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huggingly

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commutes

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mezahab

clappeth

omenta

consilii


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: pinons
cipher variations:
qjopot rkpqpu slqrqv tmrsrw unstsx
votuty wpuvuz xqvwva yrwxwb zsxyxc
atyzyd buzaze cvabaf dwbcbg excdch
fydedi gzefej hafgfk ibghgl jchihm
kdijin lejkjo mfklkp nglmlq ohmnmr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: pinons
Cipher: krmlmh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: pinons
Cipher: ABBBA ABAAA ABBAA ABBAB ABBAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: pinons
cipher variations:
qjopotuzorodypotoncfovoxgvoxohklozorsrodolwhofov
axohofenojopidolozmtonojrkpqpuvapspezqpupodgpwpy
hwpypilmpapstspepmxipgpwbypipgfopkpqjepmpanupopk
slqrqvwbqtqfarqvqpehqxqzixqzqjmnqbqtutqfqnyjqhqx
czqjqhgpqlqrkfqnqbovqpqltmrsrwxcrurgbsrwrqfiryra
jyrarknorcruvurgrozkrirydarkrihqrmrslgrorcpwrqrm
unstsxydsvshctsxsrgjszsbkzsbslopsdsvwvshspalsjsz
ebslsjirsnstmhspsdqxsrsnvotutyzetwtidutytshktatc
latctmpqtetwxwtitqbmtktafctmtkjstotunitqterytsto
wpuvuzafuxujevuzutilubudmbudunqrufuxyxujurcnulub
gdunulktupuvojurufszutupxqvwvabgvyvkfwvavujmvcve
ncvevorsvgvyzyvkvsdovmvchevovmluvqvwpkvsvgtavuvq
yrwxwbchwzwlgxwbwvknwdwfodwfwpstwhwzazwlwtepwnwd
ifwpwnmvwrwxqlwtwhubwvwrzsxyxcdixaxmhyxcxwloxexg
pexgxqtuxixabaxmxufqxoxejgxqxonwxsxyrmxuxivcxwxs
atyzydejybynizydyxmpyfyhqfyhyruvyjybcbynyvgrypyf
khyrypoxytyzsnyvyjwdyxytbuzazefkzczojazezynqzgzi
rgzizsvwzkzcdczozwhszqzglizszqpyzuzatozwzkxezyzu
cvabafgladapkbafazorahajshajatwxaladedapaxitarah
mjatarqzavabupaxalyfazavdwbcbghmbebqlcbgbapsbibk
tibkbuxybmbefebqbyjubsbinkbubsrabwbcvqbybmzgbabw
excdchincfcrmdchcbqtcjclujclcvyzcncfgfcrczkvctcj
olcvctsbcxcdwrczcnahcbcxfydedijodgdsnedidcrudkdm
vkdmdwzadodghgdsdalwdudkpmdwdutcdydexsdadobidcdy
gzefejkpehetofejedsvelenwlenexabepehihetebmxevel
qnexevudezefytebepcjedezhafgfklqfifupgfkfetwfmfo
xmfofybcfqfijifufcnyfwfmrofyfwvefafgzufcfqdkfefa
ibghglmrgjgvqhglgfuxgngpyngpgzcdgrgjkjgvgdozgxgn
spgzgxwfgbghavgdgrelgfgbjchihmnshkhwrihmhgvyhohq
zohqhadehshklkhwhepahyhotqhahyxghchibwhehsfmhghc
kdijinotilixsjinihwzipirapiribefitilmlixifqbizip
uribizyhidijcxifitgnihidlejkjopujmjytkjojixajqjs
bqjsjcfgjujmnmjyjgrcjajqvsjcjazijejkdyjgjuhojije
mfklkpqvknkzulkpkjybkrktcrktkdghkvknonkzkhsdkbkr
wtkdkbajkfklezkhkvipkjkfnglmlqrwlolavmlqlkzclslu
dslulehilwlopolalitelclsxulelcbklglmfalilwjqlklg
ohmnmrsxmpmbwnmrmladmtmvetmvmfijmxmpqpmbmjufmdmt
yvmfmdclmhmngbmjmxkrmlmhpinonstynqncxonsnmbenunw
funwngjknynqrqncnkvgnenuzwngnedmninohcnknylsnmni

