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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: mtntop
cipher variations:
nuoupq ovpvqr pwqwrs qxrxst rysytu
sztzuv tauavw ubvbwx vcwcxy wdxdyz
xeyeza yfzfab zgagbc ahbhcd bicide
cjdjef dkekfg elflgh fmgmhi gnhnij
hoiojk ipjpkl jqkqlm krlrmn lsmsno

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: mtntop
Cipher: ngmglk

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: mtntop
Cipher: ABABB BAABA ABBAA BAABA ABBAB ABBBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: mtntop
cipher variations:
nuoupqlgogrujsostyheoevcfqoqxgdcoczkzaoadsxmomfw
vyoyhatkokjerwowlipioinmovpvqrmhphsvktptuzifpfwd
grpryhedpdalabpbetynpngxwzpzibulplkfsxpxmjqjpjon
pwqwrsniqitwluquvajgqgxehsqszifeqebmbcqcfuzoqohy
xaqajcvmqmlgtyqynkrkqkpoqxrxstojrjuxmvrvwbkhrhyf
itrtajgfrfcncdrdgvaprpizybrbkdwnrnmhuzrzolslrlqp
rysytupkskvynwswxclisizgjusubkhgsgdodesehwbqsqja
zcsclexosonivasapmtmsmrqsztzuvqltlwzoxtxydmjtjah
kvtvclihthepeftfixcrtrkbadtdmfyptpojwbtbqnuntnsr
tauavwrmumxapyuyzenkukbilwuwdmjiuifqfgugjydsuslc
beuengzquqpkxcucrovouotsubvbwxsnvnybqzvzafolvlcj
mxvxenkjvjgrghvhkzetvtmdcfvfoharvrqlydvdspwpvput
vcwcxytowozcrawabgpmwmdknywyfolkwkhshiwilafuwune
dgwgpibswsrmzewetqxqwqvuwdxdyzupxpadsbxbchqnxnel
ozxzgpmlxlitijxjmbgvxvofehxhqjctxtsnafxfuryrxrwv
xeyezavqyqbetcycdiroyofmpayahqnmymjujkyknchwywpg
fiyirkduyutobgygvszsysxwyfzfabwrzrcfudzdejspzpgn
qbzbironznkvklzlodixzxqhgjzjslevzvupchzhwtatztyx
zgagbcxsasdgveaefktqaqhorcacjspoaolwlmampejyayri
hkaktmfwawvqdiaixubuauzyahbhcdytbtehwfbfglurbrip
sdbdktqpbpmxmnbnqfkzbzsjilblungxbxwrejbjyvcvbvaz
bicidezucufixgcghmvscsjqtecelurqcqnynocorglacatk
jmcmvohycyxsfkckzwdwcwbacjdjefavdvgjyhdhinwtdtkr
ufdfmvsrdrozopdpshmbdbulkndnwpizdzytgldlaxexdxcb
dkekfgbwewhkzieijoxueulsvgegnwtsespapqeqtincecvm
loeoxqjaeazuhmembyfyeydcelflghcxfxilajfjkpyvfvmt
whfhoxutftqbqrfrujodfdwnmpfpyrkbfbavinfnczgzfzed
fmgmhidygyjmbkgklqzwgwnuxigipyvugurcrsgsvkpegexo
nqgqzslcgcbwjogodahagafegnhnijezhzknclhlmraxhxov
yjhjqzwvhvsdsthtwlqfhfyporhratmdhdcxkphpebibhbgf
hoiojkfaialodmimnsbyiypwzkikraxwiwtetuiuxmrgigzq
psisbuneiedylqiqfcjcichgipjpklgbjbmpenjnotczjzqx
aljlsbyxjxufuvjvynshjharqtjtcvofjfezmrjrgdkdjdih
jqkqlmhckcnqfokopudakarybmkmtczykyvgvwkwzotikibs
rukudwpgkgfanskshelekejikrlrmnidldorgplpqveblbsz
cnlnudazlzwhwxlxapujljctsvlvexqhlhgbotltifmflfkj
lsmsnojemepshqmqrwfcmctadomovebamaxixymybqvkmkdu
twmwfyrimihcpumujgngmglkmtntopkfnfqtirnrsxgdndub
epnpwfcbnbyjyznzcrwlnlevuxnxgzsjnjidqvnvkhohnhml

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: mtntop
Cipher: zgagbc

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: mtntop
Cipher: 234433444353

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: mtntop
method variations:
rysytuwdxdyzbicidegohoik

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m t n t o p 
2 4 3 4 4 5 
3 4 3 4 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
243445343433
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: mtntop
Cipher: rsyssn

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: mtntop
method variations:
sostxh ostxhs stxhso
txhsos xhsost hsostx

