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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: pookoo
cipher variations:
qpplpp rqqmqq srrnrr tssoss uttptt
vuuquu wvvrvv xwwsww yxxtxx zyyuyy
azzvzz baawaa cbbxbb dccycc eddzdd
feeaee gffbff hggcgg ihhdhh jiieii
kjjfjj lkkgkk mllhll nmmimm onnjnn

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: pookoo
Cipher: kllpll

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: pookoo
Cipher: ABBBA ABBAB ABBAB ABAAB ABBAB ABBAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: pookoo
cipher variations:
qpplppurrfrryttzttcvvtvvgxxnxxkzzhzzsddvddwffpff
ahhjhhejjdjjillxllmnnrnnrqqmqqvssgsszuuauudwwuww
hyyoyylaaiaateeweexggqggbiikiifkkekkjmmymmnoosoo
srrnrrwtthttavvbvvexxvxxizzpzzmbbjbbuffxffyhhrhh
cjjljjgllfllknnznnopptpptssossxuuiuubwwcwwfyywyy
jaaqaancckccvggyggziisiidkkmkkhmmgmmlooaoopqquqq
uttpttyvvjvvcxxdxxgzzxzzkbbrbboddlddwhhzhhajjtjj
ellnllinnhnnmppbppqrrvrrvuuquuzwwkwwdyyeyyhaayaa
lccsccpeemeexiiaiibkkukkfmmommjooioonqqcqqrsswss
wvvrvvaxxlxxezzfzzibbzbbmddtddqffnffyjjbjjcllvll
gnnpnnkppjpporrdrrsttxttxwwswwbyymyyfaagaajccacc
neeueerggoggzkkckkdmmwmmhooqoolqqkqqpssesstuuyuu
yxxtxxczznzzgbbhbbkddbddoffvffshhphhalldllennxnn
ipprppmrrlrrqttfttuvvzvvzyyuyydaaoaahcciccleecee
pggwggtiiqiibmmemmfooyoojqqsqqnssmssruuguuvwwaww
azzvzzebbpbbiddjddmffdffqhhxhhujjrjjcnnfnngppzpp
krrtrrottnttsvvhvvwxxbxxbaawaafccqccjeekeenggegg
riiyiivkkskkdoogoohqqaqqlssusspuuouutwwiwwxyycyy
cbbxbbgddrddkfflffohhfhhsjjzjjwlltllepphppirrbrr
mttvttqvvpvvuxxjxxyzzdzzdccyccheeseelggmggpiigii
tkkakkxmmummfqqiqqjsscssnuuwuurwwqwwvyykyyzaaeaa
eddzddifftffmhhnhhqjjhjjullbllynnvnngrrjrrkttdtt
ovvxvvsxxrxxwzzlzzabbfbbfeeaeejgguggniioiirkkikk
vmmcmmzoowoohsskssluueuupwwywwtyysyyxaamaabccgcc
gffbffkhhvhhojjpjjslljllwnndnnappxppittlttmvvfvv
qxxzxxuzztzzybbnbbcddhddhggcggliiwiipkkqkktmmkmm
xooeoobqqyqqjuumuunwwgwwryyayyvaauaazccoccdeeiee
ihhdhhmjjxjjqllrllunnlnnyppfppcrrzrrkvvnvvoxxhxx
szzbzzwbbvbbaddpddeffjffjiieiinkkykkrmmsmmvoomoo
zqqgqqdssasslwwowwpyyiyytaacaaxccwccbeeqeefggkgg
kjjfjjollzllsnntnnwppnpparrhrrettbttmxxpxxqzzjzz
ubbdbbyddxddcffrffghhlhhlkkgkkpmmammtoouooxqqoqq
bssissfuucuunyyqyyraakaavccecczeeyeedggsgghiimii
mllhllqnnbnnuppvppyrrprrcttjttgvvdvvozzrzzsbblbb
wddfddaffzffehhthhijjnjjnmmimmroocoovqqwqqzssqss
duukuuhwwewwpaasaatccmccxeegeebggaggfiiuiijkkokk
onnjnnsppdppwrrxrrattrttevvlvvixxfxxqbbtbbuddndd
yffhffchhbhhgjjvjjkllpllpookootqqeqqxssyssbuusuu
fwwmwwjyygyyrccuccveeoeezggiggdiiciihkkwkklmmqmm

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: pookoo
Cipher: cbbxbb

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: pookoo
Cipher: 534343524343

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: pookoo
method variations:
uttpttzyyuyyeddzddkiieii

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p o o k o o 
5 4 4 5 4 4 
3 3 3 2 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
544544333233
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: pookoo
Cipher: uytnhn

