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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: quinia
cipher variations:
rvjojb swkpkc txlqld uymrme vznsnf
waotog xbpuph ycqvqi zdrwrj aesxsk
bftytl cguzum dhvavn eiwbwo fjxcxp
gkydyq hlzezr imafas jnbgbt kochcu
lpdidv mqejew nrfkfx osglgy pthmhz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: quinia
Cipher: jfrmrz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: quinia
Cipher: ABBBB BAABB ABAAA ABBAA ABAAA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: quinia
cipher variations:
rvjojbxjzozbdxpopbjlfofbpzvovbvnlolbhprorbndhohb
trxoxbzfnonbftdodblhtotbswkpkcykapaceyqpqckmgpgc
qawpwcwompmciqspscoeipicusypycagopocguepecmiupuc
txlqldzlbqbdfzrqrdlnhqhdrbxqxdxpnqndjrtqtdpfjqjd
vtzqzdbhpqpdhvfqfdnjvqvduymrmeamcrcegasrsemoirie
scyryeyqoroeksurueqgkrkewuaraeciqrqeiwgrgeokwrwe
vznsnfbndsdfhbtstfnpjsjftdzszfzrpspfltvsvfrhlslf
xvbsbfdjrsrfjxhshfplxsxfwaotogcoetegicutugoqktkg
ueatagasqtqgmuwtwgsimtmgywctcgekstsgkyitigqmytyg
xbpuphdpfufhjdvuvhprlulhvfbubhbtrurhnvxuxhtjnunh
zxdudhfltuthlzjujhrnzuzhycqvqieqgvgikewvwiqsmvmi
wgcvcicusvsiowyvyiukovoiayeveigmuvuimakvkisoavai
zdrwrjfrhwhjlfxwxjrtnwnjxhdwdjdvtwtjpxzwzjvlpwpj
bzfwfjhnvwvjnblwljtpbwbjaesxskgsixikmgyxyksuoxok
yiexekewuxukqyaxakwmqxqkcagxgkiowxwkocmxmkuqcxck
bftytlhtjyjlnhzyzltvpyplzjfyflfxvyvlrzbyblxnryrl
dbhyhljpxyxlpdnynlvrdydlcguzumiukzkmoiazamuwqzqm
akgzgmgywzwmsaczcmyoszsmecizimkqyzymqeozomwsezem
dhvavnjvlalnpjbabnvxrarnblhahnhzxaxntbdadnzptatn
fdjajnlrzaznrfpapnxtfafneiwbwokwmbmoqkcbcowysbso
cmibioiaybyoucebeoaqubuogekbkomsabaosgqbqoyugbgo
fjxcxplxncnprldcdpxztctpdnjcjpjbzczpvdfcfpbrvcvp
hflclpntbcbpthrcrpzvhchpgkydyqmyodoqsmedeqyauduq
eokdkqkcadaqwegdgqcswdwqigmdmqoucdcquisdsqawidiq
hlzezrnzpeprtnfefrzbvevrfplelrldbebrxfhehrdtxexr
jhnenrpvdedrvjtetrbxjejrimafasoaqfqsuogfgsacwfws
gqmfmsmecfcsygifiseuyfyskiofosqwefeswkufuscykfks
jnbgbtpbrgrtvphghtbdxgxthrngntnfdgdtzhjgjtfvzgzt
ljpgptrxfgftxlvgvtdzlgltkochcuqcshsuwqihiuceyhyu
isohouogeheuaikhkugwahaumkqhqusyghguymwhwueamhmu
lpdidvrdtitvxrjijvdfzizvjtpipvphfifvbjlilvhxbibv
nlrirvtzhihvznxixvfbninvmqejewseujuwyskjkwegajaw
kuqjqwqigjgwckmjmwiycjcwomsjswuaijiwaoyjywgcojow
nrfkfxtfvkvxztlklxfhbkbxlvrkrxrjhkhxdlnknxjzdkdx
pntktxvbjkjxbpzkzxhdpkpxosglgyugwlwyaumlmygiclcy
mwslsyskiliyemoloykaeleyqouluywcklkycqalayieqlqy
pthmhzvhxmxzbvnmnzhjdmdznxtmtztljmjzfnpmpzlbfmfz
rpvmvzxdlmlzdrbmbzjfrmrzquiniawiynyacwonoaikenea
oyunuaumknkagoqnqamcgngasqwnwayemnmaescncakgsnsa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: quinia
Cipher: dhvavn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: quinia
Cipher: 145442334211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: quinia
method variations:
vzosofaetxtlfkycyqlpdhdv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