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: mtntop

all 720 cipher variations:
mtntop mtntpo mtnotp mtnopt mtnpot mtnpto mttnop mttnpo mttonp mttopn mttpon
mttpno mtotnp mtotpn mtontp mtonpt mtopnt mtoptn mtpton mtptno mtpotn mtpont
mtpnot mtpnto mnttop mnttpo mntotp mntopt mntpot mntpto mnttop mnttpo mntotp
mntopt mntpot mntpto mnottp mnotpt mnottp mnotpt mnoptt mnoptt mnptot mnptto
mnpott mnpott mnptot mnptto mtntop mtntpo mtnotp mtnopt mtnpot mtnpto mttnop
mttnpo mttonp mttopn mttpon mttpno mtotnp mtotpn mtontp mtonpt mtopnt mtoptn
mtpton mtptno mtpotn mtpont mtpnot mtpnto monttp montpt monttp montpt monptt
monptt motntp motnpt mottnp mottpn motptn motpnt mottnp mottpn motntp motnpt
motpnt motptn mopttn moptnt mopttn moptnt mopntt mopntt mpntot mpntto mpnott
mpnott mpntot mpntto mptnot mptnto mptont mptotn mptton mpttno mpotnt mpottn
mpontt mpontt mpotnt mpottn mptton mpttno mptotn mptont mptnot mptnto tmntop
tmntpo tmnotp tmnopt tmnpot tmnpto tmtnop tmtnpo tmtonp tmtopn tmtpon tmtpno
tmotnp tmotpn tmontp tmonpt tmopnt tmoptn tmpton tmptno tmpotn tmpont tmpnot
tmpnto tnmtop tnmtpo tnmotp tnmopt tnmpot tnmpto tntmop tntmpo tntomp tntopm
tntpom tntpmo tnotmp tnotpm tnomtp tnompt tnopmt tnoptm tnptom tnptmo tnpotm
tnpomt tnpmot tnpmto ttnmop ttnmpo ttnomp ttnopm ttnpom ttnpmo ttmnop ttmnpo
ttmonp ttmopn ttmpon ttmpno ttomnp ttompn ttonmp ttonpm ttopnm ttopmn ttpmon
ttpmno ttpomn ttponm ttpnom ttpnmo tontmp tontpm tonmtp tonmpt tonpmt tonptm
totnmp totnpm totmnp totmpn totpmn totpnm tomtnp tomtpn tomntp tomnpt tompnt
tomptn toptmn toptnm topmtn topmnt topnmt topntm tpntom tpntmo tpnotm tpnomt
tpnmot tpnmto tptnom tptnmo tptonm tptomn tptmon tptmno tpotnm tpotmn tpontm
tponmt tpomnt tpomtn tpmton tpmtno tpmotn tpmont tpmnot tpmnto ntmtop ntmtpo
ntmotp ntmopt ntmpot ntmpto nttmop nttmpo nttomp nttopm nttpom nttpmo ntotmp
ntotpm ntomtp ntompt ntopmt ntoptm ntptom ntptmo ntpotm ntpomt ntpmot ntpmto
nmttop nmttpo nmtotp nmtopt nmtpot nmtpto nmttop nmttpo nmtotp nmtopt nmtpot
nmtpto nmottp nmotpt nmottp nmotpt nmoptt nmoptt nmptot nmptto nmpott nmpott
nmptot nmptto ntmtop ntmtpo ntmotp ntmopt ntmpot ntmpto nttmop nttmpo nttomp
nttopm nttpom nttpmo ntotmp ntotpm ntomtp ntompt ntopmt ntoptm ntptom ntptmo
ntpotm ntpomt ntpmot ntpmto nomttp nomtpt nomttp nomtpt nomptt nomptt notmtp
notmpt nottmp nottpm notptm notpmt nottmp nottpm notmtp notmpt notpmt notptm
nopttm noptmt nopttm noptmt nopmtt nopmtt npmtot npmtto npmott npmott npmtot
npmtto nptmot nptmto nptomt nptotm npttom npttmo npotmt npottm npomtt npomtt
npotmt npottm npttom npttmo nptotm nptomt nptmot nptmto ttnmop ttnmpo ttnomp
ttnopm ttnpom ttnpmo ttmnop ttmnpo ttmonp ttmopn ttmpon ttmpno ttomnp ttompn
ttonmp ttonpm ttopnm ttopmn ttpmon ttpmno ttpomn ttponm ttpnom ttpnmo tntmop
tntmpo tntomp tntopm tntpom tntpmo tnmtop tnmtpo tnmotp tnmopt tnmpot tnmpto
tnomtp tnompt tnotmp tnotpm tnoptm tnopmt tnpmot tnpmto tnpomt tnpotm tnptom
tnptmo tmntop tmntpo tmnotp tmnopt tmnpot tmnpto tmtnop tmtnpo tmtonp tmtopn
tmtpon tmtpno tmotnp tmotpn tmontp tmonpt tmopnt tmoptn tmpton tmptno tmpotn
tmpont tmpnot tmpnto tonmtp tonmpt tontmp tontpm tonptm tonpmt tomntp tomnpt
tomtnp tomtpn tomptn tompnt totmnp totmpn totnmp totnpm totpnm totpmn topmtn
topmnt toptmn toptnm topntm topnmt tpnmot tpnmto tpnomt tpnotm tpntom tpntmo
tpmnot tpmnto tpmont tpmotn tpmton tpmtno tpomnt tpomtn tponmt tpontm tpotnm
tpotmn tptmon tptmno tptomn tptonm tptnom tptnmo otntmp otntpm otnmtp otnmpt
otnpmt otnptm ottnmp ottnpm ottmnp ottmpn ottpmn ottpnm otmtnp