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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: quadam
cipher variations:
rvbebn swcfco txdgdp uyeheq vzfifr
wagjgs xbhkht yciliu zdjmjv aeknkw
bflolx cgmpmy dhnqnz eioroa fjpspb
gkqtqc hlrurd imsvse jntwtf kouxug
lpvyvh mqwzwi nrxaxj osybyk ptzczl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: quadam
Cipher: jfzwzn

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: quadam
Cipher: ABBBB BAABB AAAAA AAABB AAAAA ABABB

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: quadam
cipher variations:
rvbebnxjbkbldxbqbjjlbwbhpzbcbfvnbibdhpbubzndbabx
trbgbvzfbmbtftbsbrlhbybpswcfcoykclcmeycrckkmcxci
qacdcgwocjceiqcvcaoecbcyuschcwagcncuguctcsmiczcq
txdgdpzldmdnfzdsdllndydjrbdedhxpdkdfjrdwdbpfdcdz
vtdidxbhdodvhvdudtnjdadruyeheqameneogaetemmoezek
scefeiyqelegksexecqgedeawuejeyciepewiweveuokebes
vzfifrbnfofphbfufnnpfafltdfgfjzrfmfhltfyfdrhfefb
xvfkfzdjfqfxjxfwfvplfcftwagjgscogpgqicgvgooqgbgm
ueghgkasgngimugzgesigfgcywglgaekgrgykygxgwqmgdgu
xbhkhtdphqhrjdhwhpprhchnvfhihlbthohjnvhahftjhghd
zxhmhbflhshzlzhyhxrnhehvyciliueqiriskeixiqqsidio
wgijimcuipikowibigukihieayinicgmitiamaiziysoifiw
zdjmjvfrjsjtlfjyjrrtjejpxhjkjndvjqjlpxjcjhvljijf
bzjojdhnjujbnbjajztpjgjxaeknkwgsktkumgkzkssukfkq
yiklkoewkrkmqykdkiwmkjkgcakpkeiokvkcockbkauqkhky
bflolxhtlulvnhlalttvlglrzjlmlpfxlslnrzleljxnlklh
dblqlfjplwldpdlclbvrlilzcgmpmyiumvmwoimbmuuwmhms
akmnmqgymtmosamfmkyomlmiecmrmgkqmxmeqemdmcwsmjma
dhnqnzjvnwnxpjncnvvxnintblnonrhznunptbngnlzpnmnj
fdnsnhlrnynfrfnendxtnknbeioroakwoxoyqkodowwyojou
cmoposiaovoqucohomaqonokgeotoimsozogsgofoeyuoloc
fjpspblxpypzrlpepxxzpkpvdnpqptjbpwprvdpipnbrpopl
hfpupjntpaphthpgpfzvpmpdgkqtqcmyqzqasmqfqyyaqlqw
eoqrqukcqxqsweqjqocsqpqmigqvqkouqbqiuiqhqgawqnqe
hlrurdnzrarbtnrgrzzbrmrxfprsrvldryrtxfrkrpdtrqrn
jhrwrlpvrcrjvjrirhbxrorfimsvseoasbscuoshsaacsnsy
gqstswmeszsuygslsqeusrsokisxsmqwsdskwksjsicyspsg
jntwtfpbtctdvptitbbdtotzhrtutxnftatvzhtmtrfvtstp
ljtytnrxtetlxltktjdztqthkouxugqcuduewqujucceupua
isuvuyogubuwaiunusgwutuqmkuzuosyufumymulukeaurui
lpvyvhrdvevfxrvkvddfvqvbjtvwvzphvcvxbjvovthxvuvr
nlvavptzvgvnznvmvlfbvsvjmqwzwisewfwgyswlweegwrwc
kuwxwaqiwdwyckwpwuiywvwsomwbwquawhwoaownwmgcwtwk
nrxaxjtfxgxhztxmxffhxsxdlvxyxbrjxexzdlxqxvjzxwxt
pnxcxrvbxixpbpxoxnhdxuxlosybykugyhyiauynyggiytye
mwyzycskyfyaemyrywkayxyuqoydyswcyjyqcqypyoieyvym
ptzczlvhzizjbvzozhhjzuzfnxzazdtlzgzbfnzszxlbzyzv
rpzeztxdzkzrdrzqzpjfzwznquadamwiajakcwapaiikavag
oyabaeumahacgoataymcazawsqafauyealasesaraqkgaxao

