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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: quibis
cipher variations:
rvjcjt swkdku txlelv uymfmw vzngnx
waohoy xbpipz ycqjqa zdrkrb aeslsc
bftmtd cgunue dhvovf eiwpwg fjxqxh
gkyryi hlzszj imatak jnbubl kocvcm
lpdwdn mqexeo nrfyfp osgzgq pthahr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: quibis
Cipher: jfryrh

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: quibis
Cipher: ABBBB BAABB ABAAA AAAAB ABAAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: quibis
cipher variations:
rvjcjtxjzezddxpgpnjlfifxpzvkvhvnlmlrhprqrlndhshv
trxuxfzfnwnpftdydzlhtatjswkdkuykafaeeyqhqokmgjgy
qawlwiwomnmsiqsrsmoeitiwusyvygagoxoqguezeamiubuk
txlelvzlbgbffzrirplnhkhzrbxmxjxpnontjrtstnpfjujx
vtzwzhbhpyprhvfafbnjvcvluymfmwamchcggasjsqmoilia
scynykyqopouksutuoqgkvkywuaxaiciqzqsiwgbgcokwdwm
vzngnxbndidhhbtktrnpjmjbtdzozlzrpqpvltvuvprhlwlz
xvbybjdjrartjxhchdplxexnwaohoycoejeiiculusoqknkc
ueapamasqrqwmuwvwqsimxmaywczckeksbsukyidieqmyfyo
xbpipzdpfkfjjdvmvtprloldvfbqbnbtrsrxnvxwxrtjnynb
zxdadlfltctvlzjejfrnzgzpycqjqaeqglgkkewnwuqsmpme
wgcrcocustsyowyxysukozocayebemgmuduwmakfkgsoahaq
zdrkrbfrhmhllfxoxvrtnqnfxhdsdpdvtutzpxzyztvlpapd
bzfcfnhnvevxnblglhtpbibraeslscgsinimmgypywsuorog
yieteqewuvuaqyazauwmqbqecagdgoiowfwyocmhmiuqcjcs
bftmtdhtjojnnhzqzxtvpsphzjfufrfxvwvbrzbabvxnrcrf
dbhehpjpxgxzpdninjvrdkdtcgunueiukpkooiarayuwqtqi
akgvgsgywxwcsacbcwyosdsgecifiqkqyhyaqeojokwseleu
dhvovfjvlqlppjbsbzvxrurjblhwhthzxyxdtbdcdxzpteth
fdjgjrlrzizbrfpkplxtfmfveiwpwgkwmrmqqkctcawysvsk
cmixiuiayzyeucedeyaqufuigekhksmsajacsgqlqmyugngw
fjxqxhlxnsnrrldudbxztwtldnjyjvjbzazfvdfefzbrvgvj
hfliltntbkbdthrmrnzvhohxgkyryimyotossmevecyauxum
eokzkwkcabagwegfgacswhwkigmjmuouclceuisnsoawipiy
hlzszjnzpupttnfwfdzbvyvnfplalxldbcbhxfhghbdtxixl
jhnknvpvdmdfvjtotpbxjqjzimatakoaqvquuogxgeacwzwo
gqmbmymecdciygihiceuyjymkiolowqwenegwkupuqcykrka
jnbublpbrwrvvphyhfbdxaxphrncnznfdedjzhjijdfvzkzn
ljpmpxrxfofhxlvqvrdzlslbkocvcmqcsxswwqizigceybyq
isodoaogefekaikjkegwalaomkqnqysygpgiymwrwseamtmc
lpdwdnrdtytxxrjajhdfzczrjtpepbphfgflbjlklfhxbmbp
nlrorztzhqhjznxsxtfbnundmqexeoseuzuyyskbkiegadas
kuqfqcqighgmckmlmgiycncqomspsauairikaoytyugcovoe
nrfyfptfvavzztlcljfhbebtlvrgrdrjhihndlnmnhjzdodr
pntqtbvbjsjlbpzuzvhdpwpfosgzgqugwbwaaumdmkgicfcu
mwshseskijioemonoikaepesqourucwcktkmcqavawieqxqg
pthahrvhxcxbbvnenlhjdgdvnxtitftljkjpfnpopjlbfqft
rpvsvdxdlulndrbwbxjfryrhquibiswiydyccwofomikehew
oyujugumklkqgoqpqkmcgrgusqwtweyemvmoescxcykgszsi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: quibis
Cipher: dhvovf

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: quibis
Cipher: 145442214234

