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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: poynor
cipher variations:
qpzops rqapqt srbqru tscrsv utdstw
vuetux wvfuvy xwgvwz yxhwxa zyixyb
azjyzc bakzad cblabe dcmbcf edncdg
feodeh gfpefi hgqfgj ihrghk jishil
kjtijm lkujkn mlvklo nmwlmp onxmnq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: poynor
Cipher: klbmli

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: poynor
Cipher: ABBBA ABBAB BABBA ABBAA ABBAB BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: poynor
cipher variations:
qpzopsurvoraytroticvnovqgxjoxykzfozgsdxodwwftofe
ahpohmejlojuilholcmndonkrqapqtvswpsbzuspujdwopwr
hykpyzlagpahteypexxgupgfbiqpinfkmpkvjmipmdnoepol
srbqruwtxqtcavtqvkexpqxsizlqzambhqbiufzqfyyhvqhg
cjrqjoglnqlwknjqneopfqpmtscrsvxuyrudbwurwlfyqryt
jamrabncircjvgargzziwrihdksrkphmormxlokrofpqgrqn
utdstwyvzsvecxvsxmgzrszukbnsbcodjsdkwhbshaajxsji
eltslqinpsnymplspgqrhsrovuetuxzwatwfdywtynhastav
lcotcdpektelxictibbkytkjfmutmrjoqtoznqmtqhrsitsp
wvfuvyaxbuxgezxuzoibtubwmdpudeqflufmyjdujcclzulk
gnvunskprupaornuristjutqxwgvwzbycvyhfayvapjcuvcx
neqvefrgmvgnzkevkddmavmlhowvotlqsvqbpsovsjtukvur
yxhwxaczdwzigbzwbqkdvwdyofrwfgshnwhoalfwleenbwnm
ipxwpumrtwrcqtpwtkuvlwvszyixybdaexajhcaxcrlewxez
pgsxghtioxipbmgxmffocxonjqyxqvnsuxsdruqxulvwmxwt
azjyzcebfybkidbydsmfxyfaqhtyhiujpyjqcnhynggpdypo
krzyrwotvytesvryvmwxnyxubakzadfcgzcljeczetngyzgb
riuzijvkqzkrdoizohhqezqplsazsxpuwzuftwszwnxyozyv
cblabegdhadmkfdafuohzahcsjvajkwlralsepjapiirfarq
mtbatyqvxavguxtaxoyzpazwdcmbcfheibenlgebgvpiabid
tkwbklxmsbmtfqkbqjjsgbsrnucbuzrwybwhvyubypzaqbax
edncdgifjcfomhfchwqjbcjeulxclmyntcnugrlcrkkthcts
ovdcvasxzcxiwzvczqabrcbyfeodehjgkdgpnigdixrkcdkf
vmydmnzoudovhsmdslluidutpwedwbtyadyjxawdarbcsdcz
gfpefikhlehqojhejysldelgwnzenoapvepwitnetmmvjevu
qxfexcuzbezkybxebscdtedahgqfgjlimfirpkifkztmefmh
xoafopbqwfqxjuofunnwkfwvrygfydvacfalzcyfctdeufeb
ihrghkmjngjsqljglaunfgniypbgpqcrxgrykvpgvooxlgxw
szhgzewbdgbmadzgduefvgfcjishilnkohktrmkhmbvoghoj
zqchqrdsyhszlwqhwppymhyxtaihafxcehcnbeahevfgwhgd
kjtijmolpilusnlincwphipkardirsetzitamxrixqqznizy
ubjibgydfidocfbifwghxihelkujknpmqjmvtomjodxqijql
bsejstfuajubnysjyrraojazvckjchzegjepdgcjgxhiyjif
mlvkloqnrknwupnkpeyrjkrmctfktugvbkvcoztkzssbpkba
wdlkdiafhkfqehdkhyijzkjgnmwlmprosloxvqolqfzsklsn
dugluvhwclwdpaulattcqlcbxemlejbgilgrfielizjkalkh
onxmnqsptmpywrpmrgatlmtoevhmvwixdmxeqbvmbuudrmdc
yfnmfkchjmhsgjfmjaklbmlipoynortqunqzxsqnshbumnup
fwinwxjyenyfrcwncvvesnedzgongldiknithkgnkblmcnmj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: poynor
Cipher: cblabe