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: pinons
Cipher: cvabaf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: pinons
Cipher: 534233433334

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: pinons
method variations:
uostsxztxyxceycdchkdhihn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p i n o n s 
5 4 3 4 3 3 
3 2 3 3 3 4 
They are then read out in rows:
543433323334
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: pinons
Cipher: usnhns

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: pinons
method variations:
smsnny msnnys snnysm
nnysms nysmsn ysmsnn

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: pinons

all 720 cipher variations:
pinons pinosn pinnos pinnso pinsno pinson pionns pionsn pionns pionsn piosnn
piosnn pinons pinosn pinnos pinnso pinsno pinson pisonn pisonn pisnon pisnno
pisnno pisnon pnions pniosn pninos pninso pnisno pnison pnoins pnoisn pnonis
pnonsi pnosni pnosin pnnois pnnosi pnnios pnniso pnnsio pnnsoi pnsoni pnsoin
pnsnoi pnsnio pnsino pnsion ponins ponisn ponnis ponnsi ponsni ponsin poinns
poinsn poinns poinsn poisnn poisnn ponins ponisn ponnis ponnsi ponsni ponsin
posinn posinn posnin posnni posnni posnin pnnois pnnosi pnnios pnniso pnnsio
pnnsoi pnonis pnonsi pnoins pnoisn pnosin pnosni pnions pniosn pninos pninso
pnisno pnison pnsoin pnsoni pnsion pnsino pnsnio pnsnoi psnoni psnoin psnnoi
psnnio psnino psnion psonni psonin psonni psonin psoinn psoinn psnoni psnoin
psnnoi psnnio psnino psnion psionn psionn psinon psinno psinno psinon ipnons
ipnosn ipnnos ipnnso ipnsno ipnson iponns iponsn iponns iponsn iposnn iposnn
ipnons ipnosn ipnnos ipnnso ipnsno ipnson ipsonn ipsonn ipsnon ipsnno ipsnno
ipsnon inpons inposn inpnos inpnso inpsno inpson inopns inopsn inonps inonsp
inosnp inospn innops innosp innpos innpso innspo innsop insonp insopn insnop
insnpo inspno inspon ionpns ionpsn ionnps ionnsp ionsnp ionspn iopnns iopnsn
iopnns iopnsn iopsnn iopsnn ionpns ionpsn ionnps ionnsp ionsnp ionspn iospnn
iospnn iosnpn iosnnp iosnnp iosnpn innops innosp innpos innpso innspo innsop
inonps inonsp inopns inopsn inospn inosnp inpons inposn inpnos inpnso inpsno
inpson insopn insonp inspon inspno insnpo insnop isnonp isnopn isnnop isnnpo
isnpno isnpon isonnp isonpn isonnp isonpn isopnn isopnn isnonp isnopn isnnop
isnnpo isnpno isnpon isponn isponn ispnon ispnno ispnno ispnon nipons niposn
nipnos nipnso nipsno nipson niopns niopsn nionps nionsp niosnp niospn ninops
ninosp ninpos ninpso ninspo ninsop nisonp nisopn nisnop nisnpo nispno nispon
npions npiosn npinos npinso npisno npison npoins npoisn nponis nponsi nposni
nposin npnois npnosi npnios npniso npnsio npnsoi npsoni npsoin npsnoi npsnio
npsino npsion nopins nopisn nopnis nopnsi nopsni nopsin noipns noipsn noinps
noinsp noisnp noispn nonips nonisp nonpis nonpsi nonspi nonsip nosinp nosipn
nosnip nosnpi nospni nospin nnpois nnposi nnpios nnpiso nnpsio nnpsoi nnopis
