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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: scutch
cipher variations:
tdvudi uewvej vfxwfk wgyxgl xhzyhm
yiazin zjbajo akcbkp bldclq cmedmr
dnfens eogfot fphgpu gqihqv hrjirw
iskjsx jtlkty kumluz lvnmva mwonwb
nxpoxc oyqpyd pzrqze qasraf rbtsbg

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: scutch
Cipher: hxfgxs

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: scutch
Cipher: BAAAB AAABA BAABB BAABA AAABA AABBB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: scutch
cipher variations:
tdvudidhjghwnlxslkxplepyhtzqtmrxncxalfpafcvjdmjq
fnryneprfkrszvtwvgjzhizuuewvejeikhixomytmlyqmfqz
iuarunsyodybmgqbgdwkenkrgoszofqsglstawuxwhkaijav
vfxwfkfjlijypnzunmzrngrajvbsvotzpezcnhrchexlfols
hptapgrthmtubxvyxilbjkbwwgyxglgkmjkzqoavonasohsb
kwctwpuaqfadoisdifymgpmtiqubqhsuinuvcywzyjmcklcx
xhzyhmhlnklarpbwpobtpitclxduxqvbrgbepjtejgznhqnu
jrvcritvjovwdzxazkndlmdyyiazinimolmbsqcxqpcuqjud
myevyrwcshcfqkufkhaoirovkswdsjuwkpwxeaybaloemnez
zjbajojnpmnctrdyrqdvrkvenzfwzsxdtidgrlvglibpjspw
ltxetkvxlqxyfbzcbmpfnofaakcbkpkoqnodusezsrewslwf
oagxatyeujehsmwhmjcqktqxmuyfulwymryzgcadcnqgopgb
bldclqlpropevtfatsfxtmxgpbhybuzfvkfitnxinkdrlury
nvzgvmxznszahdbedorhpqhccmedmrmqspqfwugbutgyunyh
qcizcvagwlgjuoyjolesmvszowahwnyaotabiecfepsiqrid
dnfensnrtqrgxvhcvuhzvozirdjadwbhxmhkvpzkpmftnwta
pxbixozbpubcjfdgfqtjrsjeeogfotosurshywidwviawpaj
sekbexciynilwqalqnguoxubqycjypacqvcdkgehgrukstkf
fphgpuptvstizxjexwjbxqbktflcfydjzojmxrbmrohvpyvc
rzdkzqbdrwdelhfihsvltulggqihqvquwtujaykfyxkcyrcl
ugmdgzekapknyscnspiwqzwdsaelarcesxefmigjitwmuvmh
hrjirwrvxuvkbzlgzyldzsdmvhnehaflbqloztdotqjxraxe
tbfmbsdftyfgnjhkjuxnvwniiskjsxswyvwlcamhazmeaten
wiofibgmcrmpauepurkysbyfucgncteguzghokilkvyowxoj
jtlktytxzwxmdbnibanfbufoxjpgjchndsnqbvfqvslztczg
vdhodufhvahipljmlwzpxypkkumluzuyaxynecojcbogcvgp
ykqhkdioetorcwgrwtmaudahweipevgiwbijqmknmxaqyzql
lvnmvavzbyzofdpkdcphdwhqzlrilejpfupsdxhsxunbvebi
xfjqfwhjxcjkrnlonybrzarmmwonwbwaczapgeqledqiexir
amsjmfkqgvqteyityvocwfcjygkrgxikydklsompozcsabsn
nxpoxcxbdabqhfrmferjfyjsbntknglrhwrufzjuzwpdxgdk
zhlshyjlzelmtpnqpadtbctooyqpydycebcrigsngfskgzkt
coulohmsixsvgakvaxqeyhelaimtizkmafmnuqorqbeucdup
pzrqzezdfcdsjhtohgtlhaludpvmpintjytwhblwbyrfzifm
bjnujalnbgnovrpsrcfvdevqqasrafaegdetkiupihumibmv
eqwnqjoukzuxicmxczsgajgnckovkbmochopwsqtsdgwefwr
rbtsbgbfhefuljvqjivnjcnwfrxorkpvlavyjdnydathbkho
dlpwlcnpdipqxtrutehxfgxsscutchcgifgvmkwrkjwokdox
gsypslqwmbwzkeozebuiclipemqxmdoqejqryusvufiyghyt

