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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: ontgvt
cipher variations:
pouhwu qpvixv rqwjyw srxkzx tsylay
utzmbz vuanca wvbodb xwcpec yxdqfd
zyerge azfshf bagtig cbhujh dcivki
edjwlj fekxmk gflynl hgmzom ihnapn
jiobqo kjpcrp lkqdsq mlretr nmsfus

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: ontgvt
Cipher: lmgteg

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: ontgvt
Cipher: ABBAB ABBAA BAABA AABBA BBBAB BAABA

Read more ...

 

Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: ontgvt
cipher variations:
pouhwurogtmgtosfcsvoersexoqdiqzocpycdoaneafomzum
hoylkyjokxaklowjqwnoivgiqpvixvsphunhuptgdtwpfstf
yprejrapdqzdepbofbgpnavnipzmlzkplyblmpxkrxopjwhj
rqwjywtqivoivquheuxqgtugzqsfksbqeraefqcpgchqobwo
jqanmalqmzcmnqylsypqkxiksrxkzxurjwpjwrvifvyrhuvh
artgltcrfsbfgrdqhdirpcxpkrbonbmrnadnorzmtzqrlyjl
tsylayvskxqkxswjgwzsivwibsuhmudsgtcghseriejsqdyq
lscpocnsobeopsanuarsmzkmutzmbzwtlyrlytxkhxatjwxj
ctvinvethudhitfsjfktrezrmtdqpdotpcfpqtbovbstnaln
vuancaxumzsmzuyliybukxykduwjowfuiveijugtkglusfas
nuerqepuqdgqrucpwctuobmowvbodbyvnatnavzmjzcvlyzl
evxkpxgvjwfjkvhulhmvtgbtovfsrfqvrehrsvdqxduvpcnp
xwcpeczwobuobwankadwmzamfwylqyhwkxgklwivminwuhcu
pwgtsgrwsfistweryevwqdoqyxdqfdaxpcvpcxbolbexnabn
gxzmrzixlyhlmxjwnjoxvidvqxhuthsxtgjtuxfszfwxrepr
zyergebyqdwqdycpmcfyobcohyansajymzimnykxokpywjew
ryivuityuhkuvygtagxysfqsazfshfczrexrezdqndgzpcdp
izbotbkznajnozlyplqzxkfxszjwvjuzvilvwzhubhyztgrt
bagtigdasfysfaeroehaqdeqjacpuclaobkopamzqmraylgy
takxwkvawjmwxaivcizauhsucbhujhebtgztgbfspfibrefr
kbdqvdmbpclpqbnarnsbzmhzublyxlwbxknxybjwdjabvitv
dcivkifcuhauhcgtqgjcsfgslcerwencqdmqrcobsotcania
vcmzymxcyloyzckxekbcwjuwedjwljgdvibvidhurhkdtght
mdfsxfodrenrsdpctpudbojbwdnaznydzmpzadlyflcdxkvx
fekxmkhewjcwjeivsileuhiunegtygpesfosteqduqvecpkc
xeobaozeanqabemzgmdeylwygflynlifxkdxkfjwtjmfvijv
ofhuzhqftgptufrevrwfdqldyfpcbpafborbcfnahnefzmxz
hgmzomjgyleylgkxukngwjkwpgivairguhquvgsfwsxgerme
zgqdcqbgcpscdgobiofganyaihnapnkhzmfzmhlyvlohxklx
qhjwbjshvirvwhtgxtyhfsnfahredrchdqtdehpcjpghbozb
jiobqolianganimzwmpiylmyrikxcktiwjswxiuhyuzigtog
bisfesdieruefiqdkqhicpackjpcrpmjbohbojnaxnqjzmnz
sjlydlujxktxyjvizvajhuphcjtgftejfsvfgjrelrijdqbd
lkqdsqnkcpicpkobyorkanoatkmzemvkyluyzkwjawbkivqi
dkuhgufkgtwghksfmsjkercemlretroldqjdqlpczpslbopb
ulnafnwlzmvzalxkbxcljwrjelvihvglhuxhiltgntklfsdf
nmsfuspmerkermqdaqtmcpqcvmobgoxmanwabmylcydmkxsk
fmwjiwhmivyijmuhoulmgtegontgvtqnfslfsnrebrundqrd
wnpchpynboxbcnzmdzenlytlgnxkjxinjwzjknvipvmnhufh

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: ontgvt
Cipher: bagtig

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: ontgvt
Cipher: 433344221544

