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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: redraw
cipher variations:
sfesbx tgftcy uhgudz vihvea wjiwfb
xkjxgc ylkyhd zmlzie anmajf bonbkg
cpoclh dqpdmi erqenj fsrfok gtsgpl
huthqm ivuirn jwvjso kxwktp lyxluq
mzymvr naznws obaoxt pcbpyu qdcqzv

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: redraw
Cipher: ivwizd

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: redraw
Cipher: BAAAA AABAA AAABB BAAAA AAAAA BABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: redraw
cipher variations:
sfesbxankabpivqibhqdwqbzylcybrgtigbjwjuwbteraebl
mzgmbduhmubvcpscbnkxykbftgftcybolbcqjwrjcirexrca
zmdzcshujhckxkvxcufsbfcmnahncevinvcwdqtdcolyzlcg
uhgudzcpmcdrkxskdjsfysdbaneadtivkidlylwydvgtcgdn
obiodfwjowdxeruedpmzamdhvihveadqndeslytlektgztec
bofbeujwljemzmxzewhudheopcjpegxkpxeyfsvfeqnabnei
wjiwfberoeftmzumfluhaufdcpgcfvkxmkfnanyafxiveifp
qdkqfhylqyfzgtwgfrobcofjxkjxgcfspfgunavngmvibvge
dqhdgwlynlgobozbgyjwfjgqrelrgizmrzgahuxhgspcdpgk
ylkyhdgtqghvobwohnwjcwhferiehxmzomhpcpachzkxgkhr
sfmshjansahbivyihtqdeqhlzmlziehurhiwpcxpioxkdxig
fsjfiynapniqdqbdialyhlistgntikbotbicjwzjiurefrim
anmajfivsijxqdyqjpyleyjhgtkgjzobqojrercejbmzimjt
uhoujlcpucjdkxakjvsfgsjnbonbkgjwtjkyrezrkqzmfzki
hulhkapcrpksfsdfkcnajnkuvipvkmdqvdkelyblkwtghtko
cpoclhkxuklzsfaslrangaljivmilbqdsqltgtegldobkolv
wjqwlnerwelfmzcmlxuhiulpdqpdmilyvlmatgbtmsbohbmk
jwnjmcretrmuhufhmepclpmwxkrxmofsxfmgnadnmyvijvmq
erqenjmzwmnbuhcuntcpicnlkxokndsfusnvivginfqdmqnx
ylsynpgtygnhobeonzwjkwnrfsrfoknaxnocvidvoudqjdom
lyploetgvtowjwhjogrenroyzmtzoqhuzhoipcfpoaxklxos
gtsgplobyopdwjewpverkepnmzqmpfuhwupxkxikphsfospz
anuaprivaipjqdgqpbylmypthuthqmpczpqexkfxqwfslfqo
narnqgvixvqylyjlqitgptqabovbqsjwbjqkrehrqczmnzqu
ivuirnqdaqrfylgyrxgtmgrpobsorhwjywrzmzkmrjuhqurb
cpwcrtkxckrlsfisrdanoarvjwvjsorebrsgzmhzsyhunhsq
pctpsixkzxsanalnskvirvscdqxdsulydlsmtgjtsebopbsw
kxwktpsfcsthaniatzivoitrqduqtjylaytbobmotlwjswtd
eryetvmzemtnuhkutfcpqctxlyxluqtgdtuibojbuajwpjus
revrukzmbzucpcnpumxktxuefszfuwnafnuovilvugdqrduy
mzymvruheuvjcpkcvbkxqkvtsfwsvlancavdqdoqvnyluyvf
gtagvxobgovpwjmwvhersevznaznwsvifvwkdqldwclyrlwu
tgxtwmbodbwereprwozmvzwghubhwypchpwqxknxwifstfwa
obaoxtwjgwxlermexdmzsmxvuhyuxncpecxfsfqsxpanwaxh
ivcixzqdiqxryloyxjgtugxbpcbpyuxkhxymfsnfyenatnyw
vizvyodqfdygtgrtyqboxbyijwdjyarejryszmpzykhuvhyc
qdcqzvyliyzngtogzfobuozxwjawzpergezhuhsuzrcpyczj
kxekzbsfksztanqazlivwizdredrawzmjzaohuphagpcvpay
xkbxaqfshfaivitvasdqzdaklyflactgltauborbamjwxjae

