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noctambule

hedgeless

purgati

blaring

ehrdni

ambros

unlove

nonstarting

rigand

porcello

peregrinatory

dilatative

skull

pyramiding

seree

hlinka

nominauerant

curvesomeness


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: reward
cipher variations:
sfxbse tgyctf uhzdug viaevh wjbfwi
xkcgxj yldhyk zmeizl anfjam bogkbn
cphlco dqimdp erjneq fskofr gtlpgs
humqht ivnriu jwosjv kxptkw lyqulx
mzrvmy naswnz obtxoa pcuypb qdvzqc

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: reward
Cipher: ivdziw

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: reward
Cipher: BAAAA AABAA BABAA AAAAA BAAAA AAABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: reward
cipher variations:
sfxbseanpbakivhbiqqdzbqwylrbycgtjbgiwjtbwuerlbea
mzdbmguhvbumcpnbcskxfbkytgyctfboqcbljwicjrreacrx
zmsczdhukchjxkucxvfsmcfbnaecnhviwcvndqocdtlygclz
uhzdugcprdcmkxjdkssfbdsyantdaeivldikylvdywgtndgc
obfdoiwjxdwoerpdeumzhdmaviaevhdqsednlykelttgcetz
bouebfjwmejlzmwezxhuoehdpcgepjxkyexpfsqefvnaienb
wjbfwiertfeomzlfmuuhdfuacpvfcgkxnfkmanxfayivpfie
qdhfqkylzfyqgtrfgwobjfocxkcgxjfsugfpnamgnvviegvb
dqwgdhlyoglnboygbzjwqgjfreigrlzmagzrhusghxpckgpd
yldhykgtvhgqobnhowwjfhwcerxheimzphmocpzhcakxrhkg
sfjhsmanbhasivthiyqdlhqezmeizlhuwihrpcoipxxkgixd
fsyifjnaqinpdqaidblysilhtgkitnbocibtjwuijzremirf
anfjamivxjisqdpjqyylhjyegtzjgkobrjoqerbjecmztjmi
uhljuocpdjcukxvjkasfnjsgbogkbnjwykjtreqkrzzmikzf
huakhlpcskprfsckfdnauknjvimkvpdqekdvlywklbtgokth
cphlcokxzlkusfrlsaanjlagivblimqdtlqsgtdlgeobvlok
wjnlwqerflewmzxlmcuhpluidqimdplyamlvtgsmtbbokmbh
jwcmjnreumrthuemhfpcwmplxkomxrfsgmfxnaymndviqmvj
erjneqmzbnmwuhtnuccplncikxdnkosfvnsuivfnigqdxnqm
ylpnysgthngyobznoewjrnwkfskofrnaconxviuovddqmodj
lyeolptgwotvjwgojhreyornzmqozthuiohzpcaopfxksoxl
gtlpgsobdpoywjvpweernpekmzfpmquhxpuwkxhpkisfzpso
anrpauivjpiaqdbpqgyltpymhumqhtpceqpzxkwqxffsoqfl
nagqnrviyqvxlyiqljtgaqtpbosqbvjwkqjbrecqrhzmuqzn
ivnriuqdfrqaylxryggtprgmobhroswjzrwymzjrmkuhbruq
cptrcwkxlrkcsfdrsianvraojwosjvregsrbzmyszhhuqshn
pcisptxkasxznaksnlvicsvrdqusdxlymsldtgestjbowsbp
kxptkwsfhtscanztaiivrtioqdjtquylbtyaobltomwjdtws
ervteymzntmeuhftukcpxtcqlyqulxtgiutdboaubjjwsujp
rekurvzmcuzbpcmupnxkeuxtfswufznaounfviguvldqyudr
mzrvmyuhjvuecpbvckkxtvkqsflvswandvacqdnvqoylfvyu
gtxvgaobpvogwjhvwmerzvesnaswnzvikwvfdqcwdllyuwlr
tgmwtxboewbdreowrpzmgwzvhuywhbpcqwphxkiwxnfsawft
obtxoawjlxwgerdxemmzvxmsuhnxuycpfxcesfpxsqanhxaw
ivzxicqdrxqiyljxyogtbxgupcuypbxkmyxhfseyfnnawynt
vioyvzdqgydftgqytrboiybxjwayjdresyrjzmkyzphucyhv
qdvzqcylnzyigtfzgoobxzouwjpzwaerhzeguhrzuscpjzcy
kxbzkesftzskanlzaqivdziwrewardzmoazjhugahppcyapv
xkqaxbfsiafhvisavtdqkadzlycalftguatlbomabrjweajx

