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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: prazer
cipher variations:
qsbafs rtcbgt sudchu tvediv uwfejw
vxgfkx wyhgly xzihmz yajina zbkjob
aclkpc bdmlqd cenmre dfonsf egpotg
fhqpuh girqvi hjsrwj iktsxk jlutyl
kmvuzm lnwvan moxwbo npyxcp oqzydq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: prazer
Cipher: kizavi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: prazer
Cipher: ABBBA BAAAA AAAAA BABBB AABAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: prazer
cipher variations:
qsbafsuabynayibwvicqbudqgybslykgbqtgswbmjwwebkre
ambizmeubghuicbepcmkbcxkrtcbgtvbczobzjcxwjdrcver
hzctmzlhcruhtxcnkxxfclsfbncjanfvchivjdcfqdnlcdyl
sudchuwcdapcakdyxkesdwfsiadunamidsviuydolyygdmtg
codkbogwdijwkedgreomdezmtvedivxdebqdblezylftexgt
jbevobnjetwjvzepmzzhenuhdpelcphxejkxlfehsfpnefan
uwfejwyefcrecmfazmgufyhukcfwpcokfuxkwafqnaaifovi
eqfmdqiyfklymgfitgqofgbovxgfkxzfgdsfdngbanhvgziv
ldgxqdplgvylxbgrobbjgpwjfrgnerjzglmznhgjuhrpghcp
wyhglyaghetgeohcboiwhajwmehyreqmhwzmychspcckhqxk
gshofskahmnaoihkvisqhidqxzihmzbhifuhfpidcpjxibkx
nfizsfrnixanzditqddlirylhtipgtlbinobpjilwjtrijer
yajinacijgvigqjedqkyjclyogjatgsojyboaejureemjszm
iujqhumcjopcqkjmxkusjkfszbkjobdjkhwjhrkferlzkdmz
phkbuhtpkzcpbfkvsffnktanjvkrivndkpqdrlknylvtklgt
aclkpceklixkislgfsmalenaqilcviuqladqcglwtggolubo
kwlsjwoelqresmlozmwulmhubdmlqdflmjyljtmhgtnbmfob
rjmdwjvrmberdhmxuhhpmvcplxmtkxpfmrsftnmpanxvmniv
cenmregmnkzmkunihuocngpcsknexkwsncfseinyviiqnwdq
mynulyqgnstguonqboywnojwdfonsfhnolanlvojivpdohqd
tlofylxtodgtfjozwjjroxernzovmzrhotuhvporcpzxopkx
egpotgiopmbomwpkjwqepireumpgzmyupehugkpaxkkspyfs
oapwnasipuviwqpsdqaypqlyfhqpuhjpqncpnxqlkxrfqjsf
vnqhanzvqfivhlqbylltqzgtpbqxobtjqvwjxrqterbzqrmz
girqvikqrodqoyrmlysgrktgworiboawrgjwimrczmmurahu
qcrypcukrwxkysrufscarsnahjsrwjlrsperpzsnmzthsluh
xpsjcpbxshkxjnsdannvsbivrdszqdvlsxylztsvgtdbstob
iktsxkmstqfsqatonauitmviyqtkdqcytilykoteboowtcjw
setarewmtyzmautwhuectupcjlutylnturgtrbupobvjunwj
zrulerdzujmzlpufcppxudkxtfubsfxnuzanbvuxivfduvqd
kmvuzmouvshuscvqpcwkvoxkasvmfseavknamqvgdqqyvely
ugvctgyovabocwvyjwgevwrelnwvanpvwtivtdwrqdxlwpyl
btwngtfbwlobnrwherrzwfmzvhwduhzpwbcpdxwzkxhfwxsf
moxwboqwxujwuexsreymxqzmcuxohugcxmpcosxifssaxgna
wixeviaqxcdqeyxalyigxytgnpyxcprxyvkxvfytsfznyran
dvypivhdynqdptyjgttbyhobxjyfwjbryderfzybmzjhyzuh
oqzydqsyzwlywgzutgaozsboewzqjwiezorequzkhuuczipc
ykzgxkcszefsgazcnakizaviprazertzaxmzxhavuhbpatcp
fxarkxjfapsfrvalivvdajqdzlahyldtafgthbadobljabwj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: prazer
Cipher: cenmre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: prazer
Cipher: 532411555124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: prazer
method variations:
uwfekwzblkpbegqpugkmvuzm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p r a z e r 
