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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: peises
cipher variations:
qfjtft rgkugu shlvhv timwiw ujnxjx
vkoyky wlpzlz xmqama ynrbnb zoscoc
aptdpd bqueqe crvfrf dswgsg etxhth
fuyiui gvzjvj hwakwk ixblxl jycmym
kzdnzn laeoao mbfpbp ncgqcq odhrdr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: peises
Cipher: kvrhvh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: peises
Cipher: ABBBA AABAA ABAAA BAAAB AABAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: peises
cipher variations:
qfjtftunzdndyvpnvncdfxdxglvhlhktlrtrsjrljlwrhvrv
azxfzfehnphpipdzpzmxtjxjrgkuguvoaeoezwqowodegyey
hmwimilumsustksmkmxsiwswbaygagfioqiqjqeaqanyukyk
shlvhvwpbfpfaxrpxpefhzfzinxjnjmvntvtultnlnytjxtx
cbzhbhgjprjrkrfbrbozvlzltimwiwxqcgqgbysqyqfgiaga
joykoknwouwuvmuomozukyuydcaicihkqskslsgcscpawmam
ujnxjxyrdhrhcztrzrghjbhbkpzlploxpvxvwnvpnpavlzvz
edbjdjilrtltmthdtdqbxnbnvkoykyzseisidausashikcic
lqamqmpyqwywxowqoqbwmawafeckekjmsumunuieuercyoco
wlpzlzatfjtjebvtbtijldjdmrbnrnqzrxzxypxrprcxnbxb
gfdlflkntvnvovjfvfsdzpdpxmqamabugkukfcwucujkmeke
nscosorasyayzqysqsdyocychgemgmlouwowpwkgwgteaqeq
ynrbnbcvhlvlgdxvdvklnflfotdptpsbtzbzarztrtezpdzd
ihfnhnmpvxpxqxlhxhufbrfrzoscocdwimwmheywewlmogmg
puequqtcuacabsausufaqeaejigoionqwyqyrymiyivgcsgs
aptdpdexjnxnifzxfxmnphnhqvfrvrudvbdbctbvtvgbrfbf
kjhpjporxzrzsznjzjwhdthtbqueqefykoyojgaygynoqioi
rwgswsvewcecducwuwhcsgcglkiqkqpsyasataokakxieuiu
crvfrfgzlpzpkhbzhzoprjpjsxhtxtwfxdfdevdxvxidthdh
mljrlrqtzbtbubplblyjfvjvdswgsghamqaqlicaiapqskqk
tyiuyuxgyegefweywyjeuieinmksmsruacucvcqmcmzkgwkw
etxhthibnrbrmjdbjbqrtlrluzjvzvyhzfhfgxfzxzkfvjfj
onltntsvbdvdwdrndnalhxlxfuyiuijcoscsnkeckcrsumsm
vakwawziagighygayalgwkgkpomuoutwcewexesoeobmiymy
gvzjvjkdptdtolfdldstvntnwblxbxajbhjhizhbzbmhxlhl
qpnvpvuxdfxfyftpfpcnjznzhwakwklequeupmgemetuwouo
xcmycybkcikijaicacniymimrqowqwvyegygzguqgqdokaoa
ixblxlmfrvfvqnhfnfuvxpvpydnzdzcldjljkbjdbdojznjn
srpxrxwzfhzhahvrhreplbpbjycmymngswgwroigogvwyqwq
zeoaeadmekmklckecepkaokotsqysyxagiaibiwsisfqmcqc
kzdnznohtxhxspjhphwxzrxrafpbfbenflnlmdlfdfqlbplp
utrztzybhjbjcjxtjtgrndrdlaeoaopiuyiytqkiqixyasys
bgqcgcfogmomnemgegrmcqmqvusauazcikckdkyukuhsoese
mbfpbpqjvzjzurljrjyzbtztchrdhdgphnpnofnhfhsndrnr
wvtbvbadjldlelzvlvitpftfncgqcqrkwakavsmkskzacuau
diseiehqioqopgoigitoesosxwucwcbekmemfmawmwjuqgug
odhrdrslxblbwtnltlabdvbvejtfjfirjprpqhpjhjupftpt
yxvdxdcflnfngnbxnxkvrhvhpeisestmycmcxuomumbcewcw
fkugkgjskqsqriqkikvqguquzyweyedgmogohocyoylwsiwi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: peises
Cipher: crvfrf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: peises
Cipher: 535142345134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: peises
method variations:
ukoxkxzptcpceuyhuhkzdnzn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
p e i s e s 
5 5 4 3 5 3 
3 1 2 4 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
554353312414
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: peises
Cipher: zopcrq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: peises
method variations:
xqmyly qmylyx mylyxq
ylyxqm lyxqmy yxqmyl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: peises

all 720 cipher variations:
peises peisse peiess peiess peises peisse pesies pesise peseis pesesi pessei
pessie peesis peessi peeiss peeiss peesis peessi pessei pessie pesesi peseis
pesies pesise pieses piesse pieess pieess pieses piesse pisees pisese pisees
pisese pissee pissee pieses piesse pieess pieess pieses piesse pissee pissee
pisese pisees pisees pisese psiees psiese psiees psiese psisee psisee pseies
pseise pseeis pseesi psesei psesie pseeis pseesi pseies pseise psesie psesei
psseei psseie psseei psseie pssiee pssiee peises peisse peiess peiess peises
peisse pesies pesise peseis pesesi pessei pessie peesis peessi peeiss peeiss
peesis peessi pessei pessie pesesi peseis pesies pesise psisee psisee psiese
psiees psiees psiese pssiee pssiee psseie psseei psseei psseie psesie psesei
pseise pseies pseeis pseesi psesei psesie pseesi pseeis pseies pseise epises
episse epiess epiess epises episse epsies epsise epseis epsesi epssei epssie
epesis epessi epeiss epeiss epesis epessi epssei epssie epsesi epseis epsies
