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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: mwalsh
cipher variations:
nxbmti oycnuj pzdovk qaepwl rbfqxm
scgryn tdhszo ueitap vfjubq wgkvcr
xhlwds yimxet zjnyfu akozgv blpahw
cmqbix dnrcjy eosdkz fptela gqufmb
hrvgnc iswhod jtxipe kuyjqf lvzkrg

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: mwalsh
Cipher: ndzohs

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: mwalsh
Cipher: ABABB BABAA AAAAA ABABA BAAAB AABBB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: mwalsh
cipher variations:
nxbmtilpbidwjhbenkhzbaxyfrbwhmdjbsraztbklcxlbgvq
vdbcfetvbypsrnbuzgpfbqjuoycnujmqcjexkicfoliacbyz
gscxinekctsbauclmdymchwrwecdgfuwczqtsocvahqgcrkv
pzdovknrdkfyljdgpmjbdczahtdyjofldutcbvdmnezndixs
xfdehgvxdarutpdwbirhdslwqaepwloselgzmkehqnkcedab
iuezkpgmevudcwenofaoejytygefihwyebsvuqexcjsietmx
rbfqxmptfmhanlfiroldfebcjvfalqhnfwvedxfopgbpfkzu
zhfgjixzfctwvrfydktjfunyscgrynqugnibomgjspmegfcd
kwgbmriogxwfeygpqhcqglavaighkjyagduxwsgzelukgvoz
tdhszorvhojcpnhktqnfhgdelxhcnsjphyxgfzhqridrhmbw
bjhilkzbhevyxthafmvlhwpaueitapswipkdqoilurogihef
myidotkqizyhgairsjesincxckijmlacifwzyuibgnwmixqb
vfjubqtxjqlerpjmvsphjifgnzjepulrjazihbjstkftjody
dljknmbdjgxazvjchoxnjyrcwgkvcruykrmfsqknwtqikjgh
oakfqvmskbajicktulgukpezemkloncekhybawkdipyokzsd
xhlwdsvzlsngtrloxurjlkhipblgrwntlcbkjdluvmhvlqfa
fnlmpodflizcbxlejqzplateyimxetwamtohusmpyvskmlij
qcmhsxoumdclkemvwniwmrgbgomnqpegmjadcymfkraqmbuf
zjnyfuxbnupivtnqzwtlnmjkrdnitypvnedmlfnwxojxnshc
hpnorqfhnkbedznglsbrncvgakozgvycovqjwuoraxumonkl
seojuzqwofenmgoxypkyotidiqopsrgiolcfeaohmtcsodwh
blpahwzdpwrkxvpsbyvnpolmtfpkvarxpgfonhpyzqlzpuje
jrpqtshjpmdgfbpinudtpexicmqbixaeqxslywqtczwoqpmn
ugqlwbsyqhgpoiqzarmaqvkfksqrutikqnehgcqjoveuqfyj
dnrcjybfrytmzxrudaxprqnovhrmxctzrihqpjrabsnbrwlg
ltrsvujlrofihdrkpwfvrgzkeosdkzcgszunaysvebyqsrop
wisnyduasjirqksbctocsxmhmustwvkmspgjieslqxgwshal
fpteladhtavobztwfczrtspqxjtozevbtkjsrltcdupdtyni
nvtuxwlntqhkjftmryhxtibmgqufmbeiubwpcauxgdasutqr
ykupafwculktsmudevqeuzojowuvyxmourilkgunsziyujcn
hrvgncfjvcxqdbvyhebtvurszlvqbgxdvmlutnvefwrfvapk
pxvwzynpvsjmlhvotajzvkdoiswhodgkwdyrecwzifcuwvst
amwrchyewnmvuowfgxsgwbqlqywxazoqwtknmiwpubkawlep
jtxipehlxezsfdxajgdvxwtubnxsdizfxonwvpxghythxcrm
rzxybaprxulonjxqvclbxmfqkuyjqfimyfatgeybkhewyxuv
coytejagypoxwqyhizuiydsnsayzcbqsyvmpokyrwdmcyngr
lvzkrgjnzgbuhfzclifxzyvwdpzufkbhzqpyxrzijavjzeto
tbzadcrtzwnqplzsxendzohsmwalshkoahcvigadmjgyazwx
eqavglciarqzysajkbwkafupucabedsuaxorqmatyfoeapit

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: mwalsh
Cipher: zjnyfu

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: mwalsh
Cipher: 232511133432

