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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: pungar
cipher variations:
qvohbs rwpict sxqjdu tyrkev uzslfw
vatmgx wbunhy xcvoiz ydwpja zexqkb
afyrlc bgzsmd chatne dibuof ejcvpg
fkdwqh glexri hmfysj ingztk johaul
kpibvm lqjcwn mrkdxo nsleyp otmfzq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: pungar
Cipher: kfmtzi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: pungar

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: pungar
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: pungar
Cipher: chatne

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: pungar
Cipher: 535433221124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: pungar
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p u n g a r 
5 5 3 2 1 2 
3 4 3 2 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: pungar
Cipher: zhfshq

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Method #3

Plaintext: pungar
method variations:
xohbfy ohbfyx hbfyxo
bfyxoh fyxohb yxohbf

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: pungar

all 720 cipher variations:
pungar pungra punagr punarg punrag punrga pugnar pugnra puganr pugarn pugran
pugrna puagnr puagrn puangr puanrg puarng puargn purgan purgna puragn purang
purnag purnga pnugar pnugra pnuagr pnuarg pnurag pnurga pnguar pngura pngaur
pngaru pngrau pngrua pnagur pnagru pnaugr pnaurg pnarug pnargu pnrgau pnrgua
pnragu pnraug pnruag pnruga pgnuar pgnura pgnaur pgnaru pgnrau pgnrua pgunar
pgunra pguanr pguarn pguran pgurna pgaunr pgaurn pganur pganru pgarnu pgarun
pgruan pgruna pgraun pgranu pgrnau pgrnua pangur pangru panugr panurg panrug
panrgu pagnur pagnru pagunr pagurn pagrun pagrnu paugnr paugrn paungr paunrg
paurng paurgn pargun pargnu parugn parung parnug parngu prngau prngua prnagu
prnaug prnuag prnuga prgnau prgnua prganu prgaun prguan prguna pragnu pragun
prangu pranug praung praugn prugan prugna pruagn pruang prunag prunga upngar
upngra upnagr upnarg upnrag upnrga upgnar upgnra upganr upgarn upgran upgrna
upagnr upagrn upangr upanrg uparng upargn uprgan uprgna upragn uprang uprnag
uprnga unpgar unpgra unpagr unparg unprag unprga ungpar ungpra ungapr ungarp
ungrap ungrpa unagpr unagrp unapgr unaprg unarpg unargp unrgap unrgpa unragp
unrapg unrpag unrpga ugnpar ugnpra ugnapr ugnarp ugnrap ugnrpa ugpnar ugpnra
ugpanr ugparn ugpran ugprna ugapnr ugaprn uganpr uganrp ugarnp ugarpn ugrpan
ugrpna ugrapn ugranp ugrnap ugrnpa uangpr uangrp uanpgr uanprg uanrpg uanrgp
uagnpr uagnrp uagpnr uagprn uagrpn uagrnp uapgnr uapgrn uapngr uapnrg uaprng
uaprgn uargpn uargnp uarpgn uarpng uarnpg uarngp urngap urngpa urnagp urnapg
urnpag urnpga urgnap urgnpa urganp urgapn urgpan urgpna uragnp uragpn urangp
uranpg urapng urapgn urpgan urpgna urpagn urpang urpnag urpnga nupgar nupgra
nupagr nuparg nuprag nuprga nugpar nugpra nugapr nugarp nugrap nugrpa nuagpr
nuagrp nuapgr nuaprg nuarpg nuargp nurgap nurgpa nuragp nurapg nurpag nurpga
npugar npugra npuagr npuarg npurag npurga npguar npgura npgaur npgaru npgrau
npgrua npagur npagru npaugr npaurg nparug npargu nprgau nprgua npragu npraug
