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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: saltan
cipher variations:
tbmubo ucnvcp vdowdq wepxer xfqyfs
ygrzgt zhsahu aitbiv bjucjw ckvdkx
dlwely emxfmz fnygna gozhob hpaipc
iqbjqd jrckre ksdlsf ltemtg mufnuh
nvgovi owhpwj pxiqxk qyjryl rzkszm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: saltan
Cipher: hzogzm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: saltan
Cipher: BAAAB AAAAA ABABA BAABA AAAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: saltan
cipher variations:
tbmubodbigbonbesboxbaebohbwqborbscbolbkabovbgmbo
fbcybopbykbozbuwbojbqiboucnvcpecjhcpocftcpycbfcp
icxrcpsctdcpmclbcpwchncpgcdzcpqczlcpacvxcpkcrjcp
vdowdqfdkidqpdgudqzdcgdqjdysdqtduedqndmcdqxdiodq
hdeadqrdamdqbdwydqldskdqwepxergeljerqehveraedher
kezteruevferoenderyejperiefbersebnercexzermetler
xfqyfshfmkfsrfiwfsbfeifslfaufsvfwgfspfoefszfkqfs
jfgcfstfcofsdfyafsnfumfsygrzgtignlgtsgjxgtcgfjgt
mgbvgtwgxhgtqgpfgtaglrgtkghdgtugdpgtegzbgtogvngt
zhsahujhomhuthkyhudhgkhunhcwhuxhyihurhqghubhmshu
lhiehuvheqhufhachuphwohuaitbivkipnivuilziveihliv
oidxivyizjivsirhivcintivmijfivwifrivgibdivqixpiv
bjucjwljqojwvjmajwfjimjwpjeyjwzjakjwtjsijwdjoujw
njkgjwxjgsjwhjcejwrjyqjwckvdkxmkrpkxwknbkxgkjnkx
qkfzkxakblkxuktjkxekpvkxoklhkxykhtkxikdfkxskzrkx
dlwelynlsqlyxloclyhlkolyrlgalyblcmlyvluklyflqwly
plmilyzliulyjleglytlaslyemxfmzomtrmzympdmzimlpmz
smhbmzcmdnmzwmvlmzgmrxmzqmnjmzamjvmzkmfhmzumbtmz
fnygnapnusnaznqenajnmqnatnicnadneonaxnwmnahnsyna
rnoknabnkwnalnginavncunagozhobqovtobaorfobkonrob
uojdobeofpobyoxnobiotzobsoplobcolxobmohjobwodvob
hpaipcrpwupcbpsgpclpospcvpkepcfpgqpczpyopcjpuapc
tpqmpcdpmypcnpikpcxpewpciqbjqdsqxvqdcqthqdmqptqd
wqlfqdgqhrqdaqzpqdkqvbqduqrnqdeqnzqdoqjlqdyqfxqd
jrckretrywredruirenrqurexrmgrehrisrebraqrelrwcre
vrsorefroareprkmrezrgyreksdlsfuszxsfesvjsfosrvsf
ysnhsfisjtsfcsbrsfmsxdsfwstpsfgspbsfqslnsfashzsf
ltemtgvtaytgftwktgptswtgztoitgjtkutgdtcstgntyetg
xtuqtghtqctgrtmotgbtiatgmufnuhwubzuhguxluhqutxuh
aupjuhkulvuheudtuhouzfuhyuvruhiurduhsunpuhcujbuh
nvgovixvcavihvymvirvuyvibvqkvilvmwvifveuvipvagvi
zvwsvijvsevitvoqvidvkcviowhpwjywdbwjiwznwjswvzwj
cwrlwjmwnxwjgwfvwjqwbhwjawxtwjkwtfwjuwprwjewldwj
pxiqxkzxecxkjxaoxktxwaxkdxsmxknxoyxkhxgwxkrxcixk
bxyuxklxugxkvxqsxkfxmexkqyjrylayfdylkybpyluyxbyl
eytnyloypzyliyhxylsydjylcyzvylmyvhylwyrtylgynfyl
rzkszmbzgezmlzcqzmvzyczmfzuozmpzqazmjziyzmtzekzm
dzawzmnzwizmxzsuzmhzogzmsaltancahfanmadranwazdan
gavpanqarbankajzanuaflaneabxanoaxjanyatvaniaphan

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: saltan
Cipher: fnygna

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: saltan
Cipher: 341113441133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: saltan
method variations:
xfqyfsclvdlxhqaiqcnvfovh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s a l t a n 
3 1 1 4 1 3 
4 1 3 4 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
311413413413
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: saltan
Cipher: cqldsl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: saltan
method variations:
dasdln asdlnd sdlnda
dlndas lndasd ndasdl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: saltan

all 720 cipher variations:
saltan saltna salatn salant salnat salnta satlan satlna sataln satanl satnal
satnla saatln saatnl saaltn saalnt saanlt saantl santal santla sanatl sanalt
sanlat sanlta slatan slatna slaatn slaant slanat slanta sltaan sltana sltaan
sltana sltnaa sltnaa slatan slatna slaatn slaant slanat slanta slntaa slntaa
slnata slnaat slnaat slnata stlaan stlana stlaan stlana stlnaa stlnaa stalan
stalna staaln staanl stanal stanla staaln staanl stalan stalna stanla stanal
stnaal stnala stnaal stnala stnlaa stnlaa saltan saltna salatn salant salnat
salnta satlan satlna sataln satanl satnal satnla saatln saatnl saaltn saalnt
saanlt saantl santal santla sanatl sanalt sanlat sanlta snltaa snltaa snlata
snlaat snlaat snlata sntlaa sntlaa sntala sntaal sntaal sntala snatla snatal
snalta snalat snaalt snaatl snatal snatla snaatl snaalt snalat snalta asltan
asltna aslatn aslant aslnat aslnta astlan astlna astaln astanl astnal astnla
asatln asatnl asaltn asalnt asanlt asantl asntal asntla asnatl asnalt asnlat
asnlta alstan alstna alsatn alsant alsnat alsnta altsan altsna altasn altans
altnas altnsa alatsn alatns alastn alasnt alanst alants alntas alntsa alnats
alnast alnsat alnsta atlsan atlsna atlasn atlans atlnas atlnsa atslan atslna
atsaln atsanl atsnal atsnla atasln atasnl atalsn atalns atanls atansl atnsal
atnsla atnasl atnals atnlas atnlsa aaltsn aaltns aalstn aalsnt aalnst aalnts
aatlsn aatlns aatsln aatsnl aatnsl aatnls aastln aastnl aasltn aaslnt aasnlt
aasntl aantsl aantls aanstl aanslt aanlst aanlts anltas anltsa anlats anlast
anlsat anlsta antlas antlsa antals antasl antsal antsla anatls anatsl analts
analst anaslt anastl anstal anstla ansatl ansalt anslat anslta lastan lastna
lasatn lasant lasnat lasnta latsan latsna latasn latans latnas latnsa laatsn
laatns laastn laasnt laanst laants lantas lantsa lanats lanast lansat lansta
lsatan lsatna lsaatn lsaant lsanat lsanta lstaan lstana lstaan lstana lstnaa
lstnaa lsatan lsatna lsaatn lsaant lsanat lsanta lsntaa lsntaa lsnata lsnaat
lsnaat lsnata ltsaan ltsana ltsaan ltsana ltsnaa ltsnaa ltasan ltasna ltaasn
ltaans ltanas ltansa ltaasn ltaans ltasan ltasna ltansa ltanas ltnaas ltnasa
ltnaas ltnasa ltnsaa ltnsaa lastan lastna lasatn lasant lasnat lasnta latsan
latsna latasn latans latnas latnsa laatsn laatns laastn laasnt laanst laants
