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tombolos

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wormington

volitaverantque

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melroy

darpino

waldmann

zuettel

valiseful

triacetamide


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: rprint
cipher variations:
sqsjou trtkpv usulqw vtvmrx wuwnsy
xvxotz ywypua zxzqvb ayarwc bzbsxd
cactye dbduzf ecevag fdfwbh gegxci
hfhydj igizek jhjafl kikbgm ljlchn
mkmdio nlnejp omofkq pnpglr qoqhms

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: rprint
Cipher: ikirmg

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: rprint
Cipher: BAAAA ABBBA BAAAA ABAAA ABBAA BAABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: rprint
cipher variations:
sqsjouauazogiyiposqcqfoeygyvoqgkglocwswroaewehom
mamxoyueunokcicdowkmktoitrtkpvbvbaphjzjqptrdrgpf
zhzwprhlhmpdxtxspbfxfipnnbnypzvfvopldjdepxlnlupj
usulqwcwcbqikakrquseshqgaiaxqsiminqeyuytqcgygjqo
ocozqawgwpqmekefqymomvqkvtvmrxdxdcrjlblsrvtftirh
bjbyrtjnjorfzvzurdhzhkrppdparbxhxqrnflfgrznpnwrl
wuwnsyeyedskmcmtswugujsickczsukokpsgawavseiailsq
qeqbscyiyrsogmghsaoqoxsmxvxotzfzfetlndnutxvhvktj
dldatvlplqthbxbwtfjbjmtrrfrctdzjzstphnhitbprpytn
ywypuagagfumoeovuywiwlukemebuwmqmruicycxugkcknus
sgsdueakatuqioijucqsqzuozxzqvbhbhgvnpfpwvzxjxmvl
fnfcvxnrnsvjdzdyvhldlovtthtevfblbuvrjpjkvdrtravp
ayarwcicihwoqgqxwaykynwmgogdwyosotwkeaezwimempwu
uiufwgcmcvwskqklwesusbwqbzbsxdjdjixprhryxbzlzoxn
hphexzptpuxlfbfaxjnfnqxvvjvgxhdndwxtlrlmxftvtcxr
cactyekekjyqsiszycamapyoiqifyaquqvymgcgbykogoryw
wkwhyieoexyumsmnyguwudysdbduzflflkzrtjtazdbnbqzp
jrjgzbrvrwznhdhczlphpszxxlxizjfpfyzvntnozhvxvezt
ecevagmgmlasukubaecocraqkskhacswsxaoieidamqiqtay
ymyjakgqgzawouopaiwywfaufdfwbhnhnmbtvlvcbfdpdsbr
ltlibdtxtybpjfjebnrjrubzznzkblhrhabxpvpqbjxzxgbv
gegxcioioncuwmwdcgeqetcsmumjceuyuzcqkgkfcosksvca
aoalcmisibcyqwqrckyayhcwhfhydjpjpodvxnxedhfrfudt
nvnkdfvzvadrlhlgdptltwdbbpbmdnjtjcdzrxrsdlzbzidx
igizekqkqpewyoyfeigsgveuowolegwawbesmimhequmuxec
cqcneokukdeasystemacajeyjhjaflrlrqfxzpzgfjhthwfv
pxpmfhxbxcftnjnifrvnvyfddrdofplvlefbtztufnbdbkfz
kikbgmsmsrgyaqahgkiuixgwqyqngiycydguokojgswowzge
esepgqmwmfgcuauvgoceclgaljlchntntshzbrbihljvjyhx
rzrohjzdzehvplpkhtxpxahfftfqhrnxnghdvbvwhpdfdmhb
mkmdiououtiacscjimkwkziysaspikaeafiwqmqliuyqybig
gugrisoyohiewcwxiqegenicnlnejpvpvujbdtdkjnlxlajz
tbtqjlbfbgjxrnrmjvzrzcjhhvhsjtpzpijfxdxyjrfhfojd
omofkqwqwvkceuelkomymbkaucurkmcgchkysosnkwasadki
iwitkuqaqjkgyeyzksgigpkepnpglrxrxwldfvfmlpnznclb
vdvslndhdilztptolxbtbeljjxjulvrbrklhzfzalthjhqlf
qoqhmsysyxmegwgnmqoaodmcwewtmoeiejmauqupmycucfmk
kykvmwscslmiagabmuikirmgrprintztzynfhxhonrpbpend
xfxunpfjfknbvrvqnzdvdgnllzlwnxtdtmnjbhbcnvjljsnh