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: quadam
Cipher: dhnqnz

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: quadam
Cipher: 145411411123

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: quadam
method variations:
vzfifraelolwfkqtqblpvyvg

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
q u a d a m 
1 5 1 4 1 2 
4 4 1 1 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
151412441113
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: quadam
Cipher: vqftal

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: quadam
method variations:
ydqafc dqafcy qafcyd
afcydq fcydqa cydqaf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: quadam

all 720 cipher variations:
quadam quadma quaadm quaamd quamad quamda qudaam qudama qudaam qudama qudmaa
qudmaa quadam quadma quaadm quaamd quamad quamda qumdaa qumdaa qumada qumaad
qumaad qumada qaudam qaudma qauadm qauamd qaumad qaumda qaduam qaduma qadaum
qadamu qadmau qadmua qaadum qaadmu qaaudm qaaumd qaamud qaamdu qamdau qamdua
qamadu qamaud qamuad qamuda qdauam qdauma qdaaum qdaamu qdamau qdamua qduaam
qduama qduaam qduama qdumaa qdumaa qdauam qdauma qdaaum qdaamu qdamau qdamua
qdmuaa qdmuaa qdmaua qdmaau qdmaau qdmaua qaadum qaadmu qaaudm qaaumd qaamud
qaamdu qadaum qadamu qaduam qaduma qadmua qadmau qaudam qaudma qauadm qauamd
qaumad qaumda qamdua qamdau qamuda qamuad qamaud qamadu qmadau qmadua qmaadu
qmaaud qmauad qmauda qmdaau qmdaua qmdaau qmdaua qmduaa qmduaa qmadau qmadua
qmaadu qmaaud qmauad qmauda qmudaa qmudaa qmuada qmuaad qmuaad qmuada uqadam
uqadma uqaadm uqaamd uqamad uqamda uqdaam uqdama uqdaam uqdama uqdmaa uqdmaa
uqadam uqadma uqaadm uqaamd uqamad uqamda uqmdaa uqmdaa uqmada uqmaad uqmaad
uqmada uaqdam uaqdma uaqadm uaqamd uaqmad uaqmda uadqam uadqma uadaqm uadamq
uadmaq uadmqa uaadqm uaadmq uaaqdm uaaqmd uaamqd uaamdq uamdaq uamdqa uamadq
uamaqd uamqad uamqda udaqam udaqma udaaqm udaamq udamaq udamqa udqaam udqama
udqaam udqama udqmaa udqmaa udaqam udaqma udaaqm udaamq udamaq udamqa udmqaa
udmqaa udmaqa udmaaq udmaaq udmaqa uaadqm uaadmq uaaqdm uaaqmd uaamqd uaamdq
uadaqm uadamq uadqam uadqma uadmqa uadmaq uaqdam uaqdma uaqadm uaqamd uaqmad
uaqmda uamdqa uamdaq uamqda uamqad uamaqd uamadq umadaq umadqa umaadq umaaqd
umaqad umaqda umdaaq umdaqa umdaaq umdaqa umdqaa umdqaa umadaq umadqa umaadq
umaaqd umaqad umaqda umqdaa umqdaa umqada umqaad umqaad umqada auqdam auqdma
auqadm auqamd auqmad auqmda audqam audqma audaqm audamq audmaq audmqa auadqm
auadmq auaqdm auaqmd auamqd auamdq aumdaq aumdqa aumadq aumaqd aumqad aumqda
aqudam aqudma aquadm aquamd aqumad aqumda aqduam aqduma aqdaum aqdamu aqdmau
aqdmua aqadum aqadmu aqaudm aqaumd aqamud aqamdu aqmdau aqmdua aqmadu aqmaud
aqmuad aqmuda adquam adquma adqaum adqamu adqmau adqmua aduqam aduqma aduaqm
aduamq adumaq adumqa adauqm adaumq adaqum adaqmu adamqu adamuq admuaq admuqa
admauq admaqu admqau admqua aaqdum aaqdmu aaqudm aaqumd aaqmud aaqmdu aadqum
