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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: newhaw
cipher variations:
ofxibx pgyjcy qhzkdz rialea sjbmfb
tkcngc uldohd vmepie wnfqjf xogrkg
yphslh zqitmi arjunj bskvok ctlwpl
dumxqm evnyrn fwozso gxpatp hyqbuq
izrcvr jasdws kbtext lcufyu mdvgzv

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: newhaw
Cipher: mvdszd

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: newhaw
Cipher: ABBAA AABAA BABAA AABBB AAAAA BABAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: newhaw
cipher variations:
ofxibxonpwbpovhkbhodzybzolrmbrotjabjojtcbtorlqbl
ozdebdohvsbvopngbnoxfubfpgyjcypoqxcqpwilcipeazca
pmsncspukbckpkudcupsmrcmpaefcepiwtcwpqohcopygvcg
qhzkdzqprydrqxjmdjqfbadbqntodtqvlcdlqlvedvqtnsdn
qbfgdfqjxudxqrpidpqzhwdhrialearqszesryknekrgcbec
roupeurwmdemrmwfewruoteorcghegrkyveyrsqjeqraixei
sjbmfbsrtaftszloflshdcfdspvqfvsxnefnsnxgfxsvpufp
sdhifhslzwfzstrkfrsbjyfjtkcngctsubgutampgmtiedge
tqwrgwtyofgotoyhgytwqvgqteijgitmaxgatuslgstckzgk
uldohdutvchvubnqhnujfehfurxshxuzpghpupzihzuxrwhr
ufjkhjunbyhbuvtmhtudlahlvmepievuwdiwvcoriovkgfig
vsytiyvaqhiqvqajiavysxisvgklikvoczicvwuniuvembim
wnfqjfwvxejxwdpsjpwlhgjhwtzujzwbrijrwrbkjbwztyjt
whlmjlwpdajdwxvojvwfncjnxogrkgxwyfkyxeqtkqxmihki
xuavkaxcsjksxsclkcxauzkuximnkmxqebkexywpkwxgodko
yphslhyxzglzyfrulrynjiljyvbwlbydtkltytdmldybvalv
yjnolnyrfclfyzxqlxyhpelpzqitmizyahmazgsvmszokjmk
zwcxmczeulmuzuenmezcwbmwzkopmozsgdmgzayrmyziqfmq
arjunjazbinbahtwntaplknlaxdyndafvmnvavfonfadxcnx
alpqnpathenhabzsnzajrgnrbskvokbacjocbiuxoubqmlom
byezoebgwnowbwgpogbeydoybmqroqbuifoibcatoabkshos
ctlwplcbdkpdcjvypvcrnmpnczfapfchxopxcxhqphcfzepz
cnrsprcvjgpjcdbupbcltiptdumxqmdcelqedkwzqwdsonqo
dagbqgdiypqydyirqidgafqadostqsdwkhqkdecvqcdmujqu
evnyrnedfmrfelxarxetporpebhcrhejzqrzezjsrjehbgrb
epturtexlirlefdwrdenvkrvfwozsofegnsgfmybsyfuqpsq
fcidsifkarsafaktskfichscfquvsufymjsmfgexsefowlsw
gxpatpgfhothgnzctzgvrqtrgdjetjglbstbgblutlgjditd
grvwtvgznktnghfytfgpxmtxhyqbuqhgipuihoaduahwsrus
hekfukhmctuchcmvumhkejuehswxuwhaoluohigzughqynuy
izrcvrihjqvjipbevbixtsvtiflgvlinduvdidnwvnilfkvf
itxyvxibpmvpijhavhirzovzjasdwsjikrwkjqcfwcjyutwu
jgmhwmjoevwejeoxwojmglwgjuyzwyjcqnwqjkibwijsapwa
kbtextkjlsxlkrdgxdkzvuxvkhnixnkpfwxfkfpyxpknhmxh
kvzaxzkdroxrkljcxjktbqxblcufyulkmtymlsehyelawvyw
liojyolqgxyglgqzyqloinyilwabyalespyslmkdyklucryc
mdvgzvmlnuznmtfizfmbxwzxmjpkzpmrhyzhmhrazrmpjozj
mxbczbmftqztmnlezlmvdszdnewhawnmovaonugjagncyxay
nkqlaqnsizainisbasnqkpaknycdacnguraunomfamnwetae

