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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: piggie
cipher variations:
qjhhjf rkiikg sljjlh tmkkmi unllnj
vommok wpnnpl xqooqm yrpprn zsqqso
atrrtp bussuq cvttvr dwuuws exvvxt
fywwyu gzxxzv hayyaw ibzzbx jcaacy
kdbbdz leccea mfddfb ngeegc ohffhd

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: piggie
Cipher: krttrv

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: piggie
Cipher: ABBBA ABAAA AABBA AABBA ABAAA AABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: piggie
cipher variations:
qjhhjfuzttznypffpvcfrrfdgvddvlklppltsrnnrjwhzzhr
axllxzenxxnhidjjdpmtvvtxrkiikgvauuaozqggqwdgssge
hweewmlmqqmutsooskxiaaisbymmyafoyyoijekkeqnuwwuy
sljjlhwbvvbparhhrxehtthfixffxnmnrrnvutpptlyjbbjt
cznnzbgpzzpjkfllfrovxxvztmkkmixcwwcqbsiisyfiuuig
jyggyonossowvuqqumzkcckudaooachqaaqklgmmgspwyywa
unllnjydxxdrctjjtzgjvvjhkzhhzpopttpxwvrrvnalddlv
ebppbdirbbrlmhnnhtqxzzxbvommokzeyyesdukkuahkwwki
laiiaqpquuqyxwsswobmeemwfcqqcejsccsmniooiuryaayc
wpnnplafzzftevllvbilxxljmbjjbrqrvvrzyxttxpcnffnx
gdrrdfktddtnojppjvszbbzdxqooqmbgaagufwmmwcjmyymk
nckkcsrswwsazyuuyqdoggoyhesseglueeuopkqqkwtaccae
yrpprnchbbhvgxnnxdknzznlodlldtstxxtbazvvzrephhpz
ifttfhmvffvpqlrrlxubddbfzsqqsodicciwhyooyeloaaom
pemmeutuyyucbawwasfqiiqajguuginwggwqrmssmyvceecg
atrrtpejddjxizppzfmpbbpnqfnnfvuvzzvdcbxxbtgrjjrb
khvvhjoxhhxrsnttnzwdffdhbussuqfkeekyjaqqagnqccqo
rgoogwvwaawedcyycuhskkscliwwikpyiiystouuoaxeggei
cvttvrglfflzkbrrbhorddrpshpphxwxbbxfedzzdvitlltd
mjxxjlqzjjztupvvpbyfhhfjdwuuwshmggmalcsscipseesq
tiqqiyxyccygfeaaewjummuenkyykmrakkauvqwwqczgiigk
exvvxtinhhnbmdttdjqtfftrujrrjzyzddzhgfbbfxkvnnvf
olzzlnsbllbvwrxxrdahjjhlfywwyujoiiocneuuekruggus
vksskazaeeaihgccgylwoowgpmaamotcmmcwxsyysebikkim
gzxxzvkpjjpdofvvflsvhhvtwlttlbabffbjihddhzmxppxh
qnbbnpudnndxytzztfcjlljnhayyawlqkkqepgwwgmtwiiwu
xmuumcbcggckjieeianyqqyiroccoqveooeyzuaaugdkmmko
ibzzbxmrllrfqhxxhnuxjjxvynvvndcdhhdlkjffjbozrrzj
spddprwfppfzavbbvhelnnlpjcaacynsmmsgriyyiovykkyw
zowwoedeiiemlkggkcpassaktqeeqsxgqqgabwccwifmoomq
kdbbdzotnnthsjzzjpwzllzxapxxpfefjjfnmlhhldqbttbl
urffrtyhrrhbcxddxjgnppnrlecceapuoouitkaakqxammay
bqyyqgfgkkgonmiimercuucmvsggsuzissicdyeeykhoqqos
mfddfbqvppvjulbblrybnnbzcrzzrhghllhponjjnfsdvvdn
wthhtvajttjdezffzliprrptngeegcrwqqwkvmccmszcooca
dsaasihimmiqpokkogtewweoxuiiuwbkuukefaggamjqssqu
ohffhdsxrrxlwnddntadppdbetbbtjijnnjrqpllphufxxfp
yvjjvxclvvlfgbhhbnkrttrvpiggietyssymxoeeoubeqqec
fuccukjkooksrqmmqivgyygqzwkkwydmwwmghciicolsuusw

