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welly

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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: sabres
cipher variations:
tbcsft ucdtgu vdeuhv wefviw xfgwjx
yghxky zhiylz aijzma bjkanb cklboc
dlmcpd emndqe fnoerf gopfsg hpqgth
iqrhui jrsivj kstjwk ltukxl muvlym
nvwmzn owxnao pxyobp qyzpcq rzaqdr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: sabres
Cipher: hzyivh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: sabres
Cipher: BAAAB AAAAA AAAAB BAAAA AABAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: sabres
cipher variations:
tbcsftdbeandnbgivnxbiqdxhbkylhrbmgtrlbqwjlvbserv
fbumzfpbwuhpzbycpzjbakxjucdtguecfboeochjwoycjrey
iclzmiscnhusmcrxkmwctfswgcvnagqcxviqaczdqakcblyk
vdeuhvfdgcpfpdikxpzdksfzjdmanjtdoivtndsylnxdugtx
hdwobhrdywjrbdaerbldcmzlwefviwgehdqgqejlyqaeltga
kenbokuepjwuoetzmoyevhuyiexpcisezxkscebfscmednam
xfgwjxhfierhrfkmzrbfmuhblfocplvfqkxvpfuanpzfwivz
jfyqdjtfayltdfcgtdnfeobnyghxkyigjfsisglnascgnvic
mgpdqmwgrlywqgvboqagxjwakgzrekugbzmuegdhueogfpco
zhiylzjhkgtjthmobtdhowjdnhqernxhsmzxrhwcprbhykxb
lhasflvhcanvfheivfphgqdpaijzmakilhukuinpcueipxke
oirfsoyitnaysixdqscizlycmibtgmwidbowgifjwgqihreq
bjkanbljmivlvjoqdvfjqylfpjsgtpzjuobztjyertdjamzd
njcuhnxjecpxhjgkxhrjisfrcklbocmknjwmwkprewgkrzmg
qkthuqakvpcaukzfsuekbnaeokdvioykfdqyikhlyiskjtgs
dlmcpdnlokxnxlqsfxhlsanhrluivrblwqdbvlagtvflcobf
plewjpzlgerzjlimzjtlkuhtemndqeomplyoymrtgyimtboi
smvjwscmxrecwmbhuwgmdpcgqmfxkqamhfsakmjnakumlviu
fnoerfpnqmzpznsuhzjnucpjtnwkxtdnysfdxncivxhneqdh
rngylrbnigtblnkoblvnmwjvgopfsgqornaqaotviakovdqk
uoxlyueoztgeyodjwyiofreisohzmscojhucmolpcmwonxkw
hpqgthrpsobrbpuwjblpwerlvpymzvfpauhfzpekxzjpgsfj
tpiantdpkivdnpmqdnxpoylxiqrhuisqtpcscqvxkcmqxfsm
wqznawgqbvigaqflyakqhtgkuqjboueqljweoqnreoyqpzmy
jrsivjtruqdtdrwyldnrygtnxraobxhrcwjhbrgmzblriuhl
vrkcpvfrmkxfprosfpzrqanzkstjwkusvreuesxzmeoszhuo
ysbpcyisdxkicshnacmsjvimwsldqwgsnlygqsptgqasrboa
ltukxlvtwsfvftyanfptaivpztcqdzjteyljdtiobdntkwjn
xtmerxhtomzhrtquhrbtscpbmuvlymwuxtgwguzbogqubjwq
audreakufzmkeujpceoulxkoyunfsyiupnaisurviscutdqc
nvwmznxvyuhxhvacphrvckxrbvesfblvganlfvkqdfpvmylp
zvogtzjvqobjtvswjtdvuerdowxnaoywzviyiwbdqiswdlys
cwftgcmwhbomgwlregqwnzmqawphuakwrpckuwtxkuewvfse
pxyobpzxawjzjxcerjtxemztdxguhdnxicpnhxmsfhrxoanr
bxqivblxsqdlvxuylvfxwgtfqyzpcqaybxkakydfskuyfnau
eyhvieoyjdqoiyntgisypboscyrjwcmytremwyvzmwgyxhug
rzaqdrbzcylblzegtlvzgobvfziwjfpzkerpjzouhjtzqcpt
dzskxdnzusfnxzwanxhzyivhsabrescadzmcmafhumwahpcw
gajxkgqalfsqkapvikuardqueatlyeoavtgoyaxboyiazjwi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: sabres
Cipher: fnoerf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: sabres
Cipher: 341121245134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: sabres
method variations:
xfgwkxclmbpchqrguhnvwmzn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
s a b r e s 
3 1 2 2 5 3 
4 1 1 4 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
312253411414
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: sabres
Cipher: cgpdqq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: sabres
method variations:
dffylo ffylod fylodf
ylodff lodffy odffyl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: sabres

all 720 cipher variations:
sabres sabrse sabers sabesr sabser sabsre sarbes sarbse sarebs saresb sarseb
sarsbe saerbs saersb saebrs saebsr saesbr saesrb sasreb sasrbe saserb sasebr
sasber sasbre sbares sbarse sbaers sbaesr sbaser sbasre sbraes sbrase sbreas
sbresa sbrsea sbrsae sberas sbersa sbears sbeasr sbesar sbesra sbsrea sbsrae
sbsera sbsear sbsaer sbsare srbaes srbase srbeas srbesa srbsea srbsae srabes
srabse sraebs sraesb sraseb srasbe sreabs sreasb srebas srebsa sresba sresab
srsaeb srsabe srseab srseba srsbea srsbae sebras sebrsa sebars sebasr sebsar
sebsra serbas serbsa serabs serasb sersab sersba searbs searsb seabrs seabsr
seasbr seasrb sesrab sesrba sesarb sesabr sesbar sesbra ssbrea ssbrae ssbera
ssbear ssbaer ssbare ssrbea ssrbae ssreba ssreab ssraeb ssrabe sserba sserab
ssebra ssebar sseabr ssearb ssareb ssarbe ssaerb ssaebr ssaber ssabre asbres
asbrse asbers asbesr asbser asbsre asrbes asrbse asrebs asresb asrseb asrsbe
aserbs asersb asebrs asebsr asesbr asesrb assreb assrbe asserb assebr assber
assbre absres absrse absers absesr absser abssre abrses abrsse abress abress
abrses abrsse aberss aberss abesrs abessr abessr abesrs absres absrse absers
absesr absser abssre arbses arbsse arbess arbess arbses arbsse arsbes arsbse
arsebs arsesb arsseb arssbe aresbs aressb arebss arebss aresbs aressb arsseb
arssbe arsesb arsebs arsbes arsbse aebrss aebrss aebsrs aebssr aebssr aebsrs
aerbss aerbss aersbs aerssb aerssb aersbs aesrbs aesrsb aesbrs aesbsr aessbr
aessrb aesrsb aesrbs aessrb aessbr aesbsr aesbrs asbres asbrse asbers asbesr
asbser asbsre asrbes asrbse asrebs asresb asrseb asrsbe aserbs asersb asebrs
asebsr asesbr asesrb assreb assrbe asserb assebr assber assbre basres basrse
basers basesr basser bassre barses barsse baress baress barses barsse baerss
baerss baesrs baessr baessr baesrs basres basrse basers basesr basser bassre
bsares bsarse bsaers bsaesr bsaser bsasre bsraes bsrase bsreas bsresa bsrsea
bsrsae bseras bsersa bsears bseasr bsesar bsesra bssrea bssrae bssera bssear
bssaer bssare brsaes brsase brseas brsesa brssea brssae brases brasse braess
braess brases brasse breass breass bresas bressa bressa bresas brsaes brsase
brseas brsesa brssea brssae besras besrsa besars besasr bessar bessra bersas
berssa berass berass bersas berssa bearss bearss beasrs beassr beassr beasrs
besras besrsa besars besasr bessar bessra bssrea bssrae bssera bssear bssaer