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: rprint
Cipher: ecevag

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: rprint
Cipher: 245324423344

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: rprint
method variations:
wuwosybzbtxdgegycimkmdho

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
r p r i n t 
2 5 2 4 3 4 
4 3 4 2 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
252434434234
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: rprint
Cipher: wrsois

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: rprint
method variations:
yhtmsi htmsiy tmsiyh
msiyht siyhtm iyhtms

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: rprint

all 720 cipher variations:
rprint rpritn rprnit rprnti rprtni rprtin rpirnt rpirtn rpinrt rpintr rpitnr
rpitrn rpnirt rpnitr rpnrit rpnrti rpntri rpntir rptinr rptirn rptnir rptnri
rptrni rptrin rrpint rrpitn rrpnit rrpnti rrptni rrptin rripnt rriptn rrinpt
rrintp rritnp rritpn rrnipt rrnitp rrnpit rrnpti rrntpi rrntip rrtinp rrtipn
rrtnip rrtnpi rrtpni rrtpin rirpnt rirptn rirnpt rirntp rirtnp rirtpn riprnt
riprtn ripnrt ripntr riptnr riptrn rinprt rinptr rinrpt rinrtp rintrp rintpr
ritpnr ritprn ritnpr ritnrp ritrnp ritrpn rnript rnritp rnrpit rnrpti rnrtpi
rnrtip rnirpt rnirtp rniprt rniptr rnitpr rnitrp rnpirt rnpitr rnprit rnprti
rnptri rnptir rntipr rntirp rntpir rntpri rntrpi rntrip rtrinp rtripn rtrnip
rtrnpi rtrpni rtrpin rtirnp rtirpn rtinrp rtinpr rtipnr rtiprn rtnirp rtnipr
rtnrip rtnrpi rtnpri rtnpir rtpinr rtpirn rtpnir rtpnri rtprni rtprin prrint
prritn prrnit prrnti prrtni prrtin prirnt prirtn prinrt printr pritnr pritrn
prnirt prnitr prnrit prnrti prntri prntir prtinr prtirn prtnir prtnri prtrni
prtrin prrint prritn prrnit prrnti prrtni prrtin prirnt prirtn prinrt printr
pritnr pritrn prnirt prnitr prnrit prnrti prntri prntir prtinr prtirn prtnir
prtnri prtrni prtrin pirrnt pirrtn pirnrt pirntr pirtnr pirtrn pirrnt pirrtn
pirnrt pirntr pirtnr pirtrn pinrrt pinrtr pinrrt pinrtr pintrr pintrr pitrnr
pitrrn pitnrr pitnrr pitrnr pitrrn pnrirt pnritr pnrrit pnrrti pnrtri pnrtir
pnirrt pnirtr pnirrt pnirtr pnitrr pnitrr pnrirt pnritr pnrrit pnrrti pnrtri
pnrtir pntirr pntirr pntrir pntrri pntrri pntrir ptrinr ptrirn ptrnir ptrnri
ptrrni ptrrin ptirnr ptirrn ptinrr ptinrr ptirnr ptirrn ptnirr ptnirr ptnrir
ptnrri ptnrri ptnrir ptrinr ptrirn ptrnir ptrnri ptrrni ptrrin rprint rpritn
rprnit rprnti rprtni rprtin rpirnt rpirtn rpinrt rpintr rpitnr rpitrn rpnirt
rpnitr rpnrit rpnrti rpntri rpntir rptinr rptirn rptnir rptnri rptrni rptrin
rrpint rrpitn rrpnit rrpnti rrptni rrptin rripnt rriptn rrinpt rrintp rritnp
rritpn rrnipt rrnitp rrnpit rrnpti rrntpi rrntip rrtinp rrtipn rrtnip rrtnpi
rrtpni rrtpin rirpnt rirptn rirnpt rirntp rirtnp rirtpn riprnt riprtn ripnrt
ripntr riptnr riptrn rinprt rinptr rinrpt rinrtp rintrp rintpr ritpnr ritprn
ritnpr ritnrp ritrnp ritrpn rnript rnritp rnrpit rnrpti rnrtpi rnrtip rnirpt