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: newhaw
Cipher: arjunj

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: newhaw
Cipher: 335125321125

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: newhaw
method variations:
skbnfbxpgslgcumxqmhzrcvr

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
n e w h a w 
3 5 2 3 1 2 
3 1 5 2 1 5 
They are then read out in rows:
352312315215
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: newhaw
Cipher: xmfckv

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: newhaw
method variations:
xfpbfp fpbfpx pbfpxf
bfpxfp fpxfpb pxfpbf

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: newhaw

all 720 cipher variations:
newhaw newhwa newahw newawh newwah newwha nehwaw nehwwa nehaww nehaww nehwaw
nehwwa neahww neahww neawhw neawwh neawwh neawhw newhaw newhwa newahw newawh
newwah newwha nwehaw nwehwa nweahw nweawh nwewah nwewha nwheaw nwhewa nwhaew
nwhawe nwhwae nwhwea nwahew nwahwe nwaehw nwaewh nwaweh nwawhe nwwhae nwwhea
nwwahe nwwaeh nwweah nwweha nhweaw nhwewa nhwaew nhwawe nhwwae nhwwea nhewaw
nhewwa nheaww nheaww nhewaw nhewwa nhaeww nhaeww nhawew nhawwe nhawwe nhawew
nhweaw nhwewa nhwaew nhwawe nhwwae nhwwea nawhew nawhwe nawehw nawewh nawweh
nawwhe nahwew nahwwe naheww naheww nahwew nahwwe naehww naehww naewhw naewwh
naewwh naewhw nawhew nawhwe nawehw nawewh nawweh nawwhe nwwhae nwwhea nwwahe
nwwaeh nwweah nwweha nwhwae nwhwea nwhawe nwhaew nwheaw nwhewa nwahwe nwahew
nwawhe nwaweh nwaewh nwaehw nwehaw nwehwa nweahw nweawh nwewah nwewha enwhaw
enwhwa enwahw enwawh enwwah enwwha enhwaw enhwwa enhaww enhaww enhwaw enhwwa
enahww enahww enawhw enawwh enawwh enawhw enwhaw enwhwa enwahw enwawh enwwah
enwwha ewnhaw ewnhwa ewnahw ewnawh ewnwah ewnwha ewhnaw ewhnwa ewhanw ewhawn
ewhwan ewhwna ewahnw ewahwn ewanhw ewanwh ewawnh ewawhn ewwhan ewwhna ewwahn
ewwanh ewwnah ewwnha ehwnaw ehwnwa ehwanw ehwawn ehwwan ehwwna ehnwaw ehnwwa
ehnaww ehnaww ehnwaw ehnwwa ehanww ehanww ehawnw ehawwn ehawwn ehawnw ehwnaw
ehwnwa ehwanw ehwawn ehwwan ehwwna eawhnw eawhwn eawnhw eawnwh eawwnh eawwhn
eahwnw eahwwn eahnww eahnww eahwnw eahwwn eanhww eanhww eanwhw eanwwh eanwwh
eanwhw eawhnw eawhwn eawnhw eawnwh eawwnh eawwhn ewwhan ewwhna ewwahn ewwanh
ewwnah ewwnha ewhwan ewhwna ewhawn ewhanw ewhnaw ewhnwa ewahwn ewahnw ewawhn
ewawnh ewanwh ewanhw ewnhaw ewnhwa ewnahw ewnawh ewnwah ewnwha wenhaw wenhwa
wenahw wenawh wenwah wenwha wehnaw wehnwa wehanw wehawn wehwan wehwna weahnw
weahwn weanhw weanwh weawnh weawhn wewhan wewhna wewahn wewanh wewnah wewnha
wnehaw wnehwa wneahw wneawh wnewah wnewha wnheaw wnhewa wnhaew wnhawe wnhwae
wnhwea wnahew wnahwe wnaehw wnaewh wnaweh wnawhe wnwhae wnwhea wnwahe wnwaeh
wnweah wnweha whneaw whnewa whnaew whnawe whnwae whnwea whenaw whenwa wheanw
wheawn whewan whewna whaenw whaewn whanew whanwe whawne whawen whwean whwena
whwaen whwane whwnae whwnea wanhew wanhwe wanehw wanewh wanweh wanwhe wahnew