5 2 1 5 5 2 
3 4 1 5 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
521552341514
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: prazer
Cipher: kvksvq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: prazer
method variations:
hdvzfy dvzfyh vzfyhd
zfyhdv fyhdvz yhdvzf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: prazer

all 720 cipher variations:
prazer prazre praezr praerz prarez prarze przaer przare przear przera przrea
przrae prezar prezra preazr prearz preraz prerza prrzea prrzae prreza prreaz
prraez prraze parzer parzre parezr parerz parrez parrze pazrer pazrre pazerr
pazerr pazrer pazrre paezrr paezrr paerzr paerrz paerrz paerzr parzer parzre
parezr parerz parrez parrze pzarer pzarre pzaerr pzaerr pzarer pzarre pzraer
pzrare pzrear pzrera pzrrea pzrrae pzerar pzerra pzearr pzearr pzerar pzerra
pzrrea pzrrae pzrera pzrear pzraer pzrare peazrr peazrr pearzr pearrz pearrz
pearzr pezarr pezarr pezrar pezrra pezrra pezrar perzar perzra perazr perarz
perraz perrza perzra perzar perrza perraz perarz perazr prazer prazre praezr
praerz prarez prarze przaer przare przear przera przrea przrae prezar prezra
preazr prearz preraz prerza prrzea prrzae prreza prreaz prraez prraze rpazer
rpazre rpaezr rpaerz rparez rparze rpzaer rpzare rpzear rpzera rpzrea rpzrae
rpezar rpezra rpeazr rpearz rperaz rperza rprzea rprzae rpreza rpreaz rpraez
rpraze rapzer rapzre rapezr raperz raprez raprze razper razpre razepr razerp
razrep razrpe raezpr raezrp raepzr raeprz raerpz raerzp rarzep rarzpe rarezp
rarepz rarpez rarpze rzaper rzapre rzaepr rzaerp rzarep rzarpe rzpaer rzpare
rzpear rzpera rzprea rzprae rzepar rzepra rzeapr rzearp rzerap rzerpa rzrpea
rzrpae rzrepa rzreap rzraep rzrape reazpr reazrp reapzr reaprz rearpz rearzp
rezapr rezarp rezpar rezpra rezrpa rezrap repzar repzra repazr reparz repraz
reprza rerzpa rerzap rerpza rerpaz rerapz rerazp rrazep rrazpe rraezp rraepz
rrapez rrapze rrzaep rrzape rrzeap rrzepa rrzpea rrzpae rrezap rrezpa rreazp
rreapz rrepaz rrepza rrpzea rrpzae rrpeza rrpeaz rrpaez rrpaze arpzer arpzre
arpezr arperz arprez arprze arzper arzpre arzepr arzerp arzrep arzrpe arezpr
arezrp arepzr areprz arerpz arerzp arrzep arrzpe arrezp arrepz arrpez arrpze
aprzer aprzre aprezr aprerz aprrez aprrze apzrer apzrre apzerr apzerr apzrer
apzrre apezrr apezrr aperzr aperrz aperrz aperzr aprzer aprzre aprezr aprerz
aprrez aprrze azprer azprre azperr azperr azprer azprre azrper azrpre azrepr
azrerp azrrep azrrpe azerpr azerrp azeprr azeprr azerpr azerrp azrrep azrrpe
azrerp azrepr azrper azrpre aepzrr aepzrr aeprzr aeprrz aeprrz aeprzr aezprr
aezprr aezrpr aezrrp aezrrp aezrpr aerzpr aerzrp aerpzr aerprz aerrpz aerrzp
aerzrp aerzpr aerrzp aerrpz aerprz aerpzr arpzer arpzre arpezr arperz arprez