q u i n i a 
1 5 4 3 4 1 
4 4 2 3 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
154341442321
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: quinia
Cipher: vodtmb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: quinia
method variations:
ytmsba tmsbay msbayt
sbaytm baytms aytmsb

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: quinia

all 720 cipher variations:
quinia quinai quiina quiian quiain quiani quniia quniai quniia quniai qunaii
qunaii quinia quinai quiina quiian quiain quiani quanii quanii quaini quaiin
quaiin quaini qiunia qiunai qiuina qiuian qiuain qiuani qinuia qinuai qiniua
qiniau qinaiu qinaui qiinua qiinau qiiuna qiiuan qiiaun qiianu qianiu qianui
qiainu qiaiun qiauin qiauni qniuia qniuai qniiua qniiau qniaiu qniaui qnuiia
qnuiai qnuiia qnuiai qnuaii qnuaii qniuia qniuai qniiua qniiau qniaiu qniaui
qnauii qnauii qnaiui qnaiiu qnaiiu qnaiui qiinua qiinau qiiuna qiiuan qiiaun
qiianu qiniua qiniau qinuia qinuai qinaui qinaiu qiunia qiunai qiuina qiuian
qiuain qiuani qianui qianiu qiauni qiauin qiaiun qiainu qainiu qainui qaiinu
qaiiun qaiuin qaiuni qaniiu qaniui qaniiu qaniui qanuii qanuii qainiu qainui
qaiinu qaiiun qaiuin qaiuni qaunii qaunii qauini qauiin qauiin qauini uqinia
uqinai uqiina uqiian uqiain uqiani uqniia uqniai uqniia uqniai uqnaii uqnaii
uqinia uqinai uqiina uqiian uqiain uqiani uqanii uqanii uqaini uqaiin uqaiin
uqaini uiqnia uiqnai uiqina uiqian uiqain uiqani uinqia uinqai uiniqa uiniaq
uinaiq uinaqi uiinqa uiinaq uiiqna uiiqan uiiaqn uiianq uianiq uianqi uiainq
uiaiqn uiaqin uiaqni uniqia uniqai uniiqa uniiaq uniaiq uniaqi unqiia unqiai
unqiia unqiai unqaii unqaii uniqia uniqai uniiqa uniiaq uniaiq uniaqi unaqii
unaqii unaiqi unaiiq unaiiq unaiqi uiinqa uiinaq uiiqna uiiqan uiiaqn uiianq
uiniqa uiniaq uinqia uinqai uinaqi uinaiq uiqnia uiqnai uiqina uiqian uiqain
uiqani uianqi uianiq uiaqni uiaqin uiaiqn uiainq uainiq uainqi uaiinq uaiiqn
uaiqin uaiqni uaniiq uaniqi uaniiq uaniqi uanqii uanqii uainiq uainqi uaiinq
uaiiqn uaiqin uaiqni uaqnii uaqnii uaqini uaqiin uaqiin uaqini iuqnia iuqnai
iuqina iuqian iuqain iuqani iunqia iunqai iuniqa iuniaq iunaiq iunaqi iuinqa
iuinaq iuiqna iuiqan iuiaqn iuianq iuaniq iuanqi iuainq iuaiqn iuaqin iuaqni
iqunia iqunai iquina iquian iquain iquani iqnuia iqnuai iqniua iqniau iqnaiu
iqnaui iqinua iqinau iqiuna iqiuan iqiaun iqianu iqaniu iqanui iqainu iqaiun
iqauin iqauni inquia inquai inqiua inqiau inqaiu inqaui inuqia inuqai inuiqa
inuiaq inuaiq inuaqi iniuqa iniuaq iniqua iniqau iniaqu iniauq inauiq inauqi
inaiuq inaiqu inaqiu inaqui iiqnua iiqnau iiquna iiquan iiqaun iiqanu iinqua
iinqau iinuqa iinuaq iinauq iinaqu iiunqa iiunaq iiuqna iiuqan iiuaqn iiuanq
iianuq iianqu iiaunq iiauqn iiaqun iiaqnu iaqniu iaqnui iaqinu iaqiun iaquin