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: scutch
Cipher: fphgpu

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: scutch
Cipher: 343154443132

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: scutch
method variations:
xhzyhncnednshskisxnxpoxc

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s c u t c h 
3 3 5 4 3 3 
4 1 4 4 1 2 
They are then read out in rows:
335433414412
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: scutch
Cipher: nundtf

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: scutch
method variations:
ovtolm vtolmo tolmov
olmovt lmovto movtol

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: scutch

all 720 cipher variations:
scutch scuthc scucth scucht scuhct scuhtc sctuch sctuhc sctcuh sctchu scthcu
scthuc scctuh sccthu sccuth sccuht scchut scchtu schtcu schtuc schctu schcut
schuct schutc suctch sucthc succth succht suchct suchtc sutcch sutchc sutcch
sutchc suthcc suthcc suctch sucthc succth succht suchct suchtc suhtcc suhtcc
suhctc suhcct suhcct suhctc stucch stuchc stucch stuchc stuhcc stuhcc stcuch
stcuhc stccuh stcchu stchcu stchuc stccuh stcchu stcuch stcuhc stchuc stchcu
sthccu sthcuc sthccu sthcuc sthucc sthucc scutch scuthc scucth scucht scuhct
scuhtc sctuch sctuhc sctcuh sctchu scthcu scthuc scctuh sccthu sccuth sccuht
scchut scchtu schtcu schtuc schctu schcut schuct schutc shutcc shutcc shuctc
shucct shucct shuctc shtucc shtucc shtcuc shtccu shtccu shtcuc shctuc shctcu
shcutc shcuct shccut shcctu shctcu shctuc shcctu shccut shcuct shcutc csutch
csuthc csucth csucht csuhct csuhtc cstuch cstuhc cstcuh cstchu csthcu csthuc
csctuh cscthu cscuth cscuht cschut cschtu cshtcu cshtuc cshctu cshcut cshuct
cshutc custch custhc cuscth cuscht cushct cushtc cutsch cutshc cutcsh cutchs
cuthcs cuthsc cuctsh cucths cucsth cucsht cuchst cuchts cuhtcs cuhtsc cuhcts
cuhcst cuhsct cuhstc ctusch ctushc ctucsh ctuchs ctuhcs ctuhsc ctsuch ctsuhc
ctscuh ctschu ctshcu ctshuc ctcsuh ctcshu ctcush ctcuhs ctchus ctchsu cthscu
cthsuc cthcsu cthcus cthucs cthusc ccutsh ccuths ccusth ccusht ccuhst ccuhts
cctush cctuhs cctsuh cctshu ccthsu ccthus ccstuh ccsthu ccsuth ccsuht ccshut
ccshtu cchtsu cchtus cchstu cchsut cchust cchuts chutcs chutsc chucts chucst
chusct chustc chtucs chtusc chtcus chtcsu chtscu chtsuc chctus chctsu chcuts
chcust chcsut chcstu chstcu chstuc chsctu chscut chsuct chsutc ucstch ucsthc
ucscth ucscht ucshct ucshtc uctsch uctshc uctcsh uctchs ucthcs ucthsc ucctsh
uccths uccsth uccsht ucchst ucchts uchtcs uchtsc uchcts uchcst uchsct uchstc
usctch uscthc usccth usccht uschct uschtc ustcch ustchc ustcch ustchc usthcc
usthcc usctch uscthc usccth usccht uschct uschtc ushtcc ushtcc ushctc ushcct
ushcct ushctc utscch utschc utscch utschc utshcc utshcc utcsch utcshc utccsh
utcchs utchcs utchsc utccsh utcchs utcsch utcshc utchsc utchcs uthccs uthcsc
uthccs uthcsc uthscc uthscc ucstch ucsthc ucscth ucscht ucshct ucshtc uctsch
