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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: revelo
cipher variations:
sfwfmp tgxgnq uhyhor vizips wjajqt
xkbkru ylclsv zmdmtw anenux bofovy
cpgpwz dqhqxa eriryb fsjszc gtktad
hulube ivmvcf jwnwdg kxoxeh lypyfi
mzqzgj narahk obsbil pctcjm qdudkn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: revelo
Cipher: ivevol

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: revelo
Cipher: BAAAA AABAA BBBAB AABAA ABABA ABBAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: revelo
cipher variations:
sfwfmpanmnirivcvetqdsdavylilwxgtytszwjejkderurgf
mzkzchuhahyjcpqpulkxgxqntgxgnqbonojsjwdwfuretebw
zmjmxyhuzutaxkfklefsvshgnaladivibizkdqrqvmlyhyro
uhyhorcpopktkxexgvsfufcxanknyzivavubylglmfgtwtih
obmbejwjcjalersrwnmzizspvizipsdqpqlulyfyhwtgvgdy
bolozajwbwvczmhmnghuxujipcncfkxkdkbmfstsxonajatq
wjajqterqrmvmzgzixuhwhezcpmpabkxcxwdaninohivyvkj
qdodglylelcngtutypobkburxkbkrufsrsnwnahajyvixifa
dqnqbclydyxebojopijwzwlkrepehmzmfmdohuvuzqpclcvs
ylclsvgtstoxobibkzwjyjgberorcdmzezyfcpkpqjkxaxml
sfqfinangnepivwvarqdmdwtzmdmtwhutupypcjclaxkzkhc
fspsdenafazgdqlqrklybynmtgrgjobohofqjwxwbsrenexu
anenuxivuvqzqdkdmbylalidgtqtefobgbahermrslmzczon
uhshkpcpipgrkxyxctsfofyvbofovyjwvwrarelenczmbmje
hurufgpchcbifsnstmnadapovitilqdqjqhslyzydutgpgzw
cpgpwzkxwxsbsfmfodancnkfivsvghqdidcjgtotunobebqp
wjujmrerkritmzazevuhqhaxdqhqxalyxytctgngpebodolg
jwtwhirejedkhupuvopcfcrqxkvknsfslsjunabafwviriby
erirybmzyzuduhohqfcpepmhkxuxijsfkfelivqvwpqdgdsr
ylwlotgtmtkvobcbgxwjsjczfsjszcnazavevipirgdqfqni
lyvyjktglgfmjwrwxqrehetszmxmpuhunulwpcdchyxktkda
gtktadobabwfwjqjshergrojmzwzkluhmhgnkxsxyrsfifut
anynqvivovmxqdedizylulebhulubepcbcxgxkrktifshspk
naxalmviniholytyzstgjgvubozorwjwpwnyrefejazmvmfc
ivmvcfqdcdyhylslujgtitqlobybmnwjojipmzuzatuhkhwv
cpapsxkxqxozsfgfkbanwngdjwnwdgredezizmtmvkhujurm
pczcnoxkpkjqnavabuvilixwdqbqtylyrypatghglcboxohe
kxoxehsfefajanunwlivkvsnqdadopylqlkrobwbcvwjmjyx
ercruzmzszqbuhihmdcpypiflypyfitgfgbkbovoxmjwlwto
rebepqzmrmlspcxcdwxknkzyfsdsvanatarcvijinedqzqjg
mzqzgjuhghclcpwpynkxmxupsfcfqransnmtqdydexylolaz
gtetwbobubsdwjkjoferarkhnarahkvihidmdqxqzolynyvq
tgdgrsbotonurezefyzmpmbahufuxcpcvctexklkpgfsbsli
obsbilwjijeneryrapmzozwruhehstcpupovsfafgzanqncb
ivgvydqdwdufylmlqhgtctmjpctcjmxkjkfofszsbqnapaxs
vifitudqvqpwtgbghaborodcjwhwzerexevgzmnmrihudunk
qdudknylklgpgtatcrobqbytwjgjuverwrqxuhchibcpsped
kxixafsfyfwhanonsjivevolrevelozmlmhqhubudspcrczu
xkhkvwfsxsryvidijcdqtqfelyjybgtgzgxibopotkjwfwpm

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: revelo
Cipher: eriryb

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: revelo
Cipher: 245115511343

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: revelo
method variations:
wkakqtbpfpvyguluadmzqzfi

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
r e v e l o 
2 5 1 5 1 4 
4 1 5 1 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
251514415133
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: revelo
Cipher: wvqden

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: revelo
method variations:
yazash azashy zashya
ashyaz shyaza hyazas

