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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: sarras
cipher variations:
tbssbt ucttcu vduudv wevvew xfwwfx
ygxxgy zhyyhz aizzia bjaajb ckbbkc
dlccld emddme fneenf goffog hpggph
iqhhqi jriirj ksjjsk ltkktl mullum
nvmmvn ownnwo pxooxp qyppyq rzqqzr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: sarras
Cipher: hziizh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: sarras
Cipher: BAAAB AAAAA BAAAA BAAAA AAAAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: sarras
cipher variations:
tbssbtdbaabdnbiibnxbqqbxhbyybhrbggbrlbwwblvbeebv
fbmmbfpbuubpzbccbzjbkkbjucttcuecbbceocjjcoycrrcy
iczzcischhcsmcxxcmwcffcwgcnncgqcvvcqacddcakcllck
vduudvfdccdfpdkkdpzdssdzjdaadjtdiidtndyydnxdggdx
hdoodhrdwwdrbdeedbldmmdlwevvewgeddegqelleqaettea
kebbekuejjeuoezzeoyehheyieppeisexxesceffecmennem
xfwwfxhfeefhrfmmfrbfuufblfccflvfkkfvpfaafpzfiifz
jfqqfjtfyyftdfggfdnfoofnygxxgyigffgisgnngscgvvgc
mgddgmwgllgwqgbbgqagjjgakgrrgkugzzgueghhgeogppgo
zhyyhzjhgghjthoohtdhwwhdnheehnxhmmhxrhcchrbhkkhb
lhsshlvhaahvfhiihfphqqhpaizziakihhikuippiueixxie
oiffioyinniysiddiscillicmittimwibbiwgijjigqirriq
bjaajbljiijlvjqqjvfjyyjfpjggjpzjoojztjeejtdjmmjd
njuujnxjccjxhjkkjhrjssjrckbbkcmkjjkmwkrrkwgkzzkg
qkhhkqakppkaukffkueknnkeokvvkoykddkyikllkiskttks
dlccldnlkklnxlsslxhlaalhrliilrblqqlbvlgglvfloolf
plwwlpzleelzjlmmljtluultemddmeomllmoymttmyimbbmi
smjjmscmrrmcwmhhmwgmppmgqmxxmqamffmakmnnmkumvvmu
fneenfpnmmnpznuunzjnccnjtnkkntdnssndxniinxhnqqnh
rnyynrbnggnblnoonlvnwwnvgoffogqonnoqaovvoakoddok
uolloueottoeyojjoyiorroisozzoscohhocmoppomwoxxow
hpggphrpooprbpwwpblpeeplvpmmpvfpuupfzpkkpzjpsspj
tpaaptdpiipdnpqqpnxpyypxiqhhqisqppqscqxxqcmqffqm
wqnnqwgqvvqgaqllqakqttqkuqbbqueqjjqeoqrrqoyqzzqy
jriirjtrqqrtdryyrdnrggrnxroorxhrwwrhbrmmrblruurl
vrccrvfrkkrfprssrpzraarzksjjskusrrsueszzseoshhso
ysppsyisxxsicsnnscmsvvsmwsddswgsllsgqsttsqasbbsa
ltkktlvtsstvftaatfptiitpztqqtzjtyytjdtootdntwwtn
xteetxhtmmthrtuutrbtcctbmullumwuttuwgubbugqujjuq
aurruakuzzukeuppueouxxuoyuffuyiunnuisuvvuscudduc
nvmmvnxvuuvxhvccvhrvkkvrbvssvblvaavlfvqqvfpvyyvp
zvggvzjvoovjtvwwvtdveevdownnwoywvvwyiwddwiswllws
cwttwcmwbbwmgwrrwgqwzzwqawhhwakwppwkuwxxwuewffwe
pxooxpzxwwxzjxeexjtxmmxtdxuuxdnxccxnhxssxhrxaaxr
bxiixblxqqxlvxyyxvfxggxfqyppyqayxxyakyffykuynnyu
eyvvyeoyddyoiyttyisybbyscyjjycmyrrymwyzzywgyhhyg
rzqqzrbzyyzblzggzlvzoozvfzwwzfpzeezpjzuuzjtzcczt
dzkkzdnzssznxzaazxhziizhsarrascazzacmahhamwappaw
gaxxagqaffaqkavvakuaddaueallaeoattaoyabbayiajjai

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: sarras
Cipher: fneenf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: sarras
Cipher: 341124241134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: sarras
method variations:
xfwwfxclbblchqggqhnvmmvn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s a r r a s 
3 1 2 2 1 3 
