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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: ozeray
cipher variations:
pafsbz qbgtca rchudb sdivec tejwfd
ufkxge vglyhf whmzig xinajh yjobki
zkpclj alqdmk bmrenl cnsfom dotgpn
epuhqo fqvirp grwjsq hsxktr itylus
juzmvt kvanwu lwboxv mxcpyw nydqzx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: ozeray
Cipher: lavizb

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: ozeray

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: ozeray
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: ozeray
Cipher: bmrenl

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: ozeray
Cipher: 435551241145

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: ozeray
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
o z e r a y 
4 5 5 2 1 4 
3 5 1 4 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: ozeray
Cipher: ykqxqv

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Method #3

Plaintext: ozeray
method variations:
xzfdqu zfdqux fdquxz
dquxzf quxzfd uxzfdq

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: ozeray

all 720 cipher variations:
ozeray ozerya ozeary ozeayr ozeyar ozeyra ozreay ozreya ozraey ozraye ozryae
ozryea ozarey ozarye ozaery ozaeyr ozayer ozayre ozyrae ozyrea ozyare ozyaer
ozyear ozyera oezray oezrya oezary oezayr oezyar oezyra oerzay oerzya oerazy
oerayz oeryaz oeryza oearzy oearyz oeazry oeazyr oeayzr oeayrz oeyraz oeyrza
oeyarz oeyazr oeyzar oeyzra orezay orezya oreazy oreayz oreyaz oreyza orzeay
orzeya orzaey orzaye orzyae orzyea orazey orazye oraezy oraeyz orayez orayze
oryzae oryzea oryaze oryaez oryeaz oryeza oaerzy oaeryz oaezry oaezyr oaeyzr
oaeyrz oarezy oareyz oarzey oarzye oaryze oaryez oazrey oazrye oazery oazeyr
oazyer oazyre oayrze oayrez oayzre oayzer oayezr oayerz oyeraz oyerza oyearz
oyeazr oyezar oyezra oyreaz oyreza oyraez oyraze oyrzae oyrzea oyarez oyarze
oyaerz oyaezr oyazer oyazre oyzrae oyzrea oyzare oyzaer oyzear oyzera zoeray
zoerya zoeary zoeayr zoeyar zoeyra zoreay zoreya zoraey zoraye zoryae zoryea
zoarey zoarye zoaery zoaeyr zoayer zoayre zoyrae zoyrea zoyare zoyaer zoyear
zoyera zeoray zeorya zeoary zeoayr zeoyar zeoyra zeroay zeroya zeraoy zerayo
zeryao zeryoa zearoy zearyo zeaory zeaoyr zeayor zeayro zeyrao zeyroa zeyaro
zeyaor zeyoar zeyora zreoay zreoya zreaoy zreayo zreyao zreyoa zroeay zroeya
zroaey zroaye zroyae zroyea zraoey zraoye zraeoy zraeyo zrayeo zrayoe zryoae
zryoea zryaoe zryaeo zryeao zryeoa zaeroy zaeryo zaeory zaeoyr zaeyor zaeyro
zareoy zareyo zaroey zaroye zaryoe zaryeo zaorey zaorye zaoery zaoeyr zaoyer
zaoyre zayroe zayreo zayore zayoer zayeor zayero zyerao zyeroa zyearo zyeaor
zyeoar zyeora zyreao zyreoa zyraeo zyraoe zyroae zyroea zyareo zyaroe zyaero
zyaeor zyaoer zyaore zyorae zyorea zyoare zyoaer zyoear zyoera ezoray ezorya
ezoary ezoayr ezoyar ezoyra ezroay ezroya ezraoy ezrayo ezryao ezryoa ezaroy
ezaryo ezaory ezaoyr ezayor ezayro ezyrao ezyroa ezyaro ezyaor ezyoar ezyora
eozray eozrya eozary eozayr eozyar eozyra eorzay eorzya eorazy eorayz eoryaz
eoryza eoarzy eoaryz eoazry eoazyr eoayzr eoayrz eoyraz eoyrza eoyarz eoyazr
