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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: philia
cipher variations:
qijmjb rjknkc sklold tlmpme umnqnf
vnorog wopsph xpqtqi yqrurj zrsvsk
astwtl btuxum cuvyvn dvwzwo ewxaxp
fxybyq gyzczr hzadas iabebt jbcfcu
kcdgdv ldehew mefifx nfgjgy oghkhz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: philia
Cipher: ksrorz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: philia
Cipher: ABBBA AABBB ABAAA ABABA ABAAA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: philia
cipher variations:
qijmjbuwzizbykpepbcyfafbgmvwvbkalslbscrkrbwqhghb
aexcxbesnynbigdudbmutqtbrjknkcvxajaczlqfqcdzgbgc
hnwxwclbmtmctdslscxrihicbfydycftozocjhevecnvuruc
skloldwybkbdamrgrdeahchdioxyxdmcnunduetmtdysjijd
cgzezdgupapdkifwfdowvsvdtlmpmexzclcebnshsefbidie
jpyzyendovoevfunueztkjkedhafaehvqbqeljgxgepxwtwe
umnqnfyadmdfcotitfgcjejfkqzazfoepwpfwgvovfaulklf
eibgbfiwrcrfmkhyhfqyxuxfvnorogzbenegdpujughdkfkg
lrabagpfqxqgxhwpwgbvmlmgfjchcgjxsdsgnlizigrzyvyg
wopsphacfofheqvkvhielglhmsbcbhqgryrhyixqxhcwnmnh
gkdidhkytethomjajhsazwzhxpqtqibdgpgifrwlwijfmhmi
ntcdcirhszsizjyryidxonoihlejeilzufuipnkbkitbaxai
yqrurjcehqhjgsxmxjkgninjoudedjsitatjakzszjeypopj
imfkfjmavgvjqolcljucbybjzrsvskdfirikhtynyklhojok
pvefektjubukblatakfzqpqkjnglgknbwhwkrpmdmkvdczck
astwtlegjsjliuzozlmipkplqwfgflukvcvlcmbublgarqrl
kohmhlocxixlsqnenlwedadlbtuxumfhktkmjvapamnjqlqm
rxghgmvlwdwmdncvcmhbsrsmlpinimpdyjymtrofomxfebem
cuvyvngilulnkwbqbnokrmrnsyhihnwmxexneodwdnictstn
mqjojnqezkznuspgpnygfcfndvwzwohjmvmolxcrcoplsnso
tzijioxnyfyofpexeojdutuonrkpkorfalaovtqhqozhgdgo
ewxaxpiknwnpmydsdpqmtotpuajkjpyozgzpgqfyfpkevuvp
oslqlpsgbmbpwurirpaihehpfxybyqjloxoqnzeteqrnupuq
vbklkqzpahaqhrgzgqlfwvwqptmrmqthcncqxvsjsqbjifiq
gyzczrkmpyproafufrsovqvrwclmlraqbibrishahrmgxwxr
qunsnruidodrywtktrckjgjrhzadaslnqzqspbgvgstpwrws
xdmnmsbrcjcsjtibisnhyxysrvotosvjepeszxulusdlkhks
iabebtmorartqchwhtuqxsxtyenontcsdkdtkujcjtoizyzt
swpuptwkfqftayvmvtemliltjbcfcunpsbsurdixiuvrytyu
zfopoudteleulvkdkupjazautxqvquxlgrgubzwnwufnmjmu
kcdgdvoqtctvsejyjvwszuzvagpqpveufmfvmwlelvqkbabv
uyrwrvymhshvcaxoxvgonknvldehewpruduwtfkzkwxtavaw
bhqrqwfvgngwnxmfmwrlcbcwvzsxswznitiwdbypywhpolow
mefifxqsvevxuglalxyubwbxcirsrxgwhohxoyngnxsmdcdx
watytxaojujxeczqzxiqpmpxnfgjgyrtwfwyvhmbmyzvcxcy
djstsyhxipiypzohoytnedeyxbuzuybpkvkyfdarayjrqnqy
oghkhzsuxgxzwincnzawdydzektutziyjqjzqapipzuofefz
ycvavzcqlwlzgebsbzksrorzphiliatvyhyaxjodoabxezea
fluvuajzkrkarbqjqavpgfgazdwbwadrmxmahfctcaltspsa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: philia
Cipher: cuvyvn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: philia
Cipher: 533242134211