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: poynor
Cipher: 534345334324

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: poynor
method variations:
utdstwzyixybedocdgkithim

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p o y n o r 
5 4 4 3 4 2 
3 3 5 3 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
544342335334
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: poynor
Cipher: uoinps

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: poynor
method variations:
sspshy spshys pshyss
shyssp hyssps ysspsh

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: poynor

all 720 cipher variations:
poynor poynro poyonr poyorn poyron poyrno ponyor ponyro ponoyr ponory ponroy
ponryo poonyr poonry pooynr pooyrn pooryn poorny pornoy pornyo porony poroyn
poryon poryno pyonor pyonro pyoonr pyoorn pyoron pyorno pynoor pynoro pynoor
pynoro pynroo pynroo pyonor pyonro pyoonr pyoorn pyoron pyorno pyrnoo pyrnoo
pyrono pyroon pyroon pyrono pnyoor pnyoro pnyoor pnyoro pnyroo pnyroo pnoyor
pnoyro pnooyr pnoory pnoroy pnoryo pnooyr pnoory pnoyor pnoyro pnoryo pnoroy
pnrooy pnroyo pnrooy pnroyo pnryoo pnryoo poynor poynro poyonr poyorn poyron
poyrno ponyor ponyro ponoyr ponory ponroy ponryo poonyr poonry pooynr pooyrn
pooryn poorny pornoy pornyo porony poroyn poryon poryno prynoo prynoo pryono
pryoon pryoon pryono prnyoo prnyoo prnoyo prnooy prnooy prnoyo pronyo pronoy
proyno proyon prooyn proony pronoy pronyo proony prooyn proyon proyno opynor
opynro opyonr opyorn opyron opyrno opnyor opnyro opnoyr opnory opnroy opnryo
oponyr oponry opoynr opoyrn oporyn oporny oprnoy oprnyo oprony oproyn opryon
opryno oypnor oypnro oyponr oyporn oypron oyprno oynpor oynpro oynopr oynorp
oynrop oynrpo oyonpr oyonrp oyopnr oyoprn oyorpn oyornp oyrnop oyrnpo oyronp
oyropn oyrpon oyrpno onypor onypro onyopr onyorp onyrop onyrpo onpyor onpyro
onpoyr onpory onproy onpryo onopyr onopry onoypr onoyrp onoryp onorpy onrpoy
onrpyo onropy onroyp onryop onrypo ooynpr ooynrp ooypnr ooyprn ooyrpn ooyrnp
oonypr oonyrp oonpyr oonpry oonrpy oonryp oopnyr oopnry oopynr oopyrn oopryn
ooprny oornpy oornyp oorpny oorpyn oorypn oorynp orynop orynpo oryonp oryopn
orypon orypno ornyop ornypo ornoyp ornopy ornpoy ornpyo oronyp oronpy oroynp
oroypn oropyn oropny orpnoy orpnyo orpony orpoyn orpyon orpyno yopnor yopnro
yoponr yoporn yopron yoprno yonpor yonpro yonopr yonorp yonrop yonrpo yoonpr
yoonrp yoopnr yooprn yoorpn yoornp yornop yornpo yoronp yoropn yorpon yorpno
yponor yponro ypoonr ypoorn yporon yporno ypnoor ypnoro ypnoor ypnoro ypnroo
ypnroo yponor yponro ypoonr ypoorn yporon yporno yprnoo yprnoo yprono yproon
yproon yprono ynpoor ynporo ynpoor ynporo ynproo ynproo ynopor ynopro ynoopr
ynoorp ynorop ynorpo ynoopr ynoorp ynopor ynopro ynorpo ynorop ynroop ynropo
ynroop ynropo ynrpoo ynrpoo yopnor yopnro yoponr yoporn yopron yoprno yonpor