wahnwe wahenw wahewn wahwen wahwne waehnw waehwn waenhw waenwh waewnh waewhn
wawhen wawhne wawehn wawenh wawneh wawnhe wwnhae wwnhea wwnahe wwnaeh wwneah
wwneha wwhnae wwhnea wwhane wwhaen wwhean wwhena wwahne wwahen wwanhe wwaneh
wwaenh wwaehn wwehan wwehna wweahn wweanh wwenah wwenha hewnaw hewnwa hewanw
hewawn hewwan hewwna henwaw henwwa henaww henaww henwaw henwwa heanww heanww
heawnw heawwn heawwn heawnw hewnaw hewnwa hewanw hewawn hewwan hewwna hwenaw
hwenwa hweanw hweawn hwewan hwewna hwneaw hwnewa hwnaew hwnawe hwnwae hwnwea
hwanew hwanwe hwaenw hwaewn hwawen hwawne hwwnae hwwnea hwwane hwwaen hwwean
hwwena hnweaw hnwewa hnwaew hnwawe hnwwae hnwwea hnewaw hnewwa hneaww hneaww
hnewaw hnewwa hnaeww hnaeww hnawew hnawwe hnawwe hnawew hnweaw hnwewa hnwaew
hnwawe hnwwae hnwwea hawnew hawnwe hawenw hawewn hawwen hawwne hanwew hanwwe
haneww haneww hanwew hanwwe haenww haenww haewnw haewwn haewwn haewnw hawnew
hawnwe hawenw hawewn hawwen hawwne hwwnae hwwnea hwwane hwwaen hwwean hwwena
hwnwae hwnwea hwnawe hwnaew hwneaw hwnewa hwanwe hwanew hwawne hwawen hwaewn
hwaenw hwenaw hwenwa hweanw hweawn hwewan hwewna aewhnw aewhwn aewnhw aewnwh
aewwnh aewwhn aehwnw aehwwn aehnww aehnww aehwnw aehwwn aenhww aenhww aenwhw
aenwwh aenwwh aenwhw aewhnw aewhwn aewnhw aewnwh aewwnh aewwhn awehnw awehwn
awenhw awenwh awewnh awewhn awhenw awhewn awhnew awhnwe awhwne awhwen awnhew
awnhwe awnehw awnewh awnweh awnwhe awwhne awwhen awwnhe awwneh awwenh awwehn
ahwenw ahwewn ahwnew ahwnwe ahwwne ahwwen ahewnw ahewwn ahenww ahenww ahewnw
ahewwn ahneww ahneww ahnwew ahnwwe ahnwwe ahnwew ahwenw ahwewn ahwnew ahwnwe
ahwwne ahwwen anwhew anwhwe anwehw anwewh anwweh anwwhe anhwew anhwwe anheww
anheww anhwew anhwwe anehww anehww anewhw anewwh anewwh anewhw anwhew anwhwe
anwehw anwewh anwweh anwwhe awwhne awwhen awwnhe awwneh awwenh awwehn awhwne
awhwen awhnwe awhnew awhenw awhewn awnhwe awnhew awnwhe awnweh awnewh awnehw
awehnw awehwn awenhw awenwh awewnh awewhn wewhan wewhna wewahn wewanh wewnah
wewnha wehwan wehwna wehawn wehanw wehnaw wehnwa weahwn weahnw weawhn weawnh
weanwh weanhw wenhaw wenhwa wenahw wenawh wenwah wenwha wwehan wwehna wweahn
wweanh wwenah wwenha wwhean wwhena wwhaen wwhane wwhnae wwhnea wwahen wwahne
wwaehn wwaenh wwaneh wwanhe wwnhae wwnhea wwnahe wwnaeh wwneah wwneha whwean
whwena whwaen whwane whwnae whwnea whewan whewna wheawn wheanw whenaw whenwa
whaewn whaenw whawen whawne whanwe whanew whneaw whnewa whnaew whnawe whnwae
whnwea wawhen wawhne wawehn wawenh wawneh wawnhe wahwen wahwne wahewn wahenw
wahnew wahnwe waehwn waehnw waewhn waewnh waenwh waenhw wanhew wanhwe wanehw
wanewh wanweh wanwhe wnwhae wnwhea wnwahe wnwaeh wnweah wnweha wnhwae wnhwea
wnhawe wnhaew wnheaw wnhewa wnahwe wnahew wnawhe wnaweh wnaewh wnaehw wnehaw
wnehwa wneahw wneawh wnewah wnewha

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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