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praecepisseque

alyea

chapelward

astriction

coccothrinax

sulfamide


Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: orodes
cipher variations:
pspeft qtqfgu rurghv svshiw twtijx
uxujky vyvklz wzwlma xaxmnb ybynoc
zczopd adapqe bebqrf cfcrsg dgdsth
ehetui fifuvj gjgvwk hkhwxl ilixym
jmjyzn knkzao lolabp mpmbcq nqncdr

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: orodes
Cipher: lilwvh

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: orodes
Cipher: ABBAB BAAAA ABBAB AAABB AABAA BAAAB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: orodes
cipher variations:
pspeftrarkndtitqvnvqvwdxxyxclhzgzitrdwdujlfefarv
hmhgzfjujmhplclspznknyxjqtqfgusbsloeujurwowrwxey
yzydmiahajusexevkmgfgbswinihagkvkniqmdmtqaolozyk
rurghvtctmpfvkvsxpxsxyfzzazenjbibkvtfyfwlnhghctx
jojibhlwlojrnenurbpmpazlsvshiwudunqgwlwtyqytyzga
abafokcjclwugzgxmoihiduykpkjcimxmpksofovscqnqbam
twtijxvevorhxmxuzrzuzahbbcbgpldkdmxvhahynpjijevz
lqlkdjnynqltpgpwtdrorcbnuxujkywfwpsiynyvasavabic
cdchqmelenywibizoqkjkfwamrmlekozormuqhqxuespsdco
vyvklzxgxqtjzozwbtbwbcjddedirnfmfozxjcjaprlklgxb
nsnmflpapsnvriryvftqtedpwzwlmayhyrukapaxcucxcdke
efejsogngpaykdkbqsmlmhycotongmqbqtowsjszwgurufeq
xaxmnbzizsvlbqbydvdydelffgfktphohqbzlelcrtnmnizd
pupohnrcrupxtktaxhvsvgfrybynocajatwmcrczewezefmg
ghgluqipircamfmdsuonojaeqvqpiosdsvqyulubyiwtwhgs
zczopdbkbuxndsdafxfafgnhhihmvrjqjsdbngnetvpopkbf
rwrqjptetwrzvmvczjxuxihtadapqeclcvyoetebgygbghoi
ijinwskrktecohofuwqpqlcgsxsrkqufuxsawnwdakyvyjiu
bebqrfdmdwzpfufchzhchipjjkjoxtlslufdpipgvxrqrmdh
tytslrvgvytbxoxeblzwzkjvcfcrsgenexaqgvgdiaidijqk
klkpyumtmvgeqjqhwysrsneiuzutmswhwzucypyfcmaxalkw
dgdsthfofybrhwhejbjejkrllmlqzvnunwhfrkrixztstofj
vavuntxixavdzqzgdnbybmlxehetuigpgzcsixifkckfklsm
mnmrawovoxigslsjyautupgkwbwvouyjybwearaheoczcnmy
fifuvjhqhadtjyjgldlglmtnnonsbxpwpyjhtmtkzbvuvqhl
xcxwpvzkzcxfbsbifpdadonzgjgvwkiribeukzkhmemhmnuo
opotcyqxqzkiunulacwvwrimydyxqwaladygctcjgqebepoa
hkhwxljsjcfvlalinfninovppqpudzryraljvovmbdxwxsjn
zezyrxbmbezhdudkhrfcfqpbilixymktkdgwmbmjogojopwq
qrqveaszsbmkwpwnceyxytkoafazsycncfaievelisgdgrqc
jmjyznlulehxncnkphpkpqxrrsrwfbtatcnlxqxodfzyzulp
bgbatzdodgbjfwfmjthehsrdknkzaomvmfiyodolqiqlqrys
stsxgcubudomyrypegazavmqchcbuaepehckgxgnkuifitse
lolabpnwngjzpepmrjrmrszttutyhdvcvepnzszqfhbabwnr
didcvbfqfidlhyholvjgjutfmpmbcqoxohkaqfqnsksnstau
uvuziewdwfqoatargicbcxosejedwcgrgjemizipmwkhkvug
nqncdrpypilbrgrotltotubvvwvajfxexgrpbubshjdcdypt
fkfexdhshkfnjajqnxlilwvhorodesqzqjmcshspumupuvcw
wxwbkgyfyhsqcvctikedezquglgfyeitilgokbkroymjmxwi

