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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: quanto
cipher variations:
rvboup swcpvq txdqwr uyerxs vzfsyt
wagtzu xbhuav ycivbw zdjwcx aekxdy
bflyez cgmzfa dhnagb eiobhc fjpcid
gkqdje hlrekf imsflg jntgmh kouhni
lpvioj mqwjpk nrxkql osylrm ptzmsn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: quanto
Cipher: jfzmgl

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: quanto

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: quanto
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: quanto
Cipher: dhnagb

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: quanto
Cipher: 145411334443

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: quanto
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
q u a n t o 
1 5 1 3 4 4 
4 4 1 3 4 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: quanto
Cipher: vlttlo

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Method #3

Plaintext: quanto
method variations:
ydlstc dlstcy lstcyd
stcydl tcydls cydlst

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: quanto

all 720 cipher variations:
quanto quanot quatno quaton quaotn quaont qunato qunaot quntao quntoa qunota
qunoat qutnao qutnoa qutano qutaon qutoan qutona quonta quonat quotna quotan
quoatn quoant qaunto qaunot qautno qauton qauotn qauont qanuto qanuot qantuo
qantou qanotu qanout qatnuo qatnou qatuno qatuon qatoun qatonu qaontu qaonut
qaotnu qaotun qaoutn qaount qnauto qnauot qnatuo qnatou qnaotu qnaout qnuato
qnuaot qnutao qnutoa qnuota qnuoat qntuao qntuoa qntauo qntaou qntoau qntoua
qnouta qnouat qnotua qnotau qnoatu qnoaut qtanuo qtanou qtauno qtauon qtaoun
qtaonu qtnauo qtnaou qtnuao qtnuoa qtnoua qtnoau qtunao qtunoa qtuano qtuaon
qtuoan qtuona qtonua qtonau qtouna qtouan qtoaun qtoanu qoantu qoanut qoatnu
qoatun qoautn qoaunt qonatu qonaut qontau qontua qonuta qonuat qotnau qotnua
qotanu qotaun qotuan qotuna qounta qounat qoutna qoutan qouatn qouant uqanto
uqanot uqatno uqaton uqaotn uqaont uqnato uqnaot uqntao uqntoa uqnota uqnoat
uqtnao uqtnoa uqtano uqtaon uqtoan uqtona uqonta uqonat uqotna uqotan uqoatn
uqoant uaqnto uaqnot uaqtno uaqton uaqotn uaqont uanqto uanqot uantqo uantoq
uanotq uanoqt uatnqo uatnoq uatqno uatqon uatoqn uatonq uaontq uaonqt uaotnq
uaotqn uaoqtn uaoqnt unaqto unaqot unatqo unatoq unaotq unaoqt unqato unqaot
unqtao unqtoa unqota unqoat untqao untqoa untaqo untaoq untoaq untoqa unoqta
unoqat unotqa unotaq unoatq unoaqt utanqo utanoq utaqno utaqon utaoqn utaonq
utnaqo utnaoq utnqao utnqoa utnoqa utnoaq utqnao utqnoa utqano utqaon utqoan
utqona utonqa utonaq utoqna utoqan utoaqn utoanq uoantq uoanqt uoatnq uoatqn
uoaqtn uoaqnt uonatq uonaqt uontaq uontqa uonqta uonqat uotnaq uotnqa uotanq
uotaqn uotqan uotqna uoqnta uoqnat uoqtna uoqtan uoqatn uoqant auqnto auqnot
auqtno auqton auqotn auqont aunqto aunqot auntqo auntoq aunotq aunoqt autnqo
autnoq autqno autqon autoqn autonq auontq auonqt auotnq auotqn auoqtn auoqnt
aqunto aqunot aqutno aquton aquotn aquont aqnuto aqnuot aqntuo aqntou aqnotu
aqnout aqtnuo aqtnou aqtuno aqtuon aqtoun aqtonu aqontu aqonut aqotnu aqotun