aadqmu aaduqm aadumq aadmuq aadmqu aaudqm aaudmq aauqdm aauqmd aaumqd aaumdq
aamduq aamdqu aamudq aamuqd aamqud aamqdu amqdau amqdua amqadu amqaud amquad
amquda amdqau amdqua amdaqu amdauq amduaq amduqa amadqu amaduq amaqdu amaqud
amauqd amaudq amudaq amudqa amuadq amuaqd amuqad amuqda duaqam duaqma duaaqm
duaamq duamaq duamqa duqaam duqama duqaam duqama duqmaa duqmaa duaqam duaqma
duaaqm duaamq duamaq duamqa dumqaa dumqaa dumaqa dumaaq dumaaq dumaqa dauqam
dauqma dauaqm dauamq daumaq daumqa daquam daquma daqaum daqamu daqmau daqmua
daaqum daaqmu daauqm daaumq daamuq daamqu damqau damqua damaqu damauq damuaq
damuqa dqauam dqauma dqaaum dqaamu dqamau dqamua dquaam dquama dquaam dquama
dqumaa dqumaa dqauam dqauma dqaaum dqaamu dqamau dqamua dqmuaa dqmuaa dqmaua
dqmaau dqmaau dqmaua daaqum daaqmu daauqm daaumq daamuq daamqu daqaum daqamu
daquam daquma daqmua daqmau dauqam dauqma dauaqm dauamq daumaq daumqa damqua
damqau damuqa damuaq damauq damaqu dmaqau dmaqua dmaaqu dmaauq dmauaq dmauqa
dmqaau dmqaua dmqaau dmqaua dmquaa dmquaa dmaqau dmaqua dmaaqu dmaauq dmauaq
dmauqa dmuqaa dmuqaa dmuaqa dmuaaq dmuaaq dmuaqa auadqm auadmq auaqdm auaqmd
auamqd auamdq audaqm audamq audqam audqma audmqa audmaq auqdam auqdma auqadm
auqamd auqmad auqmda aumdqa aumdaq aumqda aumqad aumaqd aumadq aaudqm aaudmq
aauqdm aauqmd aaumqd aaumdq aaduqm aadumq aadqum aadqmu aadmqu aadmuq aaqdum
aaqdmu aaqudm aaqumd aaqmud aaqmdu aamdqu aamduq aamqdu aamqud aamuqd aamudq
adauqm adaumq adaqum adaqmu adamqu adamuq aduaqm aduamq aduqam aduqma adumqa
adumaq adquam adquma adqaum adqamu adqmau adqmua admuqa admuaq admqua admqau
admaqu admauq aqadum aqadmu aqaudm aqaumd aqamud aqamdu aqdaum aqdamu aqduam
aqduma aqdmua aqdmau aqudam aqudma aquadm aquamd aqumad aqumda aqmdua aqmdau
aqmuda aqmuad aqmaud aqmadu amadqu amaduq amaqdu amaqud amauqd amaudq amdaqu
amdauq amdqau amdqua amduqa amduaq amqdau amqdua amqadu amqaud amquad amquda
amudqa amudaq amuqda amuqad amuaqd amuadq muadaq muadqa muaadq muaaqd muaqad
muaqda mudaaq mudaqa mudaaq mudaqa mudqaa mudqaa muadaq muadqa muaadq muaaqd
muaqad muaqda muqdaa muqdaa muqada muqaad muqaad muqada maudaq maudqa mauadq
mauaqd mauqad mauqda maduaq maduqa madauq madaqu madqau madqua maaduq maadqu
maaudq maauqd maaqud maaqdu maqdau maqdua maqadu maqaud maquad maquda mdauaq
mdauqa mdaauq mdaaqu mdaqau mdaqua mduaaq mduaqa mduaaq mduaqa mduqaa mduqaa
mdauaq mdauqa mdaauq mdaaqu mdaqau mdaqua mdquaa mdquaa mdqaua mdqaau mdqaau
mdqaua maaduq maadqu maaudq maauqd maaqud maaqdu madauq madaqu maduaq maduqa
madqua madqau maudaq maudqa mauadq mauaqd mauqad mauqda maqdua maqdau maquda
maquad maqaud maqadu mqadau mqadua mqaadu mqaaud mqauad mqauda mqdaau mqdaua
mqdaau mqdaua mqduaa mqduaa mqadau mqadua mqaadu mqaaud mqauad mqauda mqudaa
mqudaa mquada mquaad mquaad mquada

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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