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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: pumped
cipher variations:
qvnqfe rworgf sxpshg tyqtih uzruji
vasvkj wbtwlk xcuxml ydvynm zewzon
afxapo bgybqp chzcrq diadsr ejbets
fkcfut gldgvu hmehwv infixw jogjyx
kphkzy lqilaz mrjmba nskncb otlodc

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: pumped
Cipher: kfnkvw

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: pumped
Cipher: ABBBA BAABB ABABB ABBBA AABAA AAABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: pumped
cipher variations:
qvnqfeujlunkyxjyvqclhcdwgzfglckndktispzsjuwdxwra
arvazgeftehmitripsmhpmxyrworgfvkmvolzykzwrdmidex
haghmdloelujtqatkvxeyxsbbswbahfgufinjusjqtniqnyz
sxpshgwlnwpmazlaxsenjefyibhinempfmvkurbulwyfzytc
ctxcbighvgjokvtkruojrozatyqtihxmoxqnbambytfokfgz
jcijofnqgnwlvscvmxzgazudduydcjhiwhkplwulsvpkspab
uzrujiynpyrocbnczugplghakdjkpgorhoxmwtdwnyahbave
evzedkijxilqmxvmtwqltqbcvasvkjzoqzspdcodavhqmhib
leklqhpsipynxuexozbicbwffwafeljkyjmrnywnuxrmurcd
wbtwlkapratqedpebwirnijcmflmriqtjqzoyvfypacjdcxg
gxbgfmklzknsozxovysnvsdexcuxmlbqsburfeqfcxjsojkd
ngmnsjrukrapzwgzqbdkedyhhychgnlmalotpaypwztowtef
ydvynmcrtcvsgfrgdyktpkleohnotksvlsbqaxharcelfezi
izdihomnbmpuqbzqxaupxufgzewzondsudwthgshezluqlmf
piopultwmtcrbyibsdfmgfajjaejipnocnqvrcarybvqyvgh
afxapoetvexuihtifamvrmngqjpqvmuxnudsczjctegnhgbk
kbfkjqopdorwsdbszcwrzwhibgybqpfuwfyvjiujgbnwsnoh
rkqrwnvyovetdakdufhoihcllcglkrpqepsxtectadxsaxij
chzcrqgvxgzwkjvkhcoxtopislrsxowzpwfueblevgipjidm
mdhmlsqrfqtyufdubeytbyjkdiadsrhwyhaxlkwlidpyupqj
tmstypxaqxgvfcmfwhjqkjenneinmtrsgruzvgevcfzuczkl
ejbetsixzibymlxmjeqzvqrkuntuzqybryhwgdngxikrlkfo
ofjonusthsvawhfwdgavdalmfkcfutjyajcznmynkfrawrsl
vouvarzcszixheohyjlsmlgppgkpovtuitwbxigxehbwebmn
gldgvukzbkdaonzolgsbxstmwpvwbsadtajyifpizkmtnmhq
qhlqpwuvjuxcyjhyficxfcnohmehwvlaclebpoapmhtcytun
xqwxctbeubkzjgqjalnuonirrimrqxvwkvydzkizgjdygdop
infixwmbdmfcqpbqniudzuvoyrxyducfvclakhrkbmovpojs
sjnsrywxlwzealjahkezhepqjogjyxncengdrqcrojveavwp
zsyzevdgwdmblislcnpwqpkttkotszxymxafbmkbilfaifqr
kphkzyodfohesrdspkwfbwxqatzafwehxencmjtmdoqxrqlu
ulputayznybgcnlcjmgbjgrslqilazpegpiftsetqlxgcxyr
buabgxfiyfodnkuneprysrmvvmqvubzaozchdomdknhckhst
mrjmbaqfhqjgutfurmyhdyzscvbchygjzgpeolvofqsztsnw
wnrwvcabpadiepneloidlitunskncbrgirkhvugvsnziezat
dwcdizhkahqfpmwpgrtautoxxosxwdbcqbejfqofmpjemjuv
otlodcshjsliwvhwtoajfabuexdejailbirgqnxqhsubvupy
yptyxecdrcfkgrpgnqkfnkvwpumpedtiktmjxwixupbkgbcv
fyefkbjmcjshroyritvcwvqzzquzyfdesdglhsqhorlgolwx