nnopsi nnoips nnoisp nnosip nnospi nniops nniosp nnipos nnipso nnispo nnisop
nnsoip nnsopi nnsiop nnsipo nnspio nnspoi nsponi nspoin nspnoi nspnio nspino
nspion nsopni nsopin nsonpi nsonip nsoinp nsoipn nsnopi nsnoip nsnpoi nsnpio
nsnipo nsniop nsionp nsiopn nsinop nsinpo nsipno nsipon oinpns oinpsn oinnps
oinnsp oinsnp oinspn oipnns oipnsn oipnns oipnsn oipsnn oipsnn oinpns oinpsn
oinnps oinnsp oinsnp oinspn oispnn oispnn oisnpn oisnnp oisnnp oisnpn onipns
onipsn oninps oninsp onisnp onispn onpins onpisn onpnis onpnsi onpsni onpsin
onnpis onnpsi onnips onnisp onnsip onnspi onspni onspin onsnpi onsnip onsinp
onsipn opnins opnisn opnnis opnnsi opnsni opnsin opinns opinsn opinns opinsn
opisnn opisnn opnins opnisn opnnis opnnsi opnsni opnsin opsinn opsinn opsnin
opsnni opsnni opsnin onnpis onnpsi onnips onnisp onnsip onnspi onpnis onpnsi
onpins onpisn onpsin onpsni onipns onipsn oninps oninsp onisnp onispn onspin
onspni onsipn onsinp onsnip onsnpi osnpni osnpin osnnpi osnnip osninp osnipn
ospnni ospnin ospnni ospnin ospinn ospinn osnpni osnpin osnnpi osnnip osninp
osnipn osipnn osipnn osinpn osinnp osinnp osinpn ninops ninosp ninpos ninpso
ninspo ninsop nionps nionsp niopns niopsn niospn niosnp nipons niposn nipnos
nipnso nipsno nipson nisopn nisonp nispon nispno nisnpo nisnop nniops nniosp
nnipos nnipso nnispo nnisop nnoips nnoisp nnopis nnopsi nnospi nnosip nnpois
nnposi nnpios nnpiso nnpsio nnpsoi nnsopi nnsoip nnspoi nnspio nnsipo nnsiop
nonips nonisp nonpis nonpsi nonspi nonsip noinps noinsp noipns noipsn noispn
noisnp nopins nopisn nopnis nopnsi nopsni nopsin nosipn nosinp nospin nospni
nosnpi nosnip npnois npnosi npnios npniso npnsio npnsoi nponis nponsi npoins
npoisn nposin nposni npions npiosn npinos npinso npisno npison npsoin npsoni
npsion npsino npsnio npsnoi nsnopi nsnoip nsnpoi nsnpio nsnipo nsniop nsonpi
nsonip nsopni nsopin nsoipn nsoinp nsponi nspoin nspnoi nspnio nspino nspion
nsiopn nsionp nsipon nsipno nsinpo nsinop sinonp sinopn sinnop sinnpo sinpno
sinpon sionnp sionpn sionnp sionpn siopnn siopnn sinonp sinopn sinnop sinnpo
sinpno sinpon siponn siponn sipnon sipnno sipnno sipnon snionp sniopn sninop
sninpo snipno snipon snoinp snoipn snonip snonpi snopni snopin snnoip snnopi
snniop snnipo snnpio snnpoi snponi snpoin snpnoi snpnio snpino snpion soninp
sonipn sonnip sonnpi sonpni sonpin soinnp soinpn soinnp soinpn soipnn soipnn
soninp sonipn sonnip sonnpi sonpni sonpin sopinn sopinn sopnin sopnni sopnni
sopnin snnoip snnopi snniop snnipo snnpio snnpoi snonip snonpi snoinp snoipn
snopin snopni snionp sniopn sninop sninpo snipno snipon snpoin snponi snpion
snpino snpnio snpnoi spnoni spnoin spnnoi spnnio spnino spnion sponni sponin
sponni sponin spoinn spoinn spnoni spnoin spnnoi spnnio spnino spnion spionn
spionn spinon spinno spinno spinon

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History of cryptography
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