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: ontgvt
method variations:
tsymayyxdrfddciwliihobqo

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
o n t g v t 
4 3 4 2 1 4 
3 3 4 2 5 4 
They are then read out in rows:
434214334254
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: ontgvt
Cipher: oiqniu

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: ontgvt
method variations:
nsibut sibutn ibutns
butnsi utnsib tnsibu

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: ontgvt

all 720 cipher variations:
ontgvt ontgtv ontvgt ontvtg onttvg onttgv ongtvt ongttv ongvtt ongvtt ongtvt
ongttv onvgtt onvgtt onvtgt onvttg onvttg onvtgt ontgvt ontgtv ontvgt ontvtg
onttvg onttgv otngvt otngtv otnvgt otnvtg otntvg otntgv otgnvt otgntv otgvnt
otgvtn otgtvn otgtnv otvgnt otvgtn otvngt otvntg otvtng otvtgn ottgvn ottgnv
ottvgn ottvng ottnvg ottngv ogtnvt ogtntv ogtvnt ogtvtn ogttvn ogttnv ogntvt
ognttv ognvtt ognvtt ogntvt ognttv ogvntt ogvntt ogvtnt ogvttn ogvttn ogvtnt
ogtnvt ogtntv ogtvnt ogtvtn ogttvn ogttnv ovtgnt ovtgtn ovtngt ovtntg ovttng
ovttgn ovgtnt ovgttn ovgntt ovgntt ovgtnt ovgttn ovngtt ovngtt ovntgt ovnttg
ovnttg ovntgt ovtgnt ovtgtn ovtngt ovtntg ovttng ovttgn ottgvn ottgnv ottvgn
ottvng ottnvg ottngv otgtvn otgtnv otgvtn otgvnt otgnvt otgntv otvgtn otvgnt
otvtgn otvtng otvntg otvngt otngvt otngtv otnvgt otnvtg otntvg otntgv notgvt
notgtv notvgt notvtg nottvg nottgv nogtvt nogttv nogvtt nogvtt nogtvt nogttv
novgtt novgtt novtgt novttg novttg novtgt notgvt notgtv notvgt notvtg nottvg
nottgv ntogvt ntogtv ntovgt ntovtg ntotvg ntotgv ntgovt ntgotv ntgvot ntgvto
ntgtvo ntgtov ntvgot ntvgto ntvogt ntvotg ntvtog ntvtgo nttgvo nttgov nttvgo
nttvog nttovg nttogv ngtovt ngtotv ngtvot ngtvto ngttvo ngttov ngotvt ngottv
ngovtt ngovtt ngotvt ngottv ngvott ngvott ngvtot ngvtto ngvtto ngvtot ngtovt
ngtotv ngtvot ngtvto ngttvo ngttov nvtgot nvtgto nvtogt nvtotg nvttog nvttgo
nvgtot nvgtto nvgott nvgott nvgtot nvgtto nvogtt nvogtt nvotgt nvottg nvottg
nvotgt nvtgot nvtgto nvtogt nvtotg nvttog nvttgo nttgvo nttgov nttvgo nttvog
nttovg nttogv ntgtvo ntgtov ntgvto ntgvot ntgovt ntgotv ntvgto ntvgot ntvtgo
ntvtog ntvotg ntvogt ntogvt ntogtv ntovgt ntovtg ntotvg ntotgv tnogvt tnogtv
tnovgt tnovtg tnotvg tnotgv tngovt tngotv tngvot tngvto tngtvo tngtov tnvgot
tnvgto tnvogt tnvotg tnvtog tnvtgo tntgvo tntgov tntvgo tntvog tntovg tntogv
tongvt tongtv tonvgt tonvtg tontvg tontgv tognvt togntv togvnt togvtn togtvn
togtnv tovgnt tovgtn tovngt tovntg tovtng tovtgn totgvn totgnv totvgn totvng
totnvg totngv tgonvt tgontv tgovnt tgovtn tgotvn tgotnv tgnovt tgnotv tgnvot
tgnvto tgntvo tgntov tgvnot tgvnto tgvont tgvotn tgvton tgvtno tgtnvo tgtnov
tgtvno tgtvon tgtovn tgtonv tvognt tvogtn tvongt tvontg tvotng tvotgn tvgont
tvgotn tvgnot tvgnto tvgtno tvgton tvngot tvngto tvnogt tvnotg tvntog tvntgo