yonpro yonopr yonorp yonrop yonrpo yoonpr yoonrp yoopnr yooprn yoorpn yoornp
yornop yornpo yoronp yoropn yorpon yorpno yrpnoo yrpnoo yrpono yrpoon yrpoon
yrpono yrnpoo yrnpoo yrnopo yrnoop yrnoop yrnopo yronpo yronop yropno yropon
yroopn yroonp yronop yronpo yroonp yroopn yropon yropno noypor noypro noyopr
noyorp noyrop noyrpo nopyor nopyro nopoyr nopory noproy nopryo noopyr noopry
nooypr nooyrp nooryp noorpy norpoy norpyo noropy noroyp noryop norypo nyopor
nyopro nyoopr nyoorp nyorop nyorpo nypoor nyporo nypoor nyporo nyproo nyproo
nyopor nyopro nyoopr nyoorp nyorop nyorpo nyrpoo nyrpoo nyropo nyroop nyroop
nyropo npyoor npyoro npyoor npyoro npyroo npyroo npoyor npoyro npooyr npoory
nporoy nporyo npooyr npoory npoyor npoyro nporyo nporoy nprooy nproyo nprooy
nproyo npryoo npryoo noypor noypro noyopr noyorp noyrop noyrpo nopyor nopyro
nopoyr nopory noproy nopryo noopyr noopry nooypr nooyrp nooryp noorpy norpoy
norpyo noropy noroyp noryop norypo nrypoo nrypoo nryopo nryoop nryoop nryopo
nrpyoo nrpyoo nrpoyo nrpooy nrpooy nrpoyo nropyo nropoy nroypo nroyop nrooyp
nroopy nropoy nropyo nroopy nrooyp nroyop nroypo ooynpr ooynrp ooypnr ooyprn
ooyrpn ooyrnp oonypr oonyrp oonpyr oonpry oonrpy oonryp oopnyr oopnry oopynr
oopyrn oopryn ooprny oornpy oornyp oorpny oorpyn oorypn oorynp oyonpr oyonrp
oyopnr oyoprn oyorpn oyornp oynopr oynorp oynpor oynpro oynrpo oynrop oypnor
oypnro oyponr oyporn oypron oyprno oyrnpo oyrnop oyrpno oyrpon oyropn oyronp
onyopr onyorp onypor onypro onyrpo onyrop onoypr onoyrp onopyr onopry onorpy
onoryp onpoyr onpory onpyor onpyro onpryo onproy onropy onroyp onrpoy onrpyo
onrypo onryop opynor opynro opyonr opyorn opyron opyrno opnyor opnyro opnoyr
opnory opnroy opnryo oponyr oponry opoynr opoyrn oporyn oporny oprnoy oprnyo
oprony oproyn opryon opryno orynpo orynop orypno orypon oryopn oryonp ornypo
ornyop ornpyo ornpoy ornopy ornoyp orpnyo orpnoy orpyno orpyon orpoyn orpony
oronpy oronyp oropny oropyn oroypn oroynp roynop roynpo royonp royopn roypon
roypno ronyop ronypo ronoyp ronopy ronpoy ronpyo roonyp roonpy rooynp rooypn
roopyn roopny ropnoy ropnyo ropony ropoyn ropyon ropyno ryonop ryonpo ryoonp
ryoopn ryopon ryopno rynoop rynopo rynoop rynopo rynpoo rynpoo ryonop ryonpo
ryoonp ryoopn ryopon ryopno rypnoo rypnoo rypono rypoon rypoon rypono rnyoop
rnyopo rnyoop rnyopo rnypoo rnypoo rnoyop rnoypo rnooyp rnoopy rnopoy rnopyo
rnooyp rnoopy rnoyop rnoypo rnopyo rnopoy rnpooy rnpoyo rnpooy rnpoyo rnpyoo
rnpyoo roynop roynpo royonp royopn roypon roypno ronyop ronypo ronoyp ronopy
ronpoy ronpyo roonyp roonpy rooynp rooypn roopyn roopny ropnoy ropnyo ropony
ropoyn ropyon ropyno rpynoo rpynoo rpyono rpyoon rpyoon rpyono rpnyoo rpnyoo
rpnoyo rpnooy rpnooy rpnoyo rponyo rponoy rpoyno rpoyon rpooyn rpoony rponoy
rponyo rpoony rpooyn rpoyon rpoyno

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History of cryptography
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