bssare bsrsea bsrsae bsresa bsreas bsraes bsrase bsersa bseras bsesra bsesar
bseasr bsears bsares bsarse bsaers bsaesr bsaser bsasre rabses rabsse rabess
rabess rabses rabsse rasbes rasbse rasebs rasesb rasseb rassbe raesbs raessb
raebss raebss raesbs raessb rasseb rassbe rasesb rasebs rasbes rasbse rbases
rbasse rbaess rbaess rbases rbasse rbsaes rbsase rbseas rbsesa rbssea rbssae
rbesas rbessa rbeass rbeass rbesas rbessa rbssea rbssae rbsesa rbseas rbsaes
rbsase rsbaes rsbase rsbeas rsbesa rsbsea rsbsae rsabes rsabse rsaebs rsaesb
rsaseb rsasbe rseabs rseasb rsebas rsebsa rsesba rsesab rssaeb rssabe rsseab
rsseba rssbea rssbae rebsas rebssa rebass rebass rebsas rebssa resbas resbsa
resabs resasb ressab ressba reasbs reassb reabss reabss reasbs reassb ressab
ressba resasb resabs resbas resbsa rsbsea rsbsae rsbesa rsbeas rsbaes rsbase
rssbea rssbae rsseba rsseab rssaeb rssabe rsesba rsesab rsebsa rsebas rseabs
rseasb rsaseb rsasbe rsaesb rsaebs rsabes rsabse eabrss eabrss eabsrs eabssr
eabssr eabsrs earbss earbss earsbs earssb earssb earsbs easrbs easrsb easbrs
easbsr eassbr eassrb easrsb easrbs eassrb eassbr easbsr easbrs ebarss ebarss
ebasrs ebassr ebassr ebasrs ebrass ebrass ebrsas ebrssa ebrssa ebrsas ebsras
ebsrsa ebsars ebsasr ebssar ebssra ebsrsa ebsras ebssra ebssar ebsasr ebsars
erbass erbass erbsas erbssa erbssa erbsas erabss erabss erasbs erassb erassb
erasbs ersabs ersasb ersbas ersbsa erssba erssab ersasb ersabs erssab erssba
ersbsa ersbas esbras esbrsa esbars esbasr esbsar esbsra esrbas esrbsa esrabs
esrasb esrsab esrsba esarbs esarsb esabrs esabsr esasbr esasrb essrab essrba
essarb essabr essbar essbra esbrsa esbras esbsra esbsar esbasr esbars esrbsa
esrbas esrsba esrsab esrasb esrabs essrba essrab essbra essbar essabr essarb
esarsb esarbs esasrb esasbr esabsr esabrs sabres sabrse sabers sabesr sabser
sabsre sarbes sarbse sarebs saresb sarseb sarsbe saerbs saersb saebrs saebsr
saesbr saesrb sasreb sasrbe saserb sasebr sasber sasbre sbares sbarse sbaers
sbaesr sbaser sbasre sbraes sbrase sbreas sbresa sbrsea sbrsae sberas sbersa
sbears sbeasr sbesar sbesra sbsrea sbsrae sbsera sbsear sbsaer sbsare srbaes
srbase srbeas srbesa srbsea srbsae srabes srabse sraebs sraesb sraseb srasbe
sreabs sreasb srebas srebsa sresba sresab srsaeb srsabe srseab srseba srsbea
srsbae sebras sebrsa sebars sebasr sebsar sebsra serbas serbsa serabs serasb
sersab sersba searbs searsb seabrs seabsr seasbr seasrb sesrab sesrba sesarb
sesabr sesbar sesbra ssbrea ssbrae ssbera ssbear ssbaer ssbare ssrbea ssrbae
ssreba ssreab ssraeb ssrabe sserba sserab ssebra ssebar sseabr ssearb ssareb
ssarbe ssaerb ssaebr ssaber ssabre

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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