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: redraw
Cipher: erqenj

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: redraw
Cipher: 245141241125

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: redraw
method variations:
wkiwfbbpoblggutgqmmzymvr

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
r e d r a w 
2 5 4 2 1 2 
4 1 1 4 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
254212411415
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: redraw
Cipher: wifdqv

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: redraw
method variations:
yqfdfk qfdfky fdfkyq
dfkyqf fkyqfd kyqfdf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: redraw

all 720 cipher variations:
redraw redrwa redarw redawr redwar redwra rerdaw rerdwa reradw rerawd rerwad
rerwda reardw rearwd readrw readwr reawdr reawrd rewrad rewrda reward rewadr
rewdar rewdra rderaw rderwa rdearw rdeawr rdewar rdewra rdreaw rdrewa rdraew
rdrawe rdrwae rdrwea rdarew rdarwe rdaerw rdaewr rdawer rdawre rdwrae rdwrea
rdware rdwaer rdwear rdwera rrdeaw rrdewa rrdaew rrdawe rrdwae rrdwea rredaw
rredwa rreadw rreawd rrewad rrewda rraedw rraewd rradew rradwe rrawde rrawed
rrwead rrweda rrwaed rrwade rrwdae rrwdea radrew radrwe raderw radewr radwer
radwre rardew rardwe raredw rarewd rarwed rarwde raerdw raerwd raedrw raedwr
raewdr raewrd rawred rawrde rawerd rawedr rawder rawdre rwdrae rwdrea rwdare
rwdaer rwdear rwdera rwrdae rwrdea rwrade rwraed rwread rwreda rwarde rwared
rwadre rwader rwaedr rwaerd rwerad rwerda rweard rweadr rwedar rwedra erdraw
erdrwa erdarw erdawr erdwar erdwra errdaw errdwa erradw errawd errwad errwda
erardw erarwd eradrw eradwr erawdr erawrd erwrad erwrda erward erwadr erwdar
erwdra edrraw edrrwa edrarw edrawr edrwar edrwra edrraw edrrwa edrarw edrawr
edrwar edrwra edarrw edarwr edarrw edarwr edawrr edawrr edwrar edwrra edwarr
edwarr edwrar edwrra erdraw erdrwa erdarw erdawr erdwar erdwra errdaw errdwa
erradw errawd errwad errwda erardw erarwd eradrw eradwr erawdr erawrd erwrad
erwrda erward erwadr erwdar erwdra eadrrw eadrwr eadrrw eadrwr eadwrr eadwrr
eardrw eardwr earrdw earrwd earwrd earwdr earrdw earrwd eardrw eardwr earwdr
earwrd eawrrd eawrdr eawrrd eawrdr eawdrr eawdrr ewdrar ewdrra ewdarr ewdarr
ewdrar ewdrra ewrdar ewrdra ewradr ewrard ewrrad ewrrda ewardr ewarrd ewadrr
ewadrr ewardr ewarrd ewrrad ewrrda ewrard ewradr ewrdar ewrdra derraw derrwa
derarw derawr derwar derwra derraw derrwa derarw derawr derwar derwra dearrw
dearwr dearrw dearwr deawrr deawrr dewrar dewrra dewarr dewarr dewrar dewrra
dreraw drerwa drearw dreawr drewar drewra drreaw drrewa drraew drrawe drrwae
drrwea drarew drarwe draerw draewr drawer drawre drwrae drwrea drware drwaer
drwear drwera drreaw drrewa drraew drrawe drrwae drrwea dreraw drerwa drearw
dreawr drewar drewra draerw draewr drarew drarwe drawre drawer drwear drwera
drwaer drware drwrae drwrea darrew darrwe darerw darewr darwer darwre darrew