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: quibis
method variations:
vzogoxaetmtcfkyryhlpdwdn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
q u i b i s 
1 5 4 2 4 3 
4 4 2 1 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
154243442124
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: quibis
Cipher: viotbr

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: quibis
method variations:
ytgqmd tgqmdy gqmdyt
qmdytg mdytgq dytgqm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: quibis

all 720 cipher variations:
quibis quibsi quiibs quiisb quisib quisbi qubiis qubisi qubiis qubisi qubsii
qubsii quibis quibsi quiibs quiisb quisib quisbi qusbii qusbii qusibi qusiib
qusiib qusibi qiubis qiubsi qiuibs qiuisb qiusib qiusbi qibuis qibusi qibius
qibisu qibsiu qibsui qiibus qiibsu qiiubs qiiusb qiisub qiisbu qisbiu qisbui
qisibu qisiub qisuib qisubi qbiuis qbiusi qbiius qbiisu qbisiu qbisui qbuiis
qbuisi qbuiis qbuisi qbusii qbusii qbiuis qbiusi qbiius qbiisu qbisiu qbisui
qbsuii qbsuii qbsiui qbsiiu qbsiiu qbsiui qiibus qiibsu qiiubs qiiusb qiisub
qiisbu qibius qibisu qibuis qibusi qibsui qibsiu qiubis qiubsi qiuibs qiuisb
qiusib qiusbi qisbui qisbiu qisubi qisuib qisiub qisibu qsibiu qsibui qsiibu
qsiiub qsiuib qsiubi qsbiiu qsbiui qsbiiu qsbiui qsbuii qsbuii qsibiu qsibui
qsiibu qsiiub qsiuib qsiubi qsubii qsubii qsuibi qsuiib qsuiib qsuibi uqibis
uqibsi uqiibs uqiisb uqisib uqisbi uqbiis uqbisi uqbiis uqbisi uqbsii uqbsii
uqibis uqibsi uqiibs uqiisb uqisib uqisbi uqsbii uqsbii uqsibi uqsiib uqsiib
uqsibi uiqbis uiqbsi uiqibs uiqisb uiqsib uiqsbi uibqis uibqsi uibiqs uibisq
uibsiq uibsqi uiibqs uiibsq uiiqbs uiiqsb uiisqb uiisbq uisbiq uisbqi uisibq
uisiqb uisqib uisqbi ubiqis ubiqsi ubiiqs ubiisq ubisiq ubisqi ubqiis ubqisi
ubqiis ubqisi ubqsii ubqsii ubiqis ubiqsi ubiiqs ubiisq ubisiq ubisqi ubsqii
ubsqii ubsiqi ubsiiq ubsiiq ubsiqi uiibqs uiibsq uiiqbs uiiqsb uiisqb uiisbq
uibiqs uibisq uibqis uibqsi uibsqi uibsiq uiqbis uiqbsi uiqibs uiqisb uiqsib
uiqsbi uisbqi uisbiq uisqbi uisqib uisiqb uisibq usibiq usibqi usiibq usiiqb
usiqib usiqbi usbiiq usbiqi usbiiq usbiqi usbqii usbqii usibiq usibqi usiibq
usiiqb usiqib usiqbi usqbii usqbii usqibi usqiib usqiib usqibi iuqbis iuqbsi
iuqibs iuqisb iuqsib iuqsbi iubqis iubqsi iubiqs iubisq iubsiq iubsqi iuibqs
iuibsq iuiqbs iuiqsb iuisqb iuisbq iusbiq iusbqi iusibq iusiqb iusqib iusqbi
iqubis iqubsi iquibs iquisb iqusib iqusbi iqbuis iqbusi iqbius iqbisu iqbsiu
iqbsui iqibus iqibsu iqiubs iqiusb iqisub iqisbu iqsbiu iqsbui iqsibu iqsiub
iqsuib iqsubi ibquis ibqusi ibqius ibqisu ibqsiu ibqsui ibuqis ibuqsi ibuiqs
ibuisq ibusiq ibusqi ibiuqs ibiusq ibiqus ibiqsu ibisqu ibisuq ibsuiq ibsuqi
ibsiuq ibsiqu ibsqiu ibsqui iiqbus iiqbsu iiqubs iiqusb iiqsub iiqsbu iibqus
iibqsu iibuqs iibusq iibsuq iibsqu iiubqs iiubsq iiuqbs iiuqsb iiusqb iiusbq