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: revelo

all 720 cipher variations:
revelo reveol revleo revloe revole revoel reevlo reevol reelvo reelov reeolv
reeovl relevo releov relveo relvoe relove reloev reoelv reoevl reolev reolve
reovle reovel rveelo rveeol rveleo rveloe rveole rveoel rveelo rveeol rveleo
rveloe rveole rveoel rvleeo rvleoe rvleeo rvleoe rvloee rvloee rvoele rvoeel
rvolee rvolee rvoele rvoeel revelo reveol revleo revloe revole revoel reevlo
reevol reelvo reelov reeolv reeovl relevo releov relveo relvoe relove reloev
reoelv reoevl reolev reolve reovle reovel rlveeo rlveoe rlveeo rlveoe rlvoee
rlvoee rleveo rlevoe rleevo rleeov rleoev rleove rleevo rleeov rleveo rlevoe
rleove rleoev rloeev rloeve rloeev rloeve rlovee rlovee rovele roveel rovlee
rovlee rovele roveel roevle roevel roelve roelev roeelv roeevl roleve roleev
rolvee rolvee roleve roleev roeelv roeevl roelev roelve roevle roevel ervelo
erveol ervleo ervloe ervole ervoel erevlo erevol erelvo erelov ereolv ereovl
erlevo erleov erlveo erlvoe erlove erloev eroelv eroevl erolev erolve erovle
erovel evrelo evreol evrleo evrloe evrole evroel everlo everol evelro evelor
eveolr eveorl evlero evleor evlreo evlroe evlore evloer evoelr evoerl evoler
evolre evorle evorel eevrlo eevrol eevlro eevlor eevolr eevorl eervlo eervol
eerlvo eerlov eerolv eerovl eelrvo eelrov eelvro eelvor eelovr eelorv eeorlv
eeorvl eeolrv eeolvr eeovlr eeovrl elvero elveor elvreo elvroe elvore elvoer
elevro elevor elervo elerov eleorv eleovr elrevo elreov elrveo elrvoe elrove
elroev eloerv eloevr elorev elorve elovre elover eovelr eoverl eovler eovlre
eovrle eovrel eoevlr eoevrl eoelvr eoelrv eoerlv eoervl eolevr eolerv eolver
eolvre eolrve eolrev eorelv eorevl eorlev eorlve eorvle eorvel verelo vereol
verleo verloe verole veroel veerlo veerol veelro veelor veeolr veeorl velero
veleor velreo velroe velore veloer veoelr veoerl veoler veolre veorle veorel
vreelo vreeol vreleo vreloe vreole vreoel vreelo vreeol vreleo vreloe vreole
vreoel vrleeo vrleoe vrleeo vrleoe vrloee vrloee vroele vroeel vrolee vrolee
vroele vroeel verelo vereol verleo verloe verole veroel veerlo veerol veelro
veelor veeolr veeorl velero veleor velreo velroe velore veloer veoelr veoerl
veoler veolre veorle veorel vlreeo vlreoe vlreeo vlreoe vlroee vlroee vlereo
vleroe vleero vleeor vleoer vleore vleero vleeor vlereo vleroe vleore vleoer
vloeer vloere vloeer vloere vloree vloree vorele voreel vorlee vorlee vorele
voreel voerle voerel voelre voeler voeelr voeerl volere voleer volree volree
volere voleer voeelr voeerl voeler voelre voerle voerel eevrlo eevrol eevlro
eevlor eevolr eevorl eervlo eervol eerlvo eerlov eerolv eerovl eelrvo eelrov
eelvro eelvor eelovr eelorv eeorlv eeorvl eeolrv eeolvr eeovlr eeovrl everlo
everol evelro evelor eveolr eveorl evrelo evreol evrleo evrloe evrole evroel
evlreo evlroe evlero evleor evloer evlore evorle evorel evolre evoler evoelr
evoerl ervelo erveol ervleo ervloe ervole ervoel erevlo erevol erelvo erelov
ereolv ereovl erlevo erleov erlveo erlvoe erlove erloev eroelv eroevl erolev
erolve erovle erovel elvreo elvroe elvero elveor elvoer elvore elrveo elrvoe
elrevo elreov elroev elrove elervo elerov elevro elevor eleovr eleorv elorev
elorve eloerv eloevr elover elovre eovrle eovrel eovlre eovler eovelr eoverl
eorvle eorvel eorlve eorlev eorelv eorevl eolrve eolrev eolvre eolver eolevr
eolerv eoerlv eoervl eoelrv eoelvr eoevlr eoevrl levero leveor levreo levroe
levore levoer leevro leevor leervo leerov leeorv leeovr lerevo lereov lerveo
lervoe lerove leroev leoerv leoevr leorev leorve leovre leover lveero lveeor
lvereo lveroe lveore lveoer lveero lveeor lvereo lveroe lveore lveoer lvreeo
lvreoe lvreeo lvreoe lvroee lvroee lvoere lvoeer lvoree lvoree lvoere lvoeer
levero leveor levreo levroe levore levoer leevro leevor leervo leerov leeorv
leeovr lerevo lereov lerveo lervoe lerove leroev leoerv leoevr leorev leorve
leovre leover lrveeo lrveoe lrveeo lrveoe lrvoee lrvoee lreveo lrevoe lreevo
lreeov lreoev lreove lreevo lreeov lreveo lrevoe lreove lreoev lroeev lroeve
lroeev lroeve lrovee lrovee lovere loveer lovree lovree lovere loveer loevre
loever loerve loerev loeerv loeevr loreve loreev lorvee lorvee loreve loreev
loeerv loeevr loerev loerve loevre loever oevelr oeverl oevler oevlre oevrle
oevrel oeevlr oeevrl oeelvr oeelrv oeerlv oeervl oelevr oelerv oelver oelvre
oelrve oelrev oerelv oerevl oerlev oerlve oervle oervel oveelr oveerl oveler
ovelre overle overel oveelr oveerl oveler ovelre overle overel ovleer ovlere
ovleer ovlere ovlree ovlree ovrele ovreel ovrlee ovrlee ovrele ovreel oevelr
oeverl oevler oevlre oevrle oevrel oeevlr oeevrl oeelvr oeelrv oeerlv oeervl
oelevr oelerv oelver oelvre oelrve oelrev oerelv oerevl oerlev oerlve oervle
oervel olveer olvere olveer olvere olvree olvree olever olevre oleevr oleerv
olerev olerve oleevr oleerv olever olevre olerve olerev olreev olreve olreev
olreve olrvee olrvee orvele orveel orvlee orvlee orvele orveel orevle orevel
orelve orelev oreelv oreevl orleve orleev orlvee orlvee orleve orleev oreelv
oreevl orelev orelve orevle orevel

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