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: piggie
Cipher: cvttvr

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: piggie
Cipher: 534222224251

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: piggie
method variations:
uommokztrrtpeywwyukdbbdz

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p i g g i e 
5 4 2 2 4 5 
3 2 2 2 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
542245322221
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: piggie
Cipher: ugyhgb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: piggie
method variations:
sggrwv ggrwvs grwvsg
rwvsgg wvsggr vsggrw

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: piggie

all 720 cipher variations:
piggie piggei pigige pigieg pigeig pigegi piggie piggei pigige pigieg pigeig
pigegi piigge piigeg piigge piigeg piiegg piiegg piegig pieggi pieigg pieigg
piegig pieggi pgigie pgigei pgiige pgiieg pgieig pgiegi pggiie pggiei pggiie
pggiei pggeii pggeii pgigie pgigei pgiige pgiieg pgieig pgiegi pgegii pgegii
pgeigi pgeiig pgeiig pgeigi pggiie pggiei pggiie pggiei pggeii pggeii pgigie
pgigei pgiige pgiieg pgieig pgiegi pgiige pgiieg pgigie pgigei pgiegi pgieig
pgeiig pgeigi pgeiig pgeigi pgegii pgegii piggie piggei pigige pigieg pigeig
pigegi piggie piggei pigige pigieg pigeig pigegi piigge piigeg piigge piigeg
piiegg piiegg piegig pieggi pieigg pieigg piegig pieggi peggii peggii pegigi
pegiig pegiig pegigi peggii peggii pegigi pegiig pegiig pegigi peiggi peigig
peiggi peigig peiigg peiigg peigig peiggi peiigg peiigg peigig peiggi ipggie
ipggei ipgige ipgieg ipgeig ipgegi ipggie ipggei ipgige ipgieg ipgeig ipgegi
ipigge ipigeg ipigge ipigeg ipiegg ipiegg ipegig ipeggi ipeigg ipeigg ipegig
ipeggi igpgie igpgei igpige igpieg igpeig igpegi iggpie iggpei iggipe iggiep
iggeip iggepi igigpe igigep igipge igipeg igiepg igiegp igegip igegpi igeigp
igeipg igepig igepgi iggpie iggpei iggipe iggiep iggeip iggepi igpgie igpgei
igpige igpieg igpeig igpegi igipge igipeg igigpe igigep igiegp igiepg igepig
igepgi igeipg igeigp igegip igegpi iiggpe iiggep iigpge iigpeg iigepg iigegp
iiggpe iiggep iigpge iigpeg iigepg iigegp iipgge iipgeg iipgge iipgeg iipegg
iipegg iiegpg iieggp iiepgg iiepgg iiegpg iieggp ieggip ieggpi iegigp iegipg
iegpig iegpgi ieggip ieggpi iegigp iegipg iegpig iegpgi ieiggp ieigpg ieiggp
ieigpg ieipgg ieipgg iepgig iepggi iepigg iepigg iepgig iepggi gipgie gipgei
gipige gipieg gipeig gipegi gigpie gigpei gigipe gigiep gigeip gigepi giigpe
giigep giipge giipeg giiepg giiegp giegip giegpi gieigp gieipg giepig giepgi
gpigie gpigei gpiige gpiieg gpieig gpiegi gpgiie gpgiei gpgiie gpgiei gpgeii
gpgeii gpigie gpigei gpiige gpiieg gpieig gpiegi gpegii gpegii gpeigi gpeiig
gpeiig gpeigi ggpiie ggpiei ggpiie ggpiei ggpeii ggpeii ggipie ggipei ggiipe
ggiiep ggieip ggiepi ggiipe ggiiep ggipie ggipei ggiepi ggieip ggeiip ggeipi
ggeiip ggeipi ggepii ggepii gipgie gipgei gipige gipieg gipeig gipegi gigpie