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: philia
method variations:
unoqofzstvtlexyayqkcdfdv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p h i l i a 
5 3 4 1 4 1 
3 2 2 3 2 1 
They are then read out in rows:
534141322321
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: philia
Cipher: pddhmb

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: philia
method variations:
nrbsbv rbsbvn bsbvnr
sbvnrb bvnrbs vnrbsb

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: philia

all 720 cipher variations:
philia philai phiila phiial phiail phiali phliia phliai phliia phliai phlaii
phlaii philia philai phiila phiial phiail phiali phalii phalii phaili phaiil
phaiil phaili pihlia pihlai pihila pihial pihail pihali pilhia pilhai piliha
piliah pilaih pilahi piilha piilah piihla piihal piiahl piialh pialih pialhi
piailh piaihl piahil piahli plihia plihai pliiha pliiah pliaih pliahi plhiia
plhiai plhiia plhiai plhaii plhaii plihia plihai pliiha pliiah pliaih pliahi
plahii plahii plaihi plaiih plaiih plaihi piilha piilah piihla piihal piiahl
piialh piliha piliah pilhia pilhai pilahi pilaih pihlia pihlai pihila pihial
pihail pihali pialhi pialih piahli piahil piaihl piailh pailih pailhi paiilh
paiihl paihil paihli paliih palihi paliih palihi palhii palhii pailih pailhi
paiilh paiihl paihil paihli pahlii pahlii pahili pahiil pahiil pahili hpilia
hpilai hpiila hpiial hpiail hpiali hpliia hpliai hpliia hpliai hplaii hplaii
hpilia hpilai hpiila hpiial hpiail hpiali hpalii hpalii hpaili hpaiil hpaiil
hpaili hiplia hiplai hipila hipial hipail hipali hilpia hilpai hilipa hiliap
hilaip hilapi hiilpa hiilap hiipla hiipal hiiapl hiialp hialip hialpi hiailp
hiaipl hiapil hiapli hlipia hlipai hliipa hliiap hliaip hliapi hlpiia hlpiai
hlpiia hlpiai hlpaii hlpaii hlipia hlipai hliipa hliiap hliaip hliapi hlapii
hlapii hlaipi hlaiip hlaiip hlaipi hiilpa hiilap hiipla hiipal hiiapl hiialp
hilipa hiliap hilpia hilpai hilapi hilaip hiplia hiplai hipila hipial hipail
hipali hialpi hialip hiapli hiapil hiaipl hiailp hailip hailpi haiilp haiipl
haipil haipli haliip halipi haliip halipi halpii halpii hailip hailpi haiilp
haiipl haipil haipli haplii haplii hapili hapiil hapiil hapili ihplia ihplai
ihpila ihpial ihpail ihpali ihlpia ihlpai ihlipa ihliap ihlaip ihlapi ihilpa
ihilap ihipla ihipal ihiapl ihialp ihalip ihalpi ihailp ihaipl ihapil ihapli
iphlia iphlai iphila iphial iphail iphali iplhia iplhai ipliha ipliah iplaih
iplahi ipilha ipilah ipihla ipihal ipiahl ipialh ipalih ipalhi ipailh ipaihl
ipahil ipahli ilphia ilphai ilpiha ilpiah ilpaih ilpahi ilhpia ilhpai ilhipa
ilhiap ilhaip ilhapi ilihpa ilihap ilipha ilipah iliaph iliahp ilahip ilahpi
ilaihp ilaiph ilapih ilaphi iiplha iiplah iiphla iiphal iipahl iipalh iilpha
iilpah iilhpa iilhap iilahp iilaph iihlpa iihlap iihpla iihpal iihapl iihalp
iialhp iialph iiahlp iiahpl iiaphl iiaplh iaplih iaplhi iapilh iapihl iaphil
iaphli ialpih ialphi ialiph ialihp ialhip ialhpi iailph iailhp iaiplh iaiphl
iaihpl iaihlp iahlip iahlpi iahilp iahipl iahpil iahpli lhipia lhipai lhiipa
lhiiap lhiaip lhiapi lhpiia lhpiai lhpiia lhpiai lhpaii lhpaii lhipia lhipai
lhiipa lhiiap lhiaip lhiapi lhapii lhapii lhaipi lhaiip lhaiip lhaipi lihpia
lihpai lihipa lihiap lihaip lihapi liphia liphai lipiha lipiah lipaih lipahi
liipha liipah liihpa liihap liiahp liiaph liapih liaphi liaiph liaihp liahip
liahpi lpihia lpihai lpiiha lpiiah lpiaih lpiahi lphiia lphiai lphiia lphiai
lphaii lphaii lpihia lpihai lpiiha lpiiah lpiaih lpiahi lpahii lpahii lpaihi
lpaiih lpaiih lpaihi liipha liipah liihpa liihap liiahp liiaph lipiha lipiah
liphia liphai lipahi lipaih lihpia lihpai lihipa lihiap lihaip lihapi liaphi
liapih liahpi liahip liaihp liaiph laipih laiphi laiiph laiihp laihip laihpi
lapiih lapihi lapiih lapihi laphii laphii laipih laiphi laiiph laiihp laihip
laihpi lahpii lahpii lahipi lahiip lahiip lahipi ihilpa ihilap ihipla ihipal
ihiapl ihialp ihlipa ihliap ihlpia ihlpai ihlapi ihlaip ihplia ihplai ihpila
ihpial ihpail ihpali ihalpi ihalip ihapli ihapil ihaipl ihailp iihlpa iihlap
iihpla iihpal iihapl iihalp iilhpa iilhap iilpha iilpah iilaph iilahp iiplha
iiplah iiphla iiphal iipahl iipalh iialph iialhp iiaplh iiaphl iiahpl iiahlp
ilihpa ilihap ilipha ilipah iliaph iliahp ilhipa ilhiap ilhpia ilhpai ilhapi
ilhaip ilphia ilphai ilpiha ilpiah ilpaih ilpahi ilahpi ilahip ilaphi ilapih
ilaiph ilaihp ipilha ipilah ipihla ipihal ipiahl ipialh ipliha ipliah iplhia
iplhai iplahi iplaih iphlia iphlai iphila iphial iphail iphali ipalhi ipalih
ipahli ipahil ipaihl ipailh iailph iailhp iaiplh iaiphl iaihpl iaihlp ialiph
ialihp ialpih ialphi ialhpi ialhip iaplih iaplhi iapilh iapihl iaphil iaphli
iahlpi iahlip iahpli iahpil iahipl iahilp ahilip ahilpi ahiilp ahiipl ahipil
ahipli ahliip ahlipi ahliip ahlipi ahlpii ahlpii ahilip ahilpi ahiilp ahiipl
ahipil ahipli ahplii ahplii ahpili ahpiil ahpiil ahpili aihlip aihlpi aihilp
aihipl aihpil aihpli ailhip ailhpi ailihp ailiph ailpih ailphi aiilhp aiilph
aiihlp aiihpl aiiphl aiiplh aiplih aiplhi aipilh aipihl aiphil aiphli alihip
alihpi aliihp aliiph alipih aliphi alhiip alhipi alhiip alhipi alhpii alhpii
alihip alihpi aliihp aliiph alipih aliphi alphii alphii alpihi alpiih alpiih
alpihi aiilhp aiilph aiihlp aiihpl aiiphl aiiplh ailihp ailiph ailhip ailhpi
ailphi ailpih aihlip aihlpi aihilp aihipl aihpil aihpli aiplhi aiplih aiphli
aiphil aipihl aipilh apilih apilhi apiilh apiihl apihil apihli apliih aplihi
apliih aplihi aplhii aplhii apilih apilhi apiilh apiihl apihil apihli aphlii
aphlii aphili aphiil aphiil aphili

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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