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: mwalsh
method variations:
rbfqxnwglvcsbmqahxgrvfnc

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m w a l s h 
2 2 1 1 3 3 
3 5 1 3 4 2 
They are then read out in rows:
221133351342
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: mwalsh
Cipher: ganxli

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: mwalsh
method variations:
heanog eanogh anoghe
noghea oghean gheano

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: mwalsh

all 720 cipher variations:
mwalsh mwalhs mwaslh mwashl mwahsl mwahls mwlash mwlahs mwlsah mwlsha mwlhsa
mwlhas mwslah mwslha mwsalh mwsahl mwshal mwshla mwhlsa mwhlas mwhsla mwhsal
mwhasl mwhals mawlsh mawlhs mawslh mawshl mawhsl mawhls malwsh malwhs malswh
malshw malhsw malhws maslwh maslhw maswlh maswhl mashwl mashlw mahlsw mahlws
mahslw mahswl mahwsl mahwls mlawsh mlawhs mlaswh mlashw mlahsw mlahws mlwash
mlwahs mlwsah mlwsha mlwhsa mlwhas mlswah mlswha mlsawh mlsahw mlshaw mlshwa
mlhwsa mlhwas mlhswa mlhsaw mlhasw mlhaws msalwh msalhw msawlh msawhl msahwl
msahlw mslawh mslahw mslwah mslwha mslhwa mslhaw mswlah mswlha mswalh mswahl
mswhal mswhla mshlwa mshlaw mshwla mshwal mshawl mshalw mhalsw mhalws mhaslw
mhaswl mhawsl mhawls mhlasw mhlaws mhlsaw mhlswa mhlwsa mhlwas mhslaw mhslwa
mhsalw mhsawl mhswal mhswla mhwlsa mhwlas mhwsla mhwsal mhwasl mhwals wmalsh
wmalhs wmaslh wmashl wmahsl wmahls wmlash wmlahs wmlsah wmlsha wmlhsa wmlhas
wmslah wmslha wmsalh wmsahl wmshal wmshla wmhlsa wmhlas wmhsla wmhsal wmhasl
wmhals wamlsh wamlhs wamslh wamshl wamhsl wamhls walmsh walmhs walsmh walshm
walhsm walhms waslmh waslhm wasmlh wasmhl washml washlm wahlsm wahlms wahslm
wahsml wahmsl wahmls wlamsh wlamhs wlasmh wlashm wlahsm wlahms wlmash wlmahs
wlmsah wlmsha wlmhsa wlmhas wlsmah wlsmha wlsamh wlsahm wlsham wlshma wlhmsa
wlhmas wlhsma wlhsam wlhasm wlhams wsalmh wsalhm wsamlh wsamhl wsahml wsahlm
wslamh wslahm wslmah wslmha wslhma wslham wsmlah wsmlha wsmalh wsmahl wsmhal
wsmhla wshlma wshlam wshmla wshmal wshaml wshalm whalsm whalms whaslm whasml
whamsl whamls whlasm whlams whlsam whlsma whlmsa whlmas whslam whslma whsalm
whsaml whsmal whsmla whmlsa whmlas whmsla whmsal whmasl whmals awmlsh awmlhs
awmslh awmshl awmhsl awmhls awlmsh awlmhs awlsmh awlshm awlhsm awlhms awslmh
awslhm awsmlh awsmhl awshml awshlm awhlsm awhlms awhslm awhsml awhmsl awhmls
amwlsh amwlhs amwslh amwshl amwhsl amwhls amlwsh amlwhs amlswh amlshw amlhsw
amlhws amslwh amslhw amswlh amswhl amshwl amshlw amhlsw amhlws amhslw amhswl
amhwsl amhwls almwsh almwhs almswh almshw almhsw almhws alwmsh alwmhs alwsmh
alwshm alwhsm alwhms alswmh alswhm alsmwh alsmhw alshmw alshwm alhwsm alhwms
alhswm alhsmw alhmsw alhmws asmlwh asmlhw asmwlh asmwhl asmhwl asmhlw aslmwh
aslmhw aslwmh aslwhm aslhwm aslhmw aswlmh aswlhm aswmlh aswmhl aswhml aswhlm