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: pookoo
method variations:
ssxrsx sxrsxs xrsxss
rsxssx sxssxr xssxrs

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: pookoo

all 720 cipher variations:
pookoo pookoo poooko pooook pooook poooko pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo
pokooo pookoo pookoo poooko pooook pooook poooko pookoo pookoo poooko pooook
pooook poooko pookoo pookoo poooko pooook pooook poooko pokooo pokooo pokooo
pokooo pokooo pokooo pookoo pookoo poooko pooook pooook poooko pookoo pookoo
poooko pooook pooook poooko pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo
pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo
pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pkoooo pookoo pookoo poooko pooook pooook
poooko pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo pookoo pookoo poooko pooook
pooook poooko pookoo pookoo poooko pooook pooook poooko pookoo pookoo poooko
pooook pooook poooko pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo pokooo pookoo pookoo
poooko pooook pooook poooko pookoo pookoo poooko pooook pooook poooko opokoo
opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opkooo opkooo opkooo opkooo opkooo opkooo
opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook
opooko oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook oopoko ookpoo ookpoo ookopo ookoop
ookoop ookopo oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp oookop oookpo ooookp
oooopk ooopok ooopko okopoo okopoo okoopo okooop okooop okoopo okpooo okpooo
okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okopoo okopoo okoopo okooop okooop okoopo okopoo
okopoo okoopo okooop okooop okoopo oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp
ookopo ookoop ookpoo ookpoo ookopo ookoop oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook
oopoko oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk
ooopok ooopko ookoop ookopo ookoop ookopo ookpoo ookpoo oookop oookpo ooookp
oooopk ooopok ooopko oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook oopoko oopkoo oopkoo
oopoko oopook oopook oopoko ookpoo ookpoo ookopo ookoop ookoop ookopo oookpo
oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk ooopok ooopko
opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opkooo opkooo opkooo opkooo opkooo
opkooo opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opokoo opokoo opooko opoook
opoook opooko okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okopoo okopoo okoopo
okooop okooop okoopo okoopo okooop okopoo okopoo okoopo okooop okooop okoopo
okooop okoopo okopoo okopoo oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook oopoko ookpoo
ookpoo ookopo ookoop ookoop ookopo oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp
oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk ooopok ooopko oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook
oopoko ookpoo ookpoo ookopo ookoop ookoop ookopo oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok
oooopk ooookp oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk ooopok ooopko koopoo koopoo kooopo
koooop koooop kooopo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo koopoo koopoo
kooopo koooop koooop kooopo koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo koopoo
koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo
koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop
kooopo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo
kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo
kpoooo kpoooo kpoooo koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo kopooo kopooo
kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo koopoo
koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo
kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo kopooo koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop
kooopo koopoo koopoo kooopo koooop koooop kooopo oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok
oooopk ooookp ookopo ookoop ookpoo ookpoo ookopo ookoop oopkoo oopkoo oopoko
oopook oopook oopoko oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp oookpo oookop
ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp ookopo ookoop ookpoo ookpoo ookopo ookoop oopkoo
oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook oopoko oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp
okoopo okooop okopoo okopoo okoopo okooop okoopo okooop okopoo okopoo okoopo
okooop okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okoopo okooop okopoo okopoo
okoopo okooop opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opkooo opkooo opkooo
opkooo opkooo opkooo opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opokoo opokoo
opooko opoook opoook opooko oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp ookopo
ookoop ookpoo ookpoo ookopo ookoop oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook oopoko
oookpo oookop ooopko ooopok oooopk ooookp oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk ooopok
ooopko ookoop ookopo ookoop ookopo ookpoo ookpoo oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk
ooopok ooopko oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook oopoko oookop oookpo ooookp
oooopk ooopok ooopko ookoop ookopo ookoop ookopo ookpoo ookpoo oookop oookpo
ooookp oooopk ooopok ooopko oopkoo oopkoo oopoko oopook oopook oopoko okooop
okoopo okooop okoopo okopoo okopoo okooop okoopo okooop okoopo okopoo okopoo
okooop okoopo okooop okoopo okopoo okopoo okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo okpooo
okpooo oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk ooopok ooopko ookoop ookopo ookoop ookopo
ookpoo ookpoo oookop oookpo ooookp oooopk ooopok ooopko oopkoo oopkoo oopoko
oopook oopook oopoko opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opkooo opkooo
opkooo opkooo opkooo opkooo opokoo opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko opokoo
opokoo opooko opoook opoook opooko

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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