darrwe darerw darewr darwer darwre daerrw daerwr daerrw daerwr daewrr daewrr
dawrer dawrre dawerr dawerr dawrer dawrre dwrrae dwrrea dwrare dwraer dwrear
dwrera dwrrae dwrrea dwrare dwraer dwrear dwrera dwarre dwarer dwarre dwarer
dwaerr dwaerr dwerar dwerra dwearr dwearr dwerar dwerra redraw redrwa redarw
redawr redwar redwra rerdaw rerdwa reradw rerawd rerwad rerwda reardw rearwd
readrw readwr reawdr reawrd rewrad rewrda reward rewadr rewdar rewdra rderaw
rderwa rdearw rdeawr rdewar rdewra rdreaw rdrewa rdraew rdrawe rdrwae rdrwea
rdarew rdarwe rdaerw rdaewr rdawer rdawre rdwrae rdwrea rdware rdwaer rdwear
rdwera rrdeaw rrdewa rrdaew rrdawe rrdwae rrdwea rredaw rredwa rreadw rreawd
rrewad rrewda rraedw rraewd rradew rradwe rrawde rrawed rrwead rrweda rrwaed
rrwade rrwdae rrwdea radrew radrwe raderw radewr radwer radwre rardew rardwe
raredw rarewd rarwed rarwde raerdw raerwd raedrw raedwr raewdr raewrd rawred
rawrde rawerd rawedr rawder rawdre rwdrae rwdrea rwdare rwdaer rwdear rwdera
rwrdae rwrdea rwrade rwraed rwread rwreda rwarde rwared rwadre rwader rwaedr
rwaerd rwerad rwerda rweard rweadr rwedar rwedra aedrrw aedrwr aedrrw aedrwr
aedwrr aedwrr aerdrw aerdwr aerrdw aerrwd aerwrd aerwdr aerrdw aerrwd aerdrw
aerdwr aerwdr aerwrd aewrrd aewrdr aewrrd aewrdr aewdrr aewdrr aderrw aderwr
aderrw aderwr adewrr adewrr adrerw adrewr adrrew adrrwe adrwre adrwer adrrew
adrrwe adrerw adrewr adrwer adrwre adwrre adwrer adwrre adwrer adwerr adwerr
arderw ardewr ardrew ardrwe ardwre ardwer aredrw aredwr arerdw arerwd arewrd
arewdr arredw arrewd arrdew arrdwe arrwde arrwed arwerd arwedr arwred arwrde
arwdre arwder ardrew ardrwe arderw ardewr ardwer ardwre arrdew arrdwe arredw
arrewd arrwed arrwde arerdw arerwd aredrw aredwr arewdr arewrd arwred arwrde
arwerd arwedr arwder arwdre awdrre awdrer awdrre awdrer awderr awderr awrdre
awrder awrrde awrred awrerd awredr awrrde awrred awrdre awrder awredr awrerd
awerrd awerdr awerrd awerdr awedrr awedrr wedrar wedrra wedarr wedarr wedrar
wedrra werdar werdra weradr werard werrad werrda weardr wearrd weadrr weadrr
weardr wearrd werrad werrda werard weradr werdar werdra wderar wderra wdearr
wdearr wderar wderra wdrear wdrera wdraer wdrare wdrrae wdrrea wdarer wdarre
wdaerr wdaerr wdarer wdarre wdrrae wdrrea wdrare wdraer wdrear wdrera wrdear
wrdera wrdaer wrdare wrdrae wrdrea wredar wredra wreadr wreard wrerad wrerda
wraedr wraerd wrader wradre wrarde wrared wrread wrreda wrraed wrrade wrrdae
wrrdea wadrer wadrre waderr waderr wadrer wadrre warder wardre waredr warerd
warred warrde waerdr waerrd waedrr waedrr waerdr waerrd warred warrde warerd
waredr warder wardre wrdrae wrdrea wrdare wrdaer wrdear wrdera wrrdae wrrdea
wrrade wrraed wrread wrreda wrarde wrared wradre wrader wraedr wraerd wrerad
wrerda wreard wreadr wredar wredra

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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