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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: oisin
cipher variations:
pjtjo qkukp rlvlq smwmr tnxns
uoyot vpzpu wqaqv xrbrw yscsx
ztdty aueuz bvfva cwgwb dxhxc
eyiyd fzjze gakaf hblbg icmch
jdndi keoej lfpfk mgqgl nhrhm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: oisin
Cipher: lrhrm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: oisin
Cipher: ABBAB ABAAA BAAAB ABAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: oisin
cipher variations:
pjtjorzdzotpnpovfxfoxvhvozlrlodrlrofhvho
hxfxojnpnoldzdontjtoqkukpsaeapuqoqpwgygp
ywiwpamsmpesmspgiwipiygypkoqopmeaepoukup
rlvlqtbfbqvrprqxhzhqzxjxqbntnqftntqhjxjq
jzhzqlprpqnfbfqpvlvqsmwmrucgcrwsqsryiair
aykyrcouorguourikykrkaiarmqsqrogcgrqwmwr
tnxnsvdhdsxtrtszjbjsbzlzsdpvpshvpvsjlzls
lbjbsnrtrsphdhsrxnxsuoyotweietyusutakckt
camateqwqtiwqwtkmamtmckctosustqieitsyoyt
vpzpuxfjfuzvtvubldludbnbufrxrujxrxulnbnu
ndlduptvturjfjutzpzuwqaqvygkgvawuwvcmemv
ecocvgsysvkysyvmocovoemevquwuvskgkvuaqav
xrbrwzhlhwbxvxwdnfnwfdpdwhtztwlztzwnpdpw
pfnfwrvxvwtlhlwvbrbwyscsxaimixcywyxeogox
geqexiuauxmauaxoqeqxqgogxswywxumimxwcscx
ztdtybjnjydzxzyfphpyhfrfyjvbvynbvbyprfry
rhphytxzxyvnjnyxdtdyaueuzckokzeayazgqiqz
igsgzkwcwzocwczqsgszsiqizuyayzwokozyeuez
bvfvadlplafbzbahrjrajhthalxdxapdxdarthta
tjrjavzbzaxplpazfvfacwgwbemqmbgcacbisksb
kiuibmyeybqeyebsuiubukskbwacabyqmqbagwgb
dxhxcfnrnchdbdcjtltcljvjcnzfzcrfzfctvjvc
vltlcxbdbczrnrcbhxhceyiydgosodiecedkumud
mkwkdoagadsgagduwkwdwmumdycecdasosdciyid
fzjzehptpejfdfelvnvenlxlepbhbethbhevxlxe
xnvnezdfdebtptedjzjegakafiquqfkgegfmwowf
omymfqcicfuicifwymyfyowofaegefcuqufekakf
hblbgjrvrglhfhgnxpxgpnzngrdjdgvjdjgxznzg
zpxpgbfhfgdvrvgflblgicmchkswshmigihoyqyh
qoaohsekehwkekhyaoahaqyqhcgighewswhgmcmh
jdndiltxtinjhjipzrzirpbpitflfixlflizbpbi
brzridhjhifxtxihndnikeoejmuyujokikjqasaj
sqcqjugmgjymgmjacqcjcsasjeikijgyuyjioeoj
lfpfknvzvkpljlkrbtbktrdrkvhnhkznhnkbdrdk
dtbtkfjljkhzvzkjpfpkmgqglowawlqmkmlscucl
useslwioilaoiolceseleuculgkmkliawalkqgql
nhrhmpxbxmrnlnmtdvdmvtftmxjpjmbpjpmdftfm
fvdvmhlnlmjbxbmlrhrmoisinqycynsomonuewen
wugunykqkncqkqnegugngwewnimomnkcycnmsisn

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: oisin
Cipher: bvfva

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: oisin
Cipher: 4342344233

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: oisin
method variations:
toxosytctxdyhycidndh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
o i s i n 
4 4 3 4 3 
3 2 4 2 3 
They are then read out in rows:
4434332423
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: oisin
Cipher: tsnrm

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: oisin
method variations:
smtms mtmss tmssm
mssmt ssmtm

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: oisin

all 120 cipher variations:
oisin oisni oiisn oiins oinis oinsi osiin osini osiin osini osnii
osnii oisin oisni oiisn oiins oinis oinsi onsii onsii onisi oniis
oniis onisi iosin iosni ioisn ioins ionis ionsi isoin isoni ision
isino isnio isnoi iison iisno iiosn iions iinos iinso insio insoi
iniso inios inois inosi sioin sioni siion siino sinio sinoi soiin
soini soiin soini sonii sonii sioin sioni siion siino sinio sinoi
snoii snoii snioi sniio sniio snioi iison iisno iiosn iions iinos
iinso ision isino isoin isoni isnoi isnio iosin iosni ioisn ioins
ionis ionsi insoi insio inosi inois inios iniso nisio nisoi niiso
niios niois niosi nsiio nsioi nsiio nsioi nsoii nsoii nisio nisoi
niiso niios niois niosi nosii nosii noisi noiis noiis noisi

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

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