iaquni ianqiu ianqui ianiqu ianiuq ianuiq ianuqi iainqu iainuq iaiqnu iaiqun
iaiuqn iaiunq iauniq iaunqi iauinq iauiqn iauqin iauqni nuiqia nuiqai nuiiqa
nuiiaq nuiaiq nuiaqi nuqiia nuqiai nuqiia nuqiai nuqaii nuqaii nuiqia nuiqai
nuiiqa nuiiaq nuiaiq nuiaqi nuaqii nuaqii nuaiqi nuaiiq nuaiiq nuaiqi niuqia
niuqai niuiqa niuiaq niuaiq niuaqi niquia niquai niqiua niqiau niqaiu niqaui
niiqua niiqau niiuqa niiuaq niiauq niiaqu niaqiu niaqui niaiqu niaiuq niauiq
niauqi nqiuia nqiuai nqiiua nqiiau nqiaiu nqiaui nquiia nquiai nquiia nquiai
nquaii nquaii nqiuia nqiuai nqiiua nqiiau nqiaiu nqiaui nqauii nqauii nqaiui
nqaiiu nqaiiu nqaiui niiqua niiqau niiuqa niiuaq niiauq niiaqu niqiua niqiau
niquia niquai niqaui niqaiu niuqia niuqai niuiqa niuiaq niuaiq niuaqi niaqui
niaqiu niauqi niauiq niaiuq niaiqu naiqiu naiqui naiiqu naiiuq naiuiq naiuqi
naqiiu naqiui naqiiu naqiui naquii naquii naiqiu naiqui naiiqu naiiuq naiuiq
naiuqi nauqii nauqii nauiqi nauiiq nauiiq nauiqi iuinqa iuinaq iuiqna iuiqan
iuiaqn iuianq iuniqa iuniaq iunqia iunqai iunaqi iunaiq iuqnia iuqnai iuqina
iuqian iuqain iuqani iuanqi iuaniq iuaqni iuaqin iuaiqn iuainq iiunqa iiunaq
iiuqna iiuqan iiuaqn iiuanq iinuqa iinuaq iinqua iinqau iinaqu iinauq iiqnua
iiqnau iiquna iiquan iiqaun iiqanu iianqu iianuq iiaqnu iiaqun iiauqn iiaunq
iniuqa iniuaq iniqua iniqau iniaqu iniauq inuiqa inuiaq inuqia inuqai inuaqi
inuaiq inquia inquai inqiua inqiau inqaiu inqaui inauqi inauiq inaqui inaqiu
inaiqu inaiuq iqinua iqinau iqiuna iqiuan iqiaun iqianu iqniua iqniau iqnuia
iqnuai iqnaui iqnaiu iqunia iqunai iquina iquian iquain iquani iqanui iqaniu
iqauni iqauin iqaiun iqainu iainqu iainuq iaiqnu iaiqun iaiuqn iaiunq ianiqu
ianiuq ianqiu ianqui ianuqi ianuiq iaqniu iaqnui iaqinu iaqiun iaquin iaquni
iaunqi iauniq iauqni iauqin iauiqn iauinq auiniq auinqi auiinq auiiqn auiqin
auiqni auniiq auniqi auniiq auniqi aunqii aunqii auiniq auinqi auiinq auiiqn
auiqin auiqni auqnii auqnii auqini auqiin auqiin auqini aiuniq aiunqi aiuinq
aiuiqn aiuqin aiuqni ainuiq ainuqi ainiuq ainiqu ainqiu ainqui aiinuq aiinqu
aiiunq aiiuqn aiiqun aiiqnu aiqniu aiqnui aiqinu aiqiun aiquin aiquni aniuiq
aniuqi aniiuq aniiqu aniqiu aniqui anuiiq anuiqi anuiiq anuiqi anuqii anuqii
aniuiq aniuqi aniiuq aniiqu aniqiu aniqui anquii anquii anqiui anqiiu anqiiu
anqiui aiinuq aiinqu aiiunq aiiuqn aiiqun aiiqnu ainiuq ainiqu ainuiq ainuqi
ainqui ainqiu aiuniq aiunqi aiuinq aiuiqn aiuqin aiuqni aiqnui aiqniu aiquni
aiquin aiqiun aiqinu aqiniu aqinui aqiinu aqiiun aqiuin aqiuni aqniiu aqniui
aqniiu aqniui aqnuii aqnuii aqiniu aqinui aqiinu aqiiun aqiuin aqiuni aqunii
aqunii aquini aquiin aquiin aquini

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History of cryptography
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