4 1 4 4 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
312213414414
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: sarras
Cipher: cgldtq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: sarras
method variations:
dfidlo fidlod idlodf
dlodfi lodfid odfidl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: sarras

all 720 cipher variations:
sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr sarsar sarsra sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr sarsar
sarsra saarrs saarsr saarrs saarsr saasrr saasrr sasrar sasrra sasarr sasarr
sasrar sasrra sraras srarsa sraars sraasr srasar srasra srraas srrasa srraas
srrasa srrsaa srrsaa sraras srarsa sraars sraasr srasar srasra srsraa srsraa
srsara srsaar srsaar srsara srraas srrasa srraas srrasa srrsaa srrsaa sraras
srarsa sraars sraasr srasar srasra sraars sraasr sraras srarsa srasra srasar
srsaar srsara srsaar srsara srsraa srsraa sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr sarsar
sarsra sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr sarsar sarsra saarrs saarsr saarrs saarsr
saasrr saasrr sasrar sasrra sasarr sasarr sasrar sasrra ssrraa ssrraa ssrara
ssraar ssraar ssrara ssrraa ssrraa ssrara ssraar ssraar ssrara ssarra ssarar
ssarra ssarar ssaarr ssaarr ssarar ssarra ssaarr ssaarr ssarar ssarra asrras
asrrsa asrars asrasr asrsar asrsra asrras asrrsa asrars asrasr asrsar asrsra
asarrs asarsr asarrs asarsr asasrr asasrr assrar assrra assarr assarr assrar
assrra arsras arsrsa arsars arsasr arssar arssra arrsas arrssa arrass arrass
arrsas arrssa ararss ararss arasrs arassr arassr arasrs arsras arsrsa arsars
arsasr arssar arssra arrsas arrssa arrass arrass arrsas arrssa arsras arsrsa
arsars arsasr arssar arssra arasrs arassr ararss ararss arasrs arassr arssar
arssra arsasr arsars arsras arsrsa aarrss aarrss aarsrs aarssr aarssr aarsrs
aarrss aarrss aarsrs aarssr aarssr aarsrs aasrrs aasrsr aasrrs aasrsr aassrr
aassrr aasrsr aasrrs aassrr aassrr aasrsr aasrrs asrras asrrsa asrars asrasr
asrsar asrsra asrras asrrsa asrars asrasr asrsar asrsra asarrs asarsr asarrs
asarsr asasrr asasrr assrar assrra assarr assarr assrar assrra rasras rasrsa
rasars rasasr rassar rassra rarsas rarssa rarass rarass rarsas rarssa raarss
raarss raasrs raassr raassr raasrs rasras rasrsa rasars rasasr rassar rassra
rsaras rsarsa rsaars rsaasr rsasar rsasra rsraas rsrasa rsraas rsrasa rsrsaa
rsrsaa rsaras rsarsa rsaars rsaasr rsasar rsasra rssraa rssraa rssara rssaar
rssaar rssara rrsaas rrsasa rrsaas rrsasa rrssaa rrssaa rrasas rrassa rraass
rraass rrasas rrassa rraass rraass rrasas rrassa rrassa rrasas rrsaas rrsasa
rrsaas rrsasa rrssaa rrssaa rasras rasrsa rasars rasasr rassar rassra rarsas
rarssa rarass rarass rarsas rarssa raarss raarss raasrs raassr raassr raasrs
rasras rasrsa rasars rasasr rassar rassra rssraa rssraa rssara rssaar rssaar