iisbuq iisbqu iisubq iisuqb iisqub iisqbu isqbiu isqbui isqibu isqiub isquib
isqubi isbqiu isbqui isbiqu isbiuq isbuiq isbuqi isibqu isibuq isiqbu isiqub
isiuqb isiubq isubiq isubqi isuibq isuiqb isuqib isuqbi buiqis buiqsi buiiqs
buiisq buisiq buisqi buqiis buqisi buqiis buqisi buqsii buqsii buiqis buiqsi
buiiqs buiisq buisiq buisqi busqii busqii busiqi busiiq busiiq busiqi biuqis
biuqsi biuiqs biuisq biusiq biusqi biquis biqusi biqius biqisu biqsiu biqsui
biiqus biiqsu biiuqs biiusq biisuq biisqu bisqiu bisqui bisiqu bisiuq bisuiq
bisuqi bqiuis bqiusi bqiius bqiisu bqisiu bqisui bquiis bquisi bquiis bquisi
bqusii bqusii bqiuis bqiusi bqiius bqiisu bqisiu bqisui bqsuii bqsuii bqsiui
bqsiiu bqsiiu bqsiui biiqus biiqsu biiuqs biiusq biisuq biisqu biqius biqisu
biquis biqusi biqsui biqsiu biuqis biuqsi biuiqs biuisq biusiq biusqi bisqui
bisqiu bisuqi bisuiq bisiuq bisiqu bsiqiu bsiqui bsiiqu bsiiuq bsiuiq bsiuqi
bsqiiu bsqiui bsqiiu bsqiui bsquii bsquii bsiqiu bsiqui bsiiqu bsiiuq bsiuiq
bsiuqi bsuqii bsuqii bsuiqi bsuiiq bsuiiq bsuiqi iuibqs iuibsq iuiqbs iuiqsb
iuisqb iuisbq iubiqs iubisq iubqis iubqsi iubsqi iubsiq iuqbis iuqbsi iuqibs
iuqisb iuqsib iuqsbi iusbqi iusbiq iusqbi iusqib iusiqb iusibq iiubqs iiubsq
iiuqbs iiuqsb iiusqb iiusbq iibuqs iibusq iibqus iibqsu iibsqu iibsuq iiqbus
iiqbsu iiqubs iiqusb iiqsub iiqsbu iisbqu iisbuq iisqbu iisqub iisuqb iisubq
ibiuqs ibiusq ibiqus ibiqsu ibisqu ibisuq ibuiqs ibuisq ibuqis ibuqsi ibusqi
ibusiq ibquis ibqusi ibqius ibqisu ibqsiu ibqsui ibsuqi ibsuiq ibsqui ibsqiu
ibsiqu ibsiuq iqibus iqibsu iqiubs iqiusb iqisub iqisbu iqbius iqbisu iqbuis
iqbusi iqbsui iqbsiu iqubis iqubsi iquibs iquisb iqusib iqusbi iqsbui iqsbiu
iqsubi iqsuib iqsiub iqsibu isibqu isibuq isiqbu isiqub isiuqb isiubq isbiqu
isbiuq isbqiu isbqui isbuqi isbuiq isqbiu isqbui isqibu isqiub isquib isqubi
isubqi isubiq isuqbi isuqib isuiqb isuibq suibiq suibqi suiibq suiiqb suiqib
suiqbi subiiq subiqi subiiq subiqi subqii subqii suibiq suibqi suiibq suiiqb
suiqib suiqbi suqbii suqbii suqibi suqiib suqiib suqibi siubiq siubqi siuibq
siuiqb siuqib siuqbi sibuiq sibuqi sibiuq sibiqu sibqiu sibqui siibuq siibqu
siiubq siiuqb siiqub siiqbu siqbiu siqbui siqibu siqiub siquib siqubi sbiuiq
sbiuqi sbiiuq sbiiqu sbiqiu sbiqui sbuiiq sbuiqi sbuiiq sbuiqi sbuqii sbuqii
sbiuiq sbiuqi sbiiuq sbiiqu sbiqiu sbiqui sbquii sbquii sbqiui sbqiiu sbqiiu
sbqiui siibuq siibqu siiubq siiuqb siiqub siiqbu sibiuq sibiqu sibuiq sibuqi
sibqui sibqiu siubiq siubqi siuibq siuiqb siuqib siuqbi siqbui siqbiu siqubi
siquib siqiub siqibu sqibiu sqibui sqiibu sqiiub sqiuib sqiubi sqbiiu sqbiui
sqbiiu sqbiui sqbuii sqbuii sqibiu sqibui sqiibu sqiiub sqiuib sqiubi squbii
squbii squibi squiib squiib squibi

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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