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: reward
Cipher: erjneq

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: reward
Cipher: 245125112441

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: reward
method variations:
wkbfwibpglbogumqgtmzrvmy

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
r e w a r d 
2 5 2 1 2 4 
4 1 5 1 4 1 
They are then read out in rows:
252124415141
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: reward
Cipher: wbrded

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: reward
method variations:
yfeftf feftfy eftfyf
ftfyfe tfyfef fyfeft

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: reward

all 720 cipher variations:
reward rewadr rewrad rewrda rewdra rewdar reawrd reawdr rearwd reardw readrw
readwr rerawd reradw rerwad rerwda rerdwa rerdaw redarw redawr redraw redrwa
redwra redwar rweard rweadr rwerad rwerda rwedra rwedar rwaerd rwaedr rwared
rwarde rwadre rwader rwraed rwrade rwread rwreda rwrdea rwrdae rwdare rwdaer
rwdrae rwdrea rwdera rwdear rawerd rawedr rawred rawrde rawdre rawder raewrd
raewdr raerwd raerdw raedrw raedwr rarewd raredw rarwed rarwde rardwe rardew
raderw radewr radrew radrwe radwre radwer rrwaed rrwade rrwead rrweda rrwdea
rrwdae rrawed rrawde rraewd rraedw rradew rradwe rreawd rreadw rrewad rrewda
rredwa rredaw rrdaew rrdawe rrdeaw rrdewa rrdwea rrdwae rdware rdwaer rdwrae
rdwrea rdwera rdwear rdawre rdawer rdarwe rdarew rdaerw rdaewr rdrawe rdraew
rdrwae rdrwea rdrewa rdreaw rdearw rdeawr rderaw rderwa rdewra rdewar erward
erwadr erwrad erwrda erwdra erwdar erawrd erawdr erarwd erardw eradrw eradwr
errawd erradw errwad errwda errdwa errdaw erdarw erdawr erdraw erdrwa erdwra
erdwar ewrard ewradr ewrrad ewrrda ewrdra ewrdar ewarrd ewardr ewarrd ewardr
ewadrr ewadrr ewrard ewradr ewrrad ewrrda ewrdra ewrdar ewdarr ewdarr ewdrar
ewdrra ewdrra ewdrar eawrrd eawrdr eawrrd eawrdr eawdrr eawdrr earwrd earwdr
earrwd earrdw eardrw eardwr earrwd earrdw earwrd earwdr eardwr eardrw eadrrw
eadrwr eadrrw eadrwr eadwrr eadwrr erward erwadr erwrad erwrda erwdra erwdar
erawrd erawdr erarwd erardw eradrw eradwr errawd erradw errwad errwda errdwa
errdaw erdarw erdawr erdraw erdrwa erdwra erdwar edwarr edwarr edwrar edwrra
edwrra edwrar edawrr edawrr edarwr edarrw edarrw edarwr edrawr edrarw edrwar
edrwra edrrwa edrraw edrarw edrawr edrraw edrrwa edrwra edrwar werard weradr
werrad werrda werdra werdar wearrd weardr wearrd weardr weadrr weadrr werard
weradr werrad werrda werdra werdar wedarr wedarr wedrar wedrra wedrra wedrar
wreard wreadr wrerad wrerda wredra wredar wraerd wraedr wrared wrarde wradre
wrader wrraed wrrade wrread wrreda wrrdea wrrdae wrdare wrdaer wrdrae wrdrea
wrdera wrdear warerd waredr warred warrde wardre warder waerrd waerdr waerrd
waerdr waedrr waedrr warerd waredr warred warrde wardre warder waderr waderr
wadrer wadrre wadrre wadrer wrraed wrrade wrread wrreda wrrdea wrrdae wrared