aqoutn aqount anquto anquot anqtuo anqtou anqotu anqout anuqto anuqot anutqo
anutoq anuotq anuoqt antuqo antuoq antquo antqou antoqu antouq anoutq anouqt
anotuq anotqu anoqtu anoqut atqnuo atqnou atquno atquon atqoun atqonu atnquo
atnqou atnuqo atnuoq atnouq atnoqu atunqo atunoq atuqno atuqon atuoqn atuonq
atonuq atonqu atounq atouqn atoqun atoqnu aoqntu aoqnut aoqtnu aoqtun aoqutn
aoqunt aonqtu aonqut aontqu aontuq aonutq aonuqt aotnqu aotnuq aotqnu aotqun
aotuqn aotunq aountq aounqt aoutnq aoutqn aouqtn aouqnt nuaqto nuaqot nuatqo
nuatoq nuaotq nuaoqt nuqato nuqaot nuqtao nuqtoa nuqota nuqoat nutqao nutqoa
nutaqo nutaoq nutoaq nutoqa nuoqta nuoqat nuotqa nuotaq nuoatq nuoaqt nauqto
nauqot nautqo nautoq nauotq nauoqt naquto naquot naqtuo naqtou naqotu naqout
natquo natqou natuqo natuoq natouq natoqu naoqtu naoqut naotqu naotuq naoutq
naouqt nqauto nqauot nqatuo nqatou nqaotu nqaout nquato nquaot nqutao nqutoa
nquota nquoat nqtuao nqtuoa nqtauo nqtaou nqtoau nqtoua nqouta nqouat nqotua
nqotau nqoatu nqoaut ntaquo ntaqou ntauqo ntauoq ntaouq ntaoqu ntqauo ntqaou
ntquao ntquoa ntqoua ntqoau ntuqao ntuqoa ntuaqo ntuaoq ntuoaq ntuoqa ntoqua
ntoqau ntouqa ntouaq ntoauq ntoaqu noaqtu noaqut noatqu noatuq noautq noauqt
noqatu noqaut noqtau noqtua noquta noquat notqau notqua notaqu notauq notuaq
notuqa nouqta nouqat noutqa noutaq nouatq nouaqt tuanqo tuanoq tuaqno tuaqon
tuaoqn tuaonq tunaqo tunaoq tunqao tunqoa tunoqa tunoaq tuqnao tuqnoa tuqano
tuqaon tuqoan tuqona tuonqa tuonaq tuoqna tuoqan tuoaqn tuoanq taunqo taunoq
tauqno tauqon tauoqn tauonq tanuqo tanuoq tanquo tanqou tanoqu tanouq taqnuo
taqnou taquno taquon taqoun taqonu taonqu taonuq taoqnu taoqun taouqn taounq
tnauqo tnauoq tnaquo tnaqou tnaoqu tnaouq tnuaqo tnuaoq tnuqao tnuqoa tnuoqa
tnuoaq tnquao tnquoa tnqauo tnqaou tnqoau tnqoua tnouqa tnouaq tnoqua tnoqau
tnoaqu tnoauq tqanuo tqanou tqauno tqauon tqaoun tqaonu tqnauo tqnaou tqnuao
tqnuoa tqnoua tqnoau tqunao tqunoa tquano tquaon tquoan tquona tqonua tqonau
tqouna tqouan tqoaun tqoanu toanqu toanuq toaqnu toaqun toauqn toaunq tonaqu
tonauq tonqau tonqua tonuqa tonuaq toqnau toqnua toqanu toqaun toquan toquna
tounqa tounaq touqna touqan touaqn touanq ouantq ouanqt ouatnq ouatqn ouaqtn
ouaqnt ounatq ounaqt ountaq ountqa ounqta ounqat outnaq outnqa outanq outaqn
outqan outqna ouqnta ouqnat ouqtna ouqtan ouqatn ouqant oauntq oaunqt oautnq
oautqn oauqtn oauqnt oanutq oanuqt oantuq oantqu oanqtu oanqut oatnuq oatnqu
oatunq oatuqn oatqun oatqnu oaqntu oaqnut oaqtnu oaqtun oaqutn oaqunt onautq
onauqt onatuq onatqu onaqtu onaqut onuatq onuaqt onutaq onutqa onuqta onuqat
ontuaq ontuqa ontauq ontaqu ontqau ontqua onquta onquat onqtua onqtau onqatu
onqaut otanuq otanqu otaunq otauqn otaqun otaqnu otnauq otnaqu otnuaq otnuqa
otnqua otnqau otunaq otunqa otuanq otuaqn otuqan otuqna otqnua otqnau otquna
otquan otqaun otqanu oqantu oqanut oqatnu oqatun oqautn oqaunt oqnatu oqnaut
oqntau oqntua oqnuta oqnuat oqtnau oqtnua oqtanu oqtaun oqtuan oqtuna oqunta
oqunat oqutna oqutan oquatn oquant

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History of cryptography
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