npruag npruga ngpuar ngpura ngpaur ngparu ngprau ngprua ngupar ngupra nguapr
nguarp ngurap ngurpa ngaupr ngaurp ngapur ngapru ngarpu ngarup ngruap ngrupa
ngraup ngrapu ngrpau ngrpua napgur napgru napugr napurg naprug naprgu nagpur
nagpru nagupr nagurp nagrup nagrpu naugpr naugrp naupgr nauprg naurpg naurgp
nargup nargpu narugp narupg narpug narpgu nrpgau nrpgua nrpagu nrpaug nrpuag
nrpuga nrgpau nrgpua nrgapu nrgaup nrguap nrgupa nragpu nragup nrapgu nrapug
nraupg nraugp nrugap nrugpa nruagp nruapg nrupag nrupga gunpar gunpra gunapr
gunarp gunrap gunrpa gupnar gupnra gupanr guparn gupran guprna guapnr guaprn
guanpr guanrp guarnp guarpn gurpan gurpna gurapn guranp gurnap gurnpa gnupar
gnupra gnuapr gnuarp gnurap gnurpa gnpuar gnpura gnpaur gnparu gnprau gnprua
gnapur gnapru gnaupr gnaurp gnarup gnarpu gnrpau gnrpua gnrapu gnraup gnruap
gnrupa gpnuar gpnura gpnaur gpnaru gpnrau gpnrua gpunar gpunra gpuanr gpuarn
gpuran gpurna gpaunr gpaurn gpanur gpanru gparnu gparun gpruan gpruna gpraun
gpranu gprnau gprnua ganpur ganpru ganupr ganurp ganrup ganrpu gapnur gapnru
gapunr gapurn gaprun gaprnu gaupnr gauprn gaunpr gaunrp gaurnp gaurpn garpun
garpnu garupn garunp garnup garnpu grnpau grnpua grnapu grnaup grnuap grnupa
grpnau grpnua grpanu grpaun grpuan grpuna grapnu grapun granpu granup graunp
graupn grupan grupna gruapn gruanp grunap grunpa aungpr aungrp aunpgr aunprg
aunrpg aunrgp augnpr augnrp augpnr augprn augrpn augrnp aupgnr aupgrn aupngr
aupnrg auprng auprgn aurgpn aurgnp aurpgn aurpng aurnpg aurngp anugpr anugrp
anupgr anuprg anurpg anurgp angupr angurp angpur angpru angrpu angrup anpgur
anpgru anpugr anpurg anprug anprgu anrgpu anrgup anrpgu anrpug anrupg anrugp
agnupr agnurp agnpur agnpru agnrpu agnrup agunpr agunrp agupnr aguprn agurpn
agurnp agpunr agpurn agpnur agpnru agprnu agprun agrupn agrunp agrpun agrpnu
agrnpu agrnup apngur apngru apnugr apnurg apnrug apnrgu apgnur apgnru apgunr
apgurn apgrun apgrnu apugnr apugrn apungr apunrg apurng apurgn aprgun aprgnu
aprugn aprung aprnug aprngu arngpu arngup arnpgu arnpug arnupg arnugp argnpu
argnup argpnu argpun argupn argunp arpgnu arpgun arpngu arpnug arpung arpugn
arugpn arugnp arupgn arupng arunpg arungp rungap rungpa runagp runapg runpag
runpga rugnap rugnpa ruganp rugapn rugpan rugpna ruagnp ruagpn ruangp ruanpg
ruapng ruapgn rupgan rupgna rupagn rupang rupnag rupnga rnugap rnugpa rnuagp
rnuapg rnupag rnupga rnguap rngupa rngaup rngapu rngpau rngpua rnagup rnagpu
rnaugp rnaupg rnapug rnapgu rnpgau rnpgua rnpagu rnpaug rnpuag rnpuga rgnuap
rgnupa rgnaup rgnapu rgnpau rgnpua rgunap rgunpa rguanp rguapn rgupan rgupna
rgaunp rgaupn rganup rganpu rgapnu rgapun rgpuan rgpuna rgpaun rgpanu rgpnau
rgpnua rangup rangpu ranugp ranupg ranpug ranpgu ragnup ragnpu ragunp ragupn
ragpun ragpnu raugnp raugpn raungp raunpg raupng raupgn rapgun rapgnu rapugn
rapung rapnug rapngu rpngau rpngua rpnagu rpnaug rpnuag rpnuga rpgnau rpgnua
rpganu rpgaun rpguan rpguna rpagnu rpagun rpangu rpanug rpaung rpaugn rpugan
rpugna rpuagn rpuang rpunag rpunga

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History of cryptography
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