniei ssniie ssniie ssniei siisen siisne siiesn siiens siines
siinse sisien sisine sisein siseni sisnei sisnie siesin siesni sieisn sieins
sienis siensi sinsei sinsie sinesi sineis sinies sinise snisie snisei sniise
sniies snieis sniesi snsiie snsiei snsiie snsiei snseii snseii snisie snisei
sniise sniies snieis sniesi snesii snesii sneisi sneiis sneiis sneisi esisin
esisni esiisn esiins esinis esinsi essiin essini essiin essini essnii essnii
esisin esisni esiisn esiins esinis esinsi esnsii esnsii esnisi esniis esniis
esnisi eissin eissni eisisn eisins eisnis eisnsi eissin eissni eisisn eisins
eisnis eisnsi eiissn eiisns eiissn eiisns eiinss eiinss einsis einssi einiss
einiss einsis einssi esisin esisni esiisn esiins esinis esinsi essiin essini
essiin essini essnii essnii esisin esisni esiisn esiins esinis esinsi esnsii
esnsii esnisi esniis esniis esnisi eiissn eiisns eiissn eiisns eiinss eiinss
eisisn eisins eissin eissni eisnsi eisnis eissin eissni eisisn eisins eisnis
eisnsi einssi einsis einssi einsis einiss einiss enisis enissi eniiss eniiss
enisis enissi ensiis ensisi ensiis ensisi enssii enssii enisis enissi eniiss
eniiss enisis enissi enssii enssii ensisi ensiis ensiis ensisi iessin iessni
iesisn iesins iesnis iesnsi iessin iessni iesisn iesins iesnis iesnsi ieissn
ieisns ieissn ieisns ieinss ieinss iensis ienssi ieniss ieniss iensis ienssi
isesin isesni iseisn iseins isenis isensi issein isseni issien issine issnie
issnei isisen isisne isiesn isiens isines isinse isnsie isnsei isnise isnies
isneis isnesi issein isseni issien issine issnie issnei isesin isesni iseisn
iseins isenis isensi isiesn isiens isisen isisne isinse isines isneis isnesi
isnies isnise isnsie isnsei iissen iissne iisesn iisens iisnes iisnse iissen
iissne iisesn iisens iisnes iisnse iiessn iiesns iiessn iiesns iienss iienss
iinses iinsse iiness iiness iinses iinsse inssie inssei insise insies inseis
insesi inssie inssei insise insies inseis insesi inisse inises inisse inises
iniess iniess inesis inessi ineiss ineiss inesis inessi seisin seisni seiisn
seiins seinis seinsi sesiin sesini sesiin sesini sesnii sesnii seisin seisni
seiisn seiins seinis seinsi sensii sensii senisi seniis seniis senisi siesin
siesni sieisn sieins sienis siensi sisein siseni sisien sisine sisnie sisnei
siisen siisne siiesn siiens siines siinse sinsie sinsei sinise sinies sineis
sinesi ssiein ssieni ssiien ssiine ssinie ssinei sseiin sseini sseiin sseini
ssenii ssenii ssiein ssieni ssiien ssiine ssinie ssinei ssneii ssneii ssniei
ssniie ssniie ssniei siisen siisne siiesn siiens siines siinse sisien sisine
sisein siseni sisnei sisnie siesin siesni sieisn sieins sienis siensi sinsei
sinsie sinesi sineis sinies sinise snisie snisei sniise sniies snieis sniesi
snsiie snsiei snsiie snsiei snseii snseii snisie snisei sniise sniies snieis
sniesi snesii snesii sneisi sneiis sneiis sneisi ieissn ieisns ieissn ieisns
ieinss ieinss iesisn iesins iessin iessni iesnsi iesnis iessin iessni iesisn
iesins iesnis iesnsi ienssi iensis ienssi iensis ieniss ieniss iiessn iiesns
iiessn iiesns iienss iienss iisesn iisens iissen iissne iisnse iisnes iissen
iissne iisesn iisens iisnes iisnse iinsse iinses iinsse iinses iiness iiness
isiesn isiens isisen isisne isinse isines iseisn iseins isesin isesni isensi
isenis issein isseni issien issine issnie issnei isnesi isneis isnsei isnsie
isnise isnies isisen isisne isiesn isiens isines isinse issien issine issein
isseni issnei issnie isesin isesni iseisn iseins isenis isensi isnsei isnsie
isnesi isneis isnies isnise inisse inises inisse inises iniess iniess insise
insies inssie inssei insesi inseis inssie inssei insise insies inseis insesi
inessi inesis inessi inesis ineiss ineiss neisis neissi neiiss neiiss neisis
neissi nesiis nesisi nesiis nesisi nessii nessii neisis neissi neiiss neiiss
neisis neissi nessii nessii nesisi nesiis nesiis nesisi niesis niessi nieiss
nieiss niesis niessi niseis nisesi nisies nisise nissie nissei niises niisse
niiess niiess niises niisse nissie nissei nisise nisies niseis nisesi nsieis
nsiesi nsiies nsiise nsisie nsisei nseiis nseisi nseiis nseisi nsesii nsesii
nsieis nsiesi nsiies nsiise nsisie nsisei nsseii nsseii nssiei nssiie nssiie
nssiei niises niisse niiess niiess niises niisse nisies nisise niseis nisesi
nissei nissie niesis niessi nieiss nieiss niesis niessi nissei nissie nisesi
niseis nisies nisise nsisie nsisei nsiise nsiies nsieis nsiesi nssiie nssiei
nssiie nssiei nsseii nsseii nsisie nsisei nsiise nsiies nsieis nsiesi nsesii
nsesii nseisi nseiis nseiis nseisi

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History of cryptography
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