uctshc uctcsh uctchs ucthcs ucthsc ucctsh uccths uccsth uccsht ucchst ucchts
uchtcs uchtsc uchcts uchcst uchsct uchstc uhstcc uhstcc uhsctc uhscct uhscct
uhsctc uhtscc uhtscc uhtcsc uhtccs uhtccs uhtcsc uhctsc uhctcs uhcstc uhcsct
uhccst uhccts uhctcs uhctsc uhccts uhccst uhcsct uhcstc tcusch tcushc tcucsh
tcuchs tcuhcs tcuhsc tcsuch tcsuhc tcscuh tcschu tcshcu tcshuc tccsuh tccshu
tccush tccuhs tcchus tcchsu tchscu tchsuc tchcsu tchcus tchucs tchusc tucsch
tucshc tuccsh tucchs tuchcs tuchsc tuscch tuschc tuscch tuschc tushcc tushcc
tucsch tucshc tuccsh tucchs tuchcs tuchsc tuhscc tuhscc tuhcsc tuhccs tuhccs
tuhcsc tsucch tsuchc tsucch tsuchc tsuhcc tsuhcc tscuch tscuhc tsccuh tscchu
tschcu tschuc tsccuh tscchu tscuch tscuhc tschuc tschcu tshccu tshcuc tshccu
tshcuc tshucc tshucc tcusch tcushc tcucsh tcuchs tcuhcs tcuhsc tcsuch tcsuhc
tcscuh tcschu tcshcu tcshuc tccsuh tccshu tccush tccuhs tcchus tcchsu tchscu
tchsuc tchcsu tchcus tchucs tchusc thuscc thuscc thucsc thuccs thuccs thucsc
thsucc thsucc thscuc thsccu thsccu thscuc thcsuc thcscu thcusc thcucs thccus
thccsu thcscu thcsuc thccsu thccus thcucs thcusc ccutsh ccuths ccusth ccusht
ccuhst ccuhts cctush cctuhs cctsuh cctshu ccthsu ccthus ccstuh ccsthu ccsuth
ccsuht ccshut ccshtu cchtsu cchtus cchstu cchsut cchust cchuts cuctsh cucths
cucsth cucsht cuchst cuchts cutcsh cutchs cutsch cutshc cuthsc cuthcs custch
custhc cuscth cuscht cushct cushtc cuhtsc cuhtcs cuhstc cuhsct cuhcst cuhcts
ctucsh ctuchs ctusch ctushc ctuhsc ctuhcs ctcush ctcuhs ctcsuh ctcshu ctchsu
ctchus ctscuh ctschu ctsuch ctsuhc ctshuc ctshcu cthcsu cthcus cthscu cthsuc
cthusc cthucs csutch csuthc csucth csucht csuhct csuhtc cstuch cstuhc cstcuh
cstchu csthcu csthuc csctuh cscthu cscuth cscuht cschut cschtu cshtcu cshtuc
cshctu cshcut cshuct cshutc chutsc chutcs chustc chusct chucst chucts chtusc
chtucs chtsuc chtscu chtcsu chtcus chstuc chstcu chsutc chsuct chscut chsctu
chctsu chctus chcstu chcsut chcust chcuts hcutcs hcutsc hcucts hcucst hcusct
hcustc hctucs hctusc hctcus hctcsu hctscu hctsuc hcctus hcctsu hccuts hccust
hccsut hccstu hcstcu hcstuc hcsctu hcscut hcsuct hcsutc huctcs huctsc huccts
huccst hucsct hucstc hutccs hutcsc hutccs hutcsc hutscc hutscc huctcs huctsc
huccts huccst hucsct hucstc hustcc hustcc husctc huscct huscct husctc htuccs
htucsc htuccs htucsc htuscc htuscc htcucs htcusc htccus htccsu htcscu htcsuc
htccus htccsu htcucs htcusc htcsuc htcscu htsccu htscuc htsccu htscuc htsucc
htsucc hcutcs hcutsc hcucts hcucst hcusct hcustc hctucs hctusc hctcus hctcsu
hctscu hctsuc hcctus hcctsu hccuts hccust hccsut hccstu hcstcu hcstuc hcsctu
hcscut hcsuct hcsutc hsutcc hsutcc hsuctc hsucct hsucct hsuctc hstucc hstucc
hstcuc hstccu hstccu hstcuc hsctuc hsctcu hscutc hscuct hsccut hscctu hsctcu
hsctuc hscctu hsccut hscuct hscutc

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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