rnirtp rniprt rniptr rnitpr rnitrp rnpirt rnpitr rnprit rnprti rnptri rnptir
rntipr rntirp rntpir rntpri rntrpi rntrip rtrinp rtripn rtrnip rtrnpi rtrpni
rtrpin rtirnp rtirpn rtinrp rtinpr rtipnr rtiprn rtnirp rtnipr rtnrip rtnrpi
rtnpri rtnpir rtpinr rtpirn rtpnir rtpnri rtprni rtprin iprrnt iprrtn iprnrt
iprntr iprtnr iprtrn iprrnt iprrtn iprnrt iprntr iprtnr iprtrn ipnrrt ipnrtr
ipnrrt ipnrtr ipntrr ipntrr iptrnr iptrrn iptnrr iptnrr iptrnr iptrrn irprnt
irprtn irpnrt irpntr irptnr irptrn irrpnt irrptn irrnpt irrntp irrtnp irrtpn
irnrpt irnrtp irnprt irnptr irntpr irntrp irtrnp irtrpn irtnrp irtnpr irtpnr
irtprn irrpnt irrptn irrnpt irrntp irrtnp irrtpn irprnt irprtn irpnrt irpntr
irptnr irptrn irnprt irnptr irnrpt irnrtp irntrp irntpr irtpnr irtprn irtnpr
irtnrp irtrnp irtrpn inrrpt inrrtp inrprt inrptr inrtpr inrtrp inrrpt inrrtp
inrprt inrptr inrtpr inrtrp inprrt inprtr inprrt inprtr inptrr inptrr intrpr
intrrp intprr intprr intrpr intrrp itrrnp itrrpn itrnrp itrnpr itrpnr itrprn
itrrnp itrrpn itrnrp itrnpr itrpnr itrprn itnrrp itnrpr itnrrp itnrpr itnprr
itnprr itprnr itprrn itpnrr itpnrr itprnr itprrn nprirt npritr nprrit nprrti
nprtri nprtir npirrt npirtr npirrt npirtr npitrr npitrr nprirt npritr nprrit
nprrti nprtri nprtir nptirr nptirr nptrir nptrri nptrri nptrir nrpirt nrpitr
nrprit nrprti nrptri nrptir nriprt nriptr nrirpt nrirtp nritrp nritpr nrript
nrritp nrrpit nrrpti nrrtpi nrrtip nrtirp nrtipr nrtrip nrtrpi nrtpri nrtpir
nirprt nirptr nirrpt nirrtp nirtrp nirtpr niprrt niprtr niprrt niprtr niptrr
niptrr nirprt nirptr nirrpt nirrtp nirtrp nirtpr nitprr nitprr nitrpr nitrrp
nitrrp nitrpr nrript nrritp nrrpit nrrpti nrrtpi nrrtip nrirpt nrirtp nriprt
nriptr nritpr nritrp nrpirt nrpitr nrprit nrprti nrptri nrptir nrtipr nrtirp
nrtpir nrtpri nrtrpi nrtrip ntrirp ntripr ntrrip ntrrpi ntrpri ntrpir ntirrp
ntirpr ntirrp ntirpr ntiprr ntiprr ntrirp ntripr ntrrip ntrrpi ntrpri ntrpir
ntpirr ntpirr ntprir ntprri ntprri ntprir tprinr tprirn tprnir tprnri tprrni
tprrin tpirnr tpirrn tpinrr tpinrr tpirnr tpirrn tpnirr tpnirr tpnrir tpnrri
tpnrri tpnrir tprinr tprirn tprnir tprnri tprrni tprrin trpinr trpirn trpnir
trpnri trprni trprin tripnr triprn trinpr trinrp trirnp trirpn trnipr trnirp
trnpir trnpri trnrpi trnrip trrinp trripn trrnip trrnpi trrpni trrpin tirpnr
tirprn tirnpr tirnrp tirrnp tirrpn tiprnr tiprrn tipnrr tipnrr tiprnr tiprrn
tinprr tinprr tinrpr tinrrp tinrrp tinrpr tirpnr tirprn tirnpr tirnrp tirrnp
tirrpn tnripr tnrirp tnrpir tnrpri tnrrpi tnrrip tnirpr tnirrp tniprr tniprr
tnirpr tnirrp tnpirr tnpirr tnprir tnprri tnprri tnprir tnripr tnrirp tnrpir
tnrpri tnrrpi tnrrip trrinp trripn trrnip trrnpi trrpni trrpin trirnp trirpn
trinrp trinpr tripnr triprn trnirp trnipr trnrip trnrpi trnpri trnpir trpinr
trpirn trpnir trpnri trprni trprin

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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