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: orodes
Cipher: bebqrf

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: orodes
Cipher: 432443415134

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: orodes
method variations:
twtikxybyopcdgdtuhimiyzn

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
o r o d e s 
4 2 4 4 5 3 
3 4 3 1 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
424453343114
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: orodes
Cipher: itpscq

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: orodes
method variations:
htsvlt tsvlth svltht
vlthts lthtsv thtsvl

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: orodes

all 720 cipher variations:
orodes orodse oroeds oroesd orosed orosde ordoes ordose ordeos ordeso ordseo
ordsoe oredos oredso oreods oreosd oresod oresdo orsdeo orsdoe orsedo orseod
orsoed orsode oordes oordse ooreds ooresd oorsed oorsde oodres oodrse ooders
oodesr oodser oodsre ooedrs ooedsr ooerds ooersd ooesrd ooesdr oosder oosdre
oosedr ooserd oosred oosrde odores odorse odoers odoesr odoser odosre odroes
odrose odreos odreso odrseo odrsoe oderos oderso odeors odeosr odesor odesro
odsreo odsroe odsero odseor odsoer odsore oeodrs oeodsr oeords oeorsd oeosrd
oeosdr oedors oedosr oedros oedrso oedsro oedsor oerdos oerdso oerods oerosd
oersod oersdo oesdro oesdor oesrdo oesrod oesord oesodr osoder osodre osoedr
osoerd osored osorde osdoer osdore osdeor osdero osdreo osdroe osedor osedro
oseodr oseord oserod oserdo osrdeo osrdoe osredo osreod osroed osrode roodes
roodse rooeds rooesd roosed roosde rodoes rodose rodeos rodeso rodseo rodsoe
roedos roedso roeods roeosd roesod roesdo rosdeo rosdoe rosedo roseod rosoed
rosode roodes roodse rooeds rooesd roosed roosde rodoes rodose rodeos rodeso
rodseo rodsoe roedos roedso roeods roeosd roesod roesdo rosdeo rosdoe rosedo
roseod rosoed rosode rdooes rdoose rdoeos rdoeso rdoseo rdosoe rdooes rdoose
rdoeos rdoeso rdoseo rdosoe rdeoos rdeoso rdeoos rdeoso rdesoo rdesoo rdsoeo
rdsooe rdseoo rdseoo rdsoeo rdsooe reodos reodso reoods reoosd reosod reosdo
redoos redoso redoos redoso redsoo redsoo reodos reodso reoods reoosd reosod
reosdo resdoo resdoo resodo resood resood resodo rsodeo rsodoe rsoedo rsoeod
rsooed rsoode rsdoeo rsdooe rsdeoo rsdeoo rsdoeo rsdooe rsedoo rsedoo rseodo
rseood rseood rseodo rsodeo rsodoe rsoedo rsoeod rsooed rsoode orodes orodse
oroeds oroesd orosed orosde ordoes ordose ordeos ordeso ordseo ordsoe oredos
oredso oreods oreosd oresod oresdo orsdeo orsdoe orsedo orseod orsoed orsode
oordes oordse ooreds ooresd oorsed oorsde oodres oodrse ooders oodesr oodser
oodsre ooedrs ooedsr ooerds ooersd ooesrd ooesdr oosder oosdre oosedr ooserd
oosred oosrde odores odorse odoers odoesr odoser odosre odroes odrose odreos
odreso odrseo odrsoe oderos oderso odeors odeosr odesor odesro odsreo odsroe
odsero odseor odsoer odsore oeodrs oeodsr oeords oeorsd oeosrd oeosdr oedors