tvtgno tvtgon tvtngo tvtnog tvtong tvtogn ttogvn ttognv ttovgn ttovng ttonvg
ttongv ttgovn ttgonv ttgvon ttgvno ttgnvo ttgnov ttvgon ttvgno ttvogn ttvong
ttvnog ttvngo ttngvo ttngov ttnvgo ttnvog ttnovg ttnogv gntovt gntotv gntvot
gntvto gnttvo gnttov gnotvt gnottv gnovtt gnovtt gnotvt gnottv gnvott gnvott
gnvtot gnvtto gnvtto gnvtot gntovt gntotv gntvot gntvto gnttvo gnttov gtnovt
gtnotv gtnvot gtnvto gtntvo gtntov gtonvt gtontv gtovnt gtovtn gtotvn gtotnv
gtvont gtvotn gtvnot gtvnto gtvtno gtvton gttovn gttonv gttvon gttvno gttnvo
gttnov gotnvt gotntv gotvnt gotvtn gottvn gottnv gontvt gonttv gonvtt gonvtt
gontvt gonttv govntt govntt govtnt govttn govttn govtnt gotnvt gotntv gotvnt
gotvtn gottvn gottnv gvtont gvtotn gvtnot gvtnto gvttno gvtton gvotnt gvottn
gvontt gvontt gvotnt gvottn gvnott gvnott gvntot gvntto gvntto gvntot gvtont
gvtotn gvtnot gvtnto gvttno gvtton gttovn gttonv gttvon gttvno gttnvo gttnov
gtotvn gtotnv gtovtn gtovnt gtonvt gtontv gtvotn gtvont gtvton gtvtno gtvnto
gtvnot gtnovt gtnotv gtnvot gtnvto gtntvo gtntov vntgot vntgto vntogt vntotg
vnttog vnttgo vngtot vngtto vngott vngott vngtot vngtto vnogtt vnogtt vnotgt
vnottg vnottg vnotgt vntgot vntgto vntogt vntotg vnttog vnttgo vtngot vtngto
vtnogt vtnotg vtntog vtntgo vtgnot vtgnto vtgont vtgotn vtgton vtgtno vtognt
vtogtn vtongt vtontg vtotng vtotgn vttgon vttgno vttogn vttong vttnog vttngo
vgtnot vgtnto vgtont vgtotn vgtton vgttno vgntot vgntto vgnott vgnott vgntot
vgntto vgontt vgontt vgotnt vgottn vgottn vgotnt vgtnot vgtnto vgtont vgtotn
vgtton vgttno votgnt votgtn votngt votntg vottng vottgn vogtnt vogttn vogntt
vogntt vogtnt vogttn vongtt vongtt vontgt vonttg vonttg vontgt votgnt votgtn
votngt votntg vottng vottgn vttgon vttgno vttogn vttong vttnog vttngo vtgton
vtgtno vtgotn vtgont vtgnot vtgnto vtogtn vtognt vtotgn vtotng vtontg vtongt
vtngot vtngto vtnogt vtnotg vtntog vtntgo tntgvo tntgov tntvgo tntvog tntovg
tntogv tngtvo tngtov tngvto tngvot tngovt tngotv tnvgto tnvgot tnvtgo tnvtog
tnvotg tnvogt tnogvt tnogtv tnovgt tnovtg tnotvg tnotgv ttngvo ttngov ttnvgo
ttnvog ttnovg ttnogv ttgnvo ttgnov ttgvno ttgvon ttgovn ttgonv ttvgno ttvgon
ttvngo ttvnog ttvong ttvogn ttogvn ttognv ttovgn ttovng ttonvg ttongv tgtnvo
tgtnov tgtvno tgtvon tgtovn tgtonv tgntvo tgntov tgnvto tgnvot tgnovt tgnotv
tgvnto tgvnot tgvtno tgvton tgvotn tgvont tgonvt tgontv tgovnt tgovtn tgotvn
tgotnv tvtgno tvtgon tvtngo tvtnog tvtong tvtogn tvgtno tvgton tvgnto tvgnot
tvgont tvgotn tvngto tvngot tvntgo tvntog tvnotg tvnogt tvognt tvogtn tvongt
tvontg tvotng tvotgn totgvn totgnv totvgn totvng totnvg totngv togtvn togtnv
togvtn togvnt tognvt togntv tovgtn tovgnt tovtgn tovtng tovntg tovngt tongvt
tongtv tonvgt tonvtg tontvg tontgv

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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