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: pumped
Cipher: chzcrq

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: pumped
Cipher: 535423535141

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: pumped
method variations:
uzrukizewzpoekbeutkpgkzy

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p u m p e d 
5 5 2 5 5 4 
3 4 3 3 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
552554343311
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: pumped
Cipher: zwusna

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: pumped
method variations:
xixxqv ixxqvx xxqvxi
xqvxix qvxixx vxixxq

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: pumped

all 720 cipher variations:
pumped pumpde pumepd pumedp pumdep pumdpe pupmed pupmde pupemd pupedm pupdem
pupdme puepmd puepdm puempd puemdp puedmp puedpm pudpem pudpme pudepm pudemp
pudmep pudmpe pmuped pmupde pmuepd pmuedp pmudep pmudpe pmpued pmpude pmpeud
pmpedu pmpdeu pmpdue pmepud pmepdu pmeupd pmeudp pmedup pmedpu pmdpeu pmdpue
pmdepu pmdeup pmduep pmdupe ppmued ppmude ppmeud ppmedu ppmdeu ppmdue ppumed
ppumde ppuemd ppuedm ppudem ppudme ppeumd ppeudm ppemud ppemdu ppedmu ppedum
ppduem ppdume ppdeum ppdemu ppdmeu ppdmue pempud pempdu pemupd pemudp pemdup
pemdpu pepmud pepmdu pepumd pepudm pepdum pepdmu peupmd peupdm peumpd peumdp
peudmp peudpm pedpum pedpmu pedupm pedump pedmup pedmpu pdmpeu pdmpue pdmepu
pdmeup pdmuep pdmupe pdpmeu pdpmue pdpemu pdpeum pdpuem pdpume pdepmu pdepum
pdempu pdemup pdeump pdeupm pdupem pdupme pduepm pduemp pdumep pdumpe upmped
upmpde upmepd upmedp upmdep upmdpe uppmed uppmde uppemd uppedm uppdem uppdme
upepmd upepdm upempd upemdp upedmp upedpm updpem updpme updepm updemp updmep
updmpe umpped umppde umpepd umpedp umpdep umpdpe umpped umppde umpepd umpedp
umpdep umpdpe umeppd umepdp umeppd umepdp umedpp umedpp umdpep umdppe umdepp
umdepp umdpep umdppe upmped upmpde upmepd upmedp upmdep upmdpe uppmed uppmde
uppemd uppedm uppdem uppdme upepmd upepdm upempd upemdp upedmp upedpm updpem
updpme updepm updemp updmep updmpe uemppd uempdp uemppd uempdp uemdpp uemdpp
uepmpd uepmdp ueppmd ueppdm uepdpm uepdmp ueppmd ueppdm uepmpd uepmdp uepdmp
uepdpm uedppm uedpmp uedppm uedpmp uedmpp uedmpp udmpep udmppe udmepp udmepp
udmpep udmppe udpmep udpmpe udpemp udpepm udppem udppme udepmp udeppm udempp
udempp udepmp udeppm udppem udppme udpepm udpemp udpmep udpmpe mupped muppde
mupepd mupedp mupdep mupdpe mupped muppde mupepd mupedp mupdep mupdpe mueppd
muepdp mueppd muepdp muedpp muedpp mudpep mudppe mudepp mudepp mudpep mudppe
mpuped mpupde mpuepd mpuedp mpudep mpudpe mppued mppude mppeud mppedu mppdeu
mppdue mpepud mpepdu mpeupd mpeudp mpedup mpedpu mpdpeu mpdpue mpdepu mpdeup
mpduep mpdupe mppued mppude mppeud mppedu mppdeu mppdue mpuped mpupde mpuepd
mpuedp mpudep mpudpe mpeupd mpeudp mpepud mpepdu mpedpu mpedup mpduep mpdupe
mpdeup mpdepu mpdpeu mpdpue meppud meppdu mepupd mepudp mepdup mepdpu meppud