ashlwm ashlmw ashwlm ashwml ashmwl ashmlw ahmlsw ahmlws ahmslw ahmswl ahmwsl
ahmwls ahlmsw ahlmws ahlsmw ahlswm ahlwsm ahlwms ahslmw ahslwm ahsmlw ahsmwl
ahswml ahswlm ahwlsm ahwlms ahwslm ahwsml ahwmsl ahwmls lwamsh lwamhs lwasmh
lwashm lwahsm lwahms lwmash lwmahs lwmsah lwmsha lwmhsa lwmhas lwsmah lwsmha
lwsamh lwsahm lwsham lwshma lwhmsa lwhmas lwhsma lwhsam lwhasm lwhams lawmsh
lawmhs lawsmh lawshm lawhsm lawhms lamwsh lamwhs lamswh lamshw lamhsw lamhws
lasmwh lasmhw laswmh laswhm lashwm lashmw lahmsw lahmws lahsmw lahswm lahwsm
lahwms lmawsh lmawhs lmaswh lmashw lmahsw lmahws lmwash lmwahs lmwsah lmwsha
lmwhsa lmwhas lmswah lmswha lmsawh lmsahw lmshaw lmshwa lmhwsa lmhwas lmhswa
lmhsaw lmhasw lmhaws lsamwh lsamhw lsawmh lsawhm lsahwm lsahmw lsmawh lsmahw
lsmwah lsmwha lsmhwa lsmhaw lswmah lswmha lswamh lswahm lswham lswhma lshmwa
lshmaw lshwma lshwam lshawm lshamw lhamsw lhamws lhasmw lhaswm lhawsm lhawms
lhmasw lhmaws lhmsaw lhmswa lhmwsa lhmwas lhsmaw lhsmwa lhsamw lhsawm lhswam
lhswma lhwmsa lhwmas lhwsma lhwsam lhwasm lhwams swalmh swalhm swamlh swamhl
swahml swahlm swlamh swlahm swlmah swlmha swlhma swlham swmlah swmlha swmalh
swmahl swmhal swmhla swhlma swhlam swhmla swhmal swhaml swhalm sawlmh sawlhm
sawmlh sawmhl sawhml sawhlm salwmh salwhm salmwh salmhw salhmw salhwm samlwh
samlhw samwlh samwhl samhwl samhlw sahlmw sahlwm sahmlw sahmwl sahwml sahwlm
slawmh slawhm slamwh slamhw slahmw slahwm slwamh slwahm slwmah slwmha slwhma
slwham slmwah slmwha slmawh slmahw slmhaw slmhwa slhwma slhwam slhmwa slhmaw
slhamw slhawm smalwh smalhw smawlh smawhl smahwl smahlw smlawh smlahw smlwah
smlwha smlhwa smlhaw smwlah smwlha smwalh smwahl smwhal smwhla smhlwa smhlaw
smhwla smhwal smhawl smhalw shalmw shalwm shamlw shamwl shawml shawlm shlamw
shlawm shlmaw shlmwa shlwma shlwam shmlaw shmlwa shmalw shmawl shmwal shmwla
shwlma shwlam shwmla shwmal shwaml shwalm hwalsm hwalms hwaslm hwasml hwamsl
hwamls hwlasm hwlams hwlsam hwlsma hwlmsa hwlmas hwslam hwslma hwsalm hwsaml
hwsmal hwsmla hwmlsa hwmlas hwmsla hwmsal hwmasl hwmals hawlsm hawlms hawslm
hawsml hawmsl hawmls halwsm halwms halswm halsmw halmsw halmws haslwm haslmw
haswlm haswml hasmwl hasmlw hamlsw hamlws hamslw hamswl hamwsl hamwls hlawsm
hlawms hlaswm hlasmw hlamsw hlamws hlwasm hlwams hlwsam hlwsma hlwmsa hlwmas
hlswam hlswma hlsawm hlsamw hlsmaw hlsmwa hlmwsa hlmwas hlmswa hlmsaw hlmasw
hlmaws hsalwm hsalmw hsawlm hsawml hsamwl hsamlw hslawm hslamw hslwam hslwma
hslmwa hslmaw hswlam hswlma hswalm hswaml hswmal hswmla hsmlwa hsmlaw hsmwla
hsmwal hsmawl hsmalw hmalsw hmalws hmaslw hmaswl hmawsl hmawls hmlasw hmlaws
hmlsaw hmlswa hmlwsa hmlwas hmslaw hmslwa hmsalw hmsawl hmswal hmswla hmwlsa
hmwlas hmwsla hmwsal hmwasl hmwals

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History of cryptography
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