rssara rsrsaa rsrsaa rsrasa rsraas rsraas rsrasa rsarsa rsaras rsasra rsasar
rsaasr rsaars rsaras rsarsa rsaars rsaasr rsasar rsasra rarsas rarssa rarass
rarass rarsas rarssa rasras rasrsa rasars rasasr rassar rassra raasrs raassr
raarss raarss raasrs raassr rassar rassra rasasr rasars rasras rasrsa rrasas
rrassa rraass rraass rrasas rrassa rrsaas rrsasa rrsaas rrsasa rrssaa rrssaa
rrasas rrassa rraass rraass rrasas rrassa rrssaa rrssaa rrsasa rrsaas rrsaas
rrsasa rsraas rsrasa rsraas rsrasa rsrsaa rsrsaa rsaras rsarsa rsaars rsaasr
rsasar rsasra rsaars rsaasr rsaras rsarsa rsasra rsasar rssaar rssara rssaar
rssara rssraa rssraa rarsas rarssa rarass rarass rarsas rarssa rasras rasrsa
rasars rasasr rassar rassra raasrs raassr raarss raarss raasrs raassr rassar
rassra rasasr rasars rasras rasrsa rsrsaa rsrsaa rsrasa rsraas rsraas rsrasa
rssraa rssraa rssara rssaar rssaar rssara rsasra rsasar rsarsa rsaras rsaars
rsaasr rsasar rsasra rsaasr rsaars rsaras rsarsa aarrss aarrss aarsrs aarssr
aarssr aarsrs aarrss aarrss aarsrs aarssr aarssr aarsrs aasrrs aasrsr aasrrs
aasrsr aassrr aassrr aasrsr aasrrs aassrr aassrr aasrsr aasrrs ararss ararss
arasrs arassr arassr arasrs arrass arrass arrsas arrssa arrssa arrsas arsras
arsrsa arsars arsasr arssar arssra arsrsa arsras arssra arssar arsasr arsars
arrass arrass arrsas arrssa arrssa arrsas ararss ararss arasrs arassr arassr
arasrs arsars arsasr arsras arsrsa arssra arssar arsasr arsars arssar arssra
arsrsa arsras asrras asrrsa asrars asrasr asrsar asrsra asrras asrrsa asrars
asrasr asrsar asrsra asarrs asarsr asarrs asarsr asasrr asasrr assrar assrra
assarr assarr assrar assrra asrrsa asrras asrsra asrsar asrasr asrars asrrsa
asrras asrsra asrsar asrasr asrars assrra assrar assrra assrar assarr assarr
asarsr asarrs asasrr asasrr asarsr asarrs sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr sarsar
sarsra sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr sarsar sarsra saarrs saarsr saarrs saarsr
saasrr saasrr sasrar sasrra sasarr sasarr sasrar sasrra sraras srarsa sraars
sraasr srasar srasra srraas srrasa srraas srrasa srrsaa srrsaa sraras srarsa
sraars sraasr srasar srasra srsraa srsraa srsara srsaar srsaar srsara srraas
srrasa srraas srrasa srrsaa srrsaa sraras srarsa sraars sraasr srasar srasra
sraars sraasr sraras srarsa srasra srasar srsaar srsara srsaar srsara srsraa
srsraa sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr sarsar sarsra sarras sarrsa sarars sarasr
sarsar sarsra saarrs saarsr saarrs saarsr saasrr saasrr sasrar sasrra sasarr
sasarr sasrar sasrra ssrraa ssrraa ssrara ssraar ssraar ssrara ssrraa ssrraa
ssrara ssraar ssraar ssrara ssarra ssarar ssarra ssarar ssaarr ssaarr ssarar
ssarra ssaarr ssaarr ssarar ssarra

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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