meppdu mepupd mepudp mepdup mepdpu meuppd meupdp meuppd meupdp meudpp meudpp
medpup medppu medupp medupp medpup medppu mdppeu mdppue mdpepu mdpeup mdpuep
mdpupe mdppeu mdppue mdpepu mdpeup mdpuep mdpupe mdeppu mdepup mdeppu mdepup
mdeupp mdeupp mdupep mduppe mduepp mduepp mdupep mduppe pumped pumpde pumepd
pumedp pumdep pumdpe pupmed pupmde pupemd pupedm pupdem pupdme puepmd puepdm
puempd puemdp puedmp puedpm pudpem pudpme pudepm pudemp pudmep pudmpe pmuped
pmupde pmuepd pmuedp pmudep pmudpe pmpued pmpude pmpeud pmpedu pmpdeu pmpdue
pmepud pmepdu pmeupd pmeudp pmedup pmedpu pmdpeu pmdpue pmdepu pmdeup pmduep
pmdupe ppmued ppmude ppmeud ppmedu ppmdeu ppmdue ppumed ppumde ppuemd ppuedm
ppudem ppudme ppeumd ppeudm ppemud ppemdu ppedmu ppedum ppduem ppdume ppdeum
ppdemu ppdmeu ppdmue pempud pempdu pemupd pemudp pemdup pemdpu pepmud pepmdu
pepumd pepudm pepdum pepdmu peupmd peupdm peumpd peumdp peudmp peudpm pedpum
pedpmu pedupm pedump pedmup pedmpu pdmpeu pdmpue pdmepu pdmeup pdmuep pdmupe
pdpmeu pdpmue pdpemu pdpeum pdpuem pdpume pdepmu pdepum pdempu pdemup pdeump
pdeupm pdupem pdupme pduepm pduemp pdumep pdumpe eumppd eumpdp eumppd eumpdp
eumdpp eumdpp eupmpd eupmdp euppmd euppdm eupdpm eupdmp euppmd euppdm eupmpd
eupmdp eupdmp eupdpm eudppm eudpmp eudppm eudpmp eudmpp eudmpp emuppd emupdp
emuppd emupdp emudpp emudpp empupd empudp emppud emppdu empdpu empdup emppud
emppdu empupd empudp empdup empdpu emdppu emdpup emdppu emdpup emdupp emdupp
epmupd epmudp epmpud epmpdu epmdpu epmdup epumpd epumdp epupmd epupdm epudpm
epudmp eppumd eppudm eppmud eppmdu eppdmu eppdum epdupm epdump epdpum epdpmu
epdmpu epdmup epmpud epmpdu epmupd epmudp epmdup epmdpu eppmud eppmdu eppumd
eppudm eppdum eppdmu epupmd epupdm epumpd epumdp epudmp epudpm epdpum epdpmu
epdupm epdump epdmup epdmpu edmppu edmpup edmppu edmpup edmupp edmupp edpmpu
edpmup edppmu edppum edpupm edpump edppmu edppum edpmpu edpmup edpump edpupm
eduppm edupmp eduppm edupmp edumpp edumpp dumpep dumppe dumepp dumepp dumpep
dumppe dupmep dupmpe dupemp dupepm duppem duppme duepmp dueppm duempp duempp
duepmp dueppm duppem duppme dupepm dupemp dupmep dupmpe dmupep dmuppe dmuepp
dmuepp dmupep dmuppe dmpuep dmpupe dmpeup dmpepu dmppeu dmppue dmepup dmeppu
dmeupp dmeupp dmepup dmeppu dmppeu dmppue dmpepu dmpeup dmpuep dmpupe dpmuep
dpmupe dpmeup dpmepu dpmpeu dpmpue dpumep dpumpe dpuemp dpuepm dpupem dpupme
dpeump dpeupm dpemup dpempu dpepmu dpepum dppuem dppume dppeum dppemu dppmeu
dppmue dempup demppu demupp demupp dempup demppu depmup depmpu depump depupm
deppum deppmu deupmp deuppm deumpp deumpp deupmp deuppm deppum deppmu depupm
depump depmup depmpu dpmpeu dpmpue dpmepu dpmeup dpmuep dpmupe dppmeu dppmue
dppemu dppeum dppuem dppume dpepmu dpepum dpempu dpemup dpeump dpeupm dpupem
dpupme dpuepm dpuemp dpumep dpumpe

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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