eoyzar eoyzra erozay erozya eroazy eroayz eroyaz eroyza erzoay erzoya erzaoy
erzayo erzyao erzyoa erazoy erazyo eraozy eraoyz erayoz erayzo eryzao eryzoa
eryazo eryaoz eryoaz eryoza eaorzy eaoryz eaozry eaozyr eaoyzr eaoyrz earozy
earoyz earzoy earzyo earyzo earyoz eazroy eazryo eazory eazoyr eazyor eazyro
eayrzo eayroz eayzro eayzor eayozr eayorz eyoraz eyorza eyoarz eyoazr eyozar
eyozra eyroaz eyroza eyraoz eyrazo eyrzao eyrzoa eyaroz eyarzo eyaorz eyaozr
eyazor eyazro eyzrao eyzroa eyzaro eyzaor eyzoar eyzora rzeoay rzeoya rzeaoy
rzeayo rzeyao rzeyoa rzoeay rzoeya rzoaey rzoaye rzoyae rzoyea rzaoey rzaoye
rzaeoy rzaeyo rzayeo rzayoe rzyoae rzyoea rzyaoe rzyaeo rzyeao rzyeoa rezoay
rezoya rezaoy rezayo rezyao rezyoa reozay reozya reoazy reoayz reoyaz reoyza
reaozy reaoyz reazoy reazyo reayzo reayoz reyoaz reyoza reyaoz reyazo reyzao
reyzoa roezay roezya roeazy roeayz roeyaz roeyza rozeay rozeya rozaey rozaye
rozyae rozyea roazey roazye roaezy roaeyz roayez roayze royzae royzea royaze
royaez royeaz royeza raeozy raeoyz raezoy raezyo raeyzo raeyoz raoezy raoeyz
raozey raozye raoyze raoyez razoey razoye razeoy razeyo razyeo razyoe rayoze
rayoez rayzoe rayzeo rayezo rayeoz ryeoaz ryeoza ryeaoz ryeazo ryezao ryezoa
ryoeaz ryoeza ryoaez ryoaze ryozae ryozea ryaoez ryaoze ryaeoz ryaezo ryazeo
ryazoe ryzoae ryzoea ryzaoe ryzaeo ryzeao ryzeoa azeroy azeryo azeory azeoyr
azeyor azeyro azreoy azreyo azroey azroye azryoe azryeo azorey azorye azoery
azoeyr azoyer azoyre azyroe azyreo azyore azyoer azyeor azyero aezroy aezryo
aezory aezoyr aezyor aezyro aerzoy aerzyo aerozy aeroyz aeryoz aeryzo aeorzy
aeoryz aeozry aeozyr aeoyzr aeoyrz aeyroz aeyrzo aeyorz aeyozr aeyzor aeyzro
arezoy arezyo areozy areoyz areyoz areyzo arzeoy arzeyo arzoey arzoye arzyoe
arzyeo arozey arozye aroezy aroeyz aroyez aroyze aryzoe aryzeo aryoze aryoez
aryeoz aryezo aoerzy aoeryz aoezry aoezyr aoeyzr aoeyrz aorezy aoreyz aorzey
aorzye aoryze aoryez aozrey aozrye aozery aozeyr aozyer aozyre aoyrze aoyrez
aoyzre aoyzer aoyezr aoyerz ayeroz ayerzo ayeorz ayeozr ayezor ayezro ayreoz
ayrezo ayroez ayroze ayrzoe ayrzeo ayorez ayorze ayoerz ayoezr ayozer ayozre
ayzroe ayzreo ayzore ayzoer ayzeor ayzero yzerao yzeroa yzearo yzeaor yzeoar
yzeora yzreao yzreoa yzraeo yzraoe yzroae yzroea yzareo yzaroe yzaero yzaeor
yzaoer yzaore yzorae yzorea yzoare yzoaer yzoear yzoera yezrao yezroa yezaro
yezaor yezoar yezora yerzao yerzoa yerazo yeraoz yeroaz yeroza yearzo yearoz
yeazro yeazor yeaozr yeaorz yeoraz yeorza yeoarz yeoazr yeozar yeozra yrezao
yrezoa yreazo yreaoz yreoaz yreoza yrzeao yrzeoa yrzaeo yrzaoe yrzoae yrzoea
yrazeo yrazoe yraezo yraeoz yraoez yraoze yrozae yrozea yroaze yroaez yroeaz
yroeza yaerzo yaeroz yaezro yaezor yaeozr yaeorz yarezo yareoz yarzeo yarzoe
yaroze yaroez yazreo yazroe yazero yazeor yazoer yazore yaorze yaorez yaozre
yaozer yaoezr yaoerz yoeraz yoerza yoearz yoeazr yoezar yoezra yoreaz yoreza
yoraez yoraze yorzae yorzea yoarez yoarze yoaerz yoaezr yoazer yoazre yozrae
yozrea yozare yozaer yozear yozera

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History of cryptography
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