lantas lantsa lanats lanast lansat lansta lnstaa lnstaa lnsata lnsaat lnsaat
lnsata lntsaa lntsaa lntasa lntaas lntaas lntasa lnatsa lnatas lnasta lnasat
lnaast lnaats lnatas lnatsa lnaats lnaast lnasat lnasta talsan talsna talasn
talans talnas talnsa taslan taslna tasaln tasanl tasnal tasnla taasln taasnl
taalsn taalns taanls taansl tansal tansla tanasl tanals tanlas tanlsa tlasan
tlasna tlaasn tlaans tlanas tlansa tlsaan tlsana tlsaan tlsana tlsnaa tlsnaa
tlasan tlasna tlaasn tlaans tlanas tlansa tlnsaa tlnsaa tlnasa tlnaas tlnaas
tlnasa tslaan tslana tslaan tslana tslnaa tslnaa tsalan tsalna tsaaln tsaanl
tsanal tsanla tsaaln tsaanl tsalan tsalna tsanla tsanal tsnaal tsnala tsnaal
tsnala tsnlaa tsnlaa talsan talsna talasn talans talnas talnsa taslan taslna
tasaln tasanl tasnal tasnla taasln taasnl taalsn taalns taanls taansl tansal
tansla tanasl tanals tanlas tanlsa tnlsaa tnlsaa tnlasa tnlaas tnlaas tnlasa
tnslaa tnslaa tnsala tnsaal tnsaal tnsala tnasla tnasal tnalsa tnalas tnaals
tnaasl tnasal tnasla tnaasl tnaals tnalas tnalsa aaltsn aaltns aalstn aalsnt
aalnst aalnts aatlsn aatlns aatsln aatsnl aatnsl aatnls aastln aastnl aasltn
aaslnt aasnlt aasntl aantsl aantls aanstl aanslt aanlst aanlts alatsn alatns
alastn alasnt alanst alants altasn altans altsan altsna altnsa altnas alstan
alstna alsatn alsant alsnat alsnta alntsa alntas alnsta alnsat alnast alnats
atlasn atlans atlsan atlsna atlnsa atlnas atalsn atalns atasln atasnl atansl
atanls atsaln atsanl atslan atslna atsnla atsnal atnasl atnals atnsal atnsla
atnlsa atnlas asltan asltna aslatn aslant aslnat aslnta astlan astlna astaln
astanl astnal astnla asatln asatnl asaltn asalnt asanlt asantl asntal asntla
asnatl asnalt asnlat asnlta anltsa anltas anlsta anlsat anlast anlats antlsa
antlas antsla antsal antasl antals anstla anstal anslta anslat ansalt ansatl
anatsl anatls anastl anaslt analst analts naltas naltsa nalats nalast nalsat
nalsta natlas natlsa natals natasl natsal natsla naatls naatsl naalts naalst
naaslt naastl nastal nastla nasatl nasalt naslat naslta nlatas nlatsa nlaats
nlaast nlasat nlasta nltaas nltasa nltaas nltasa nltsaa nltsaa nlatas nlatsa
nlaats nlaast nlasat nlasta nlstaa nlstaa nlsata nlsaat nlsaat nlsata ntlaas
ntlasa ntlaas ntlasa ntlsaa ntlsaa ntalas ntalsa ntaals ntaasl ntasal ntasla
ntaals ntaasl ntalas ntalsa ntasla ntasal ntsaal ntsala ntsaal ntsala ntslaa
ntslaa naltas naltsa nalats nalast nalsat nalsta natlas natlsa natals natasl
natsal natsla naatls naatsl naalts naalst naaslt naastl nastal nastla nasatl
nasalt naslat naslta nsltaa nsltaa nslata nslaat nslaat nslata nstlaa nstlaa
nstala nstaal nstaal nstala nsatla nsatal nsalta nsalat nsaalt nsaatl nsatal
nsatla nsaatl nsaalt nsalat nsalta

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