arprze arzper arzpre arzepr arzerp arzrep arzrpe arezpr arezrp arepzr areprz
arerpz arerzp arrzep arrzpe arrezp arrepz arrpez arrpze zraper zrapre zraepr
zraerp zrarep zrarpe zrpaer zrpare zrpear zrpera zrprea zrprae zrepar zrepra
zreapr zrearp zrerap zrerpa zrrpea zrrpae zrrepa zrreap zrraep zrrape zarper
zarpre zarepr zarerp zarrep zarrpe zaprer zaprre zaperr zaperr zaprer zaprre
zaeprr zaeprr zaerpr zaerrp zaerrp zaerpr zarper zarpre zarepr zarerp zarrep
zarrpe zparer zparre zpaerr zpaerr zparer zparre zpraer zprare zprear zprera
zprrea zprrae zperar zperra zpearr zpearr zperar zperra zprrea zprrae zprera
zprear zpraer zprare zeaprr zeaprr zearpr zearrp zearrp zearpr zeparr zeparr
zeprar zeprra zeprra zeprar zerpar zerpra zerapr zerarp zerrap zerrpa zerpra
zerpar zerrpa zerrap zerarp zerapr zraper zrapre zraepr zraerp zrarep zrarpe
zrpaer zrpare zrpear zrpera zrprea zrprae zrepar zrepra zreapr zrearp zrerap
zrerpa zrrpea zrrpae zrrepa zrreap zrraep zrrape erazpr erazrp erapzr eraprz
erarpz erarzp erzapr erzarp erzpar erzpra erzrpa erzrap erpzar erpzra erpazr
erparz erpraz erprza errzpa errzap errpza errpaz errapz errazp earzpr earzrp
earpzr earprz earrpz earrzp eazrpr eazrrp eazprr eazprr eazrpr eazrrp eapzrr
eapzrr eaprzr eaprrz eaprrz eaprzr earzpr earzrp earpzr earprz earrpz earrzp
ezarpr ezarrp ezaprr ezaprr ezarpr ezarrp ezrapr ezrarp ezrpar ezrpra ezrrpa
ezrrap ezprar ezprra ezparr ezparr ezprar ezprra ezrrpa ezrrap ezrpra ezrpar
ezrapr ezrarp epazrr epazrr eparzr eparrz eparrz eparzr epzarr epzarr epzrar
epzrra epzrra epzrar eprzar eprzra eprazr eprarz eprraz eprrza eprzra eprzar
eprrza eprraz eprarz eprazr erazpr erazrp erapzr eraprz erarpz erarzp erzapr
erzarp erzpar erzpra erzrpa erzrap erpzar erpzra erpazr erparz erpraz erprza
errzpa errzap errpza errpaz errapz errazp rrazep rrazpe rraezp rraepz rrapez
rrapze rrzaep rrzape rrzeap rrzepa rrzpea rrzpae rrezap rrezpa rreazp rreapz
rrepaz rrepza rrpzea rrpzae rrpeza rrpeaz rrpaez rrpaze rarzep rarzpe rarezp
rarepz rarpez rarpze razrep razrpe razerp razepr razper razpre raezrp raezpr
raerzp raerpz raeprz raepzr rapzer rapzre rapezr raperz raprez raprze rzarep
rzarpe rzaerp rzaepr rzaper rzapre rzraep rzrape rzreap rzrepa rzrpea rzrpae
rzerap rzerpa rzearp rzeapr rzepar rzepra rzprea rzprae rzpera rzpear rzpaer
rzpare reazrp reazpr rearzp rearpz reaprz reapzr rezarp rezapr rezrap rezrpa
rezpra rezpar rerzap rerzpa rerazp rerapz rerpaz rerpza repzra repzar reprza
repraz reparz repazr rpazer rpazre rpaezr rpaerz rparez rparze rpzaer rpzare
rpzear rpzera rpzrea rpzrae rpezar rpezra rpeazr rpearz rperaz rperza rprzea
rprzae rpreza rpreaz rpraez rpraze

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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