oedosr oedros oedrso oedsro oedsor oerdos oerdso oerods oerosd oersod oersdo
oesdro oesdor oesrdo oesrod oesord oesodr osoder osodre osoedr osoerd osored
osorde osdoer osdore osdeor osdero osdreo osdroe osedor osedro oseodr oseord
oserod oserdo osrdeo osrdoe osredo osreod osroed osrode drooes droose droeos
droeso droseo drosoe drooes droose droeos droeso droseo drosoe dreoos dreoso
dreoos dreoso dresoo dresoo drsoeo drsooe drseoo drseoo drsoeo drsooe doroes
dorose doreos doreso dorseo dorsoe doores doorse dooers dooesr dooser doosre
doeors doeosr doeros doerso doesro doesor dosoer dosore doseor dosero dosreo
dosroe doores doorse dooers dooesr dooser doosre doroes dorose doreos doreso
dorseo dorsoe doeros doerso doeors doeosr doesor doesro dosreo dosroe dosero
doseor dosoer dosore deoors deoosr deoros deorso deosro deosor deoors deoosr
deoros deorso deosro deosor deroos deroso deroos deroso dersoo dersoo desoro
desoor desroo desroo desoro desoor dsooer dsoore dsoeor dsoero dsoreo dsoroe
dsooer dsoore dsoeor dsoero dsoreo dsoroe dseoor dseoro dseoor dseoro dseroo
dseroo dsroeo dsrooe dsreoo dsreoo dsroeo dsrooe erodos erodso eroods eroosd
erosod erosdo erdoos erdoso erdoos erdoso erdsoo erdsoo erodos erodso eroods
eroosd erosod erosdo ersdoo ersdoo ersodo ersood ersood ersodo eordos eordso
eorods eorosd eorsod eorsdo eodros eodrso eodors eodosr eodsor eodsro eoodrs
eoodsr eoords eoorsd eoosrd eoosdr eosdor eosdro eosodr eosord eosrod eosrdo
edoros edorso edoors edoosr edosor edosro edroos edroso edroos edroso edrsoo
edrsoo edoros edorso edoors edoosr edosor edosro edsroo edsroo edsoro edsoor
edsoor edsoro eoodrs eoodsr eoords eoorsd eoosrd eoosdr eodors eodosr eodros
eodrso eodsro eodsor eordos eordso eorods eorosd eorsod eorsdo eosdro eosdor
eosrdo eosrod eosord eosodr esodor esodro esoodr esoord esorod esordo esdoor
esdoro esdoor esdoro esdroo esdroo esodor esodro esoodr esoord esorod esordo
esrdoo esrdoo esrodo esrood esrood esrodo srodeo srodoe sroedo sroeod srooed
sroode srdoeo srdooe srdeoo srdeoo srdoeo srdooe sredoo sredoo sreodo sreood
sreood sreodo srodeo srodoe sroedo sroeod srooed sroode sordeo sordoe soredo
soreod soroed sorode sodreo sodroe sodero sodeor sodoer sodore soedro soedor
soerdo soerod soeord soeodr sooder soodre sooedr sooerd soored soorde sdoreo
sdoroe sdoero sdoeor sdooer sdoore sdroeo sdrooe sdreoo sdreoo sdroeo sdrooe
sderoo sderoo sdeoro sdeoor sdeoor sdeoro sdoreo sdoroe sdoero sdoeor sdooer
sdoore seodro seodor seordo seorod seoord seoodr sedoro sedoor sedroo sedroo
sedoro sedoor serdoo serdoo serodo serood serood serodo seodro seodor seordo
seorod seoord seoodr sooder soodre sooedr sooerd soored soorde sodoer sodore
sodeor sodero sodreo sodroe soedor soedro soeodr soeord soerod soerdo sordeo
sordoe soredo soreod soroed sorode

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History of cryptography
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