wrarde wraerd wraedr wrader wradre wreard wreadr wrerad wrerda wredra wredar
wrdaer wrdare wrdear wrdera wrdrea wrdrae wdrare wdraer wdrrae wdrrea wdrera
wdrear wdarre wdarer wdarre wdarer wdaerr wdaerr wdrare wdraer wdrrae wdrrea
wdrera wdrear wdearr wdearr wderar wderra wderra wderar aewrrd aewrdr aewrrd
aewrdr aewdrr aewdrr aerwrd aerwdr aerrwd aerrdw aerdrw aerdwr aerrwd aerrdw
aerwrd aerwdr aerdwr aerdrw aedrrw aedrwr aedrrw aedrwr aedwrr aedwrr awerrd
awerdr awerrd awerdr awedrr awedrr awrerd awredr awrred awrrde awrdre awrder
awrred awrrde awrerd awredr awrder awrdre awdrre awdrer awdrre awdrer awderr
awderr arwerd arwedr arwred arwrde arwdre arwder arewrd arewdr arerwd arerdw
aredrw aredwr arrewd arredw arrwed arrwde arrdwe arrdew arderw ardewr ardrew
ardrwe ardwre ardwer arwred arwrde arwerd arwedr arwder arwdre arrwed arrwde
arrewd arredw arrdew arrdwe arerwd arerdw arewrd arewdr aredwr aredrw ardrew
ardrwe arderw ardewr ardwer ardwre adwrre adwrer adwrre adwrer adwerr adwerr
adrwre adrwer adrrwe adrrew adrerw adrewr adrrwe adrrew adrwre adrwer adrewr
adrerw aderrw aderwr aderrw aderwr adewrr adewrr reward rewadr rewrad rewrda
rewdra rewdar reawrd reawdr rearwd reardw readrw readwr rerawd reradw rerwad
rerwda rerdwa rerdaw redarw redawr redraw redrwa redwra redwar rweard rweadr
rwerad rwerda rwedra rwedar rwaerd rwaedr rwared rwarde rwadre rwader rwraed
rwrade rwread rwreda rwrdea rwrdae rwdare rwdaer rwdrae rwdrea rwdera rwdear
rawerd rawedr rawred rawrde rawdre rawder raewrd raewdr raerwd raerdw raedrw
raedwr rarewd raredw rarwed rarwde rardwe rardew raderw radewr radrew radrwe
radwre radwer rrwaed rrwade rrwead rrweda rrwdea rrwdae rrawed rrawde rraewd
rraedw rradew rradwe rreawd rreadw rrewad rrewda rredwa rredaw rrdaew rrdawe
rrdeaw rrdewa rrdwea rrdwae rdware rdwaer rdwrae rdwrea rdwera rdwear rdawre
rdawer rdarwe rdarew rdaerw rdaewr rdrawe rdraew rdrwae rdrwea rdrewa rdreaw
rdearw rdeawr rderaw rderwa rdewra rdewar dewarr dewarr dewrar dewrra dewrra
dewrar deawrr deawrr dearwr dearrw dearrw dearwr derawr derarw derwar derwra
derrwa derraw derarw derawr derraw derrwa derwra derwar dwearr dwearr dwerar
dwerra dwerra dwerar dwaerr dwaerr dwarer dwarre dwarre dwarer dwraer dwrare
dwrear dwrera dwrrea dwrrae dwrare dwraer dwrrae dwrrea dwrera dwrear dawerr
dawerr dawrer dawrre dawrre dawrer daewrr daewrr daerwr daerrw daerrw daerwr
darewr darerw darwer darwre darrwe darrew darerw darewr darrew darrwe darwre
darwer drwaer drware drwear drwera drwrea drwrae drawer drawre draewr draerw
drarew drarwe dreawr drearw drewar drewra drerwa dreraw drraew drrawe drreaw
drrewa drrwea drrwae drware drwaer drwrae drwrea drwera drwear drawre drawer
drarwe drarew draerw draewr drrawe drraew drrwae drrwea drrewa drreaw drearw
dreawr dreraw drerwa drewra drewar

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History of cryptography
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