gigpei gigipe gigiep gigeip gigepi giigpe giigep giipge giipeg giiepg giiegp
giegip giegpi gieigp gieipg giepig giepgi gepgii gepgii gepigi gepiig gepiig
gepigi gegpii gegpii gegipi gegiip gegiip gegipi geigpi geigip geipgi geipig
geiipg geiigp geigip geigpi geiigp geiipg geipig geipgi gigpie gigpei gigipe
gigiep gigeip gigepi gipgie gipgei gipige gipieg gipeig gipegi giipge giipeg
giigpe giigep giiegp giiepg giepig giepgi gieipg gieigp giegip giegpi ggipie
ggipei ggiipe ggiiep ggieip ggiepi ggpiie ggpiei ggpiie ggpiei ggpeii ggpeii
ggipie ggipei ggiipe ggiiep ggieip ggiepi ggepii ggepii ggeipi ggeiip ggeiip
ggeipi gpgiie gpgiei gpgiie gpgiei gpgeii gpgeii gpigie gpigei gpiige gpiieg
gpieig gpiegi gpiige gpiieg gpigie gpigei gpiegi gpieig gpeiig gpeigi gpeiig
gpeigi gpegii gpegii gigpie gigpei gigipe gigiep gigeip gigepi gipgie gipgei
gipige gipieg gipeig gipegi giipge giipeg giigpe giigep giiegp giiepg giepig
giepgi gieipg gieigp giegip giegpi gegpii gegpii gegipi gegiip gegiip gegipi
gepgii gepgii gepigi gepiig gepiig gepigi geipgi geipig geigpi geigip geiigp
geiipg geipig geipgi geiipg geiigp geigip geigpi iiggpe iiggep iigpge iigpeg
iigepg iigegp iiggpe iiggep iigpge iigpeg iigepg iigegp iipgge iipgeg iipgge
iipgeg iipegg iipegg iiegpg iieggp iiepgg iiepgg iiegpg iieggp igigpe igigep
igipge igipeg igiepg igiegp iggipe iggiep iggpie iggpei iggepi iggeip igpgie
igpgei igpige igpieg igpeig igpegi igegpi igegip igepgi igepig igeipg igeigp
iggipe iggiep iggpie iggpei iggepi iggeip igigpe igigep igipge igipeg igiepg
igiegp igpige igpieg igpgie igpgei igpegi igpeig igeipg igeigp igepig igepgi
igegpi igegip ipggie ipggei ipgige ipgieg ipgeig ipgegi ipggie ipggei ipgige
ipgieg ipgeig ipgegi ipigge ipigeg ipigge ipigeg ipiegg ipiegg ipegig ipeggi
ipeigg ipeigg ipegig ipeggi ieggpi ieggip iegpgi iegpig iegipg iegigp ieggpi
ieggip iegpgi iegpig iegipg iegigp iepggi iepgig iepggi iepgig iepigg iepigg
ieigpg ieiggp ieipgg ieipgg ieigpg ieiggp eiggip eiggpi eigigp eigipg eigpig
eigpgi eiggip eiggpi eigigp eigipg eigpig eigpgi eiiggp eiigpg eiiggp eiigpg
eiipgg eiipgg eipgig eipggi eipigg eipigg eipgig eipggi egigip egigpi egiigp
egiipg egipig egipgi eggiip eggipi eggiip eggipi eggpii eggpii egigip egigpi
egiigp egiipg egipig egipgi egpgii egpgii egpigi egpiig egpiig egpigi eggiip
eggipi eggiip eggipi eggpii eggpii egigip egigpi egiigp egiipg egipig egipgi
egiigp egiipg egigip egigpi egipgi egipig egpiig egpigi egpiig egpigi egpgii
egpgii eiggip eiggpi eigigp eigipg eigpig eigpgi eiggip eiggpi eigigp eigipg
eigpig eigpgi eiiggp eiigpg eiiggp eiigpg eiipgg eiipgg eipgig eipggi eipigg
eipigg eipgig eipggi epggii epggii epgigi epgiig epgiig epgigi epggii epggii
epgigi epgiig epgiig epgigi epiggi epigig epiggi epigig epiigg epiigg epigig
epiggi epiigg epiigg epigig epiggi

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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