epsise eipses eipsse eipess eipess eipses eipsse eispes eispse eiseps eisesp
eissep eisspe eiesps eiessp eiepss eiepss eiesps eiessp eissep eisspe eisesp
eiseps eispes eispse esipes esipse esieps esiesp esisep esispe espies espise
espeis espesi espsei espsie esepis esepsi eseips eseisp esesip esespi esspei
esspie essepi esseip essiep essipe eeisps eeissp eeipss eeipss eeisps eeissp
eesips eesisp eespis eespsi eesspi eessip eepsis eepssi eepiss eepiss eepsis
eepssi eesspi eessip eespsi eespis eesips eesisp esisep esispe esiesp esieps
esipes esipse essiep essipe esseip essepi esspei esspie esesip esespi eseisp
eseips esepis esepsi espsei espsie espesi espeis espies espise iepses iepsse
iepess iepess iepses iepsse iespes iespse ieseps iesesp iessep iesspe ieesps
ieessp ieepss ieepss ieesps ieessp iessep iesspe iesesp ieseps iespes iespse
ipeses ipesse ipeess ipeess ipeses ipesse ipsees ipsese ipsees ipsese ipssee
ipssee ipeses ipesse ipeess ipeess ipeses ipesse ipssee ipssee ipsese ipsees
ipsees ipsese ispees ispese ispees ispese ispsee ispsee isepes isepse iseeps
iseesp isesep isespe iseeps iseesp isepes isepse isespe isesep isseep issepe
isseep issepe isspee isspee iepses iepsse iepess iepess iepses iepsse iespes
iespse ieseps iesesp iessep iesspe ieesps ieessp ieepss ieepss ieesps ieessp
iessep iesspe iesesp ieseps iespes iespse ispsee ispsee ispese ispees ispees
ispese isspee isspee issepe isseep isseep issepe isespe isesep isepse isepes
iseeps iseesp isesep isespe iseesp iseeps isepes isepse seipes seipse seieps
seiesp seisep seispe sepies sepise sepeis sepesi sepsei sepsie seepis seepsi
seeips seeisp seesip seespi sespei sespie sesepi seseip sesiep sesipe siepes
siepse sieeps sieesp siesep siespe sipees sipese sipees sipese sipsee sipsee
siepes siepse sieeps sieesp siesep siespe sispee sispee sisepe siseep siseep
sisepe spiees spiese spiees spiese spisee spisee speies speise speeis speesi
spesei spesie speeis speesi speies speise spesie spesei spseei spseie spseei
spseie spsiee spsiee seipes seipse seieps seiesp seisep seispe sepies sepise
sepeis sepesi sepsei sepsie seepis seepsi seeips seeisp seesip seespi sespei
sespie sesepi seseip sesiep sesipe ssipee ssipee ssiepe ssieep ssieep ssiepe
sspiee sspiee sspeie sspeei sspeei sspeie ssepie ssepei sseipe sseiep sseeip
sseepi ssepei ssepie sseepi sseeip sseiep sseipe eeisps eeissp eeipss eeipss
eeisps eeissp eesips eesisp eespis eespsi eesspi eessip eepsis eepssi eepiss
eepiss eepsis eepssi eesspi eessip eespsi eespis eesips eesisp eiesps eiessp
eiepss eiepss eiesps eiessp eiseps eisesp eispes eispse eisspe eissep eipses
eipsse eipess eipess eipses eipsse eisspe eissep eispse eispes eiseps eisesp
esieps esiesp esipes esipse esispe esisep eseips eseisp esepis esepsi esespi
esesip espeis espesi espies espise espsie espsei essepi esseip esspei esspie
essipe essiep epises episse epiess epiess epises episse epsies epsise epseis
epsesi epssei epssie epesis epessi epeiss epeiss epesis epessi epssei epssie
epsesi epseis epsies epsise esispe esisep esipse esipes esieps esiesp essipe
essiep esspie esspei essepi esseip espsie espsei espise espies espeis espesi
esespi esesip esepsi esepis eseips eseisp seisep seispe seiesp seieps seipes
seipse sesiep sesipe seseip sesepi sespei sespie seesip seespi seeisp seeips
seepis seepsi sepsei sepsie sepesi sepeis sepies sepise siesep siespe sieesp
sieeps siepes siepse siseep sisepe siseep sisepe sispee sispee siesep siespe
sieesp sieeps siepes siepse sipsee sipsee sipese sipees sipees sipese ssieep
ssiepe ssieep ssiepe ssipee ssipee sseiep sseipe sseeip sseepi ssepei ssepie
sseeip sseepi sseiep sseipe ssepie ssepei sspeei sspeie sspeei sspeie sspiee
sspiee seisep seispe seiesp seieps seipes seipse sesiep sesipe seseip sesepi
sespei sespie seesip seespi seeisp seeips seepis seepsi sepsei sepsie sepesi
sepeis sepies sepise spisee spisee spiese spiees spiees spiese spsiee spsiee
spseie spseei spseei spseie spesie spesei speise speies speeis speesi spesei
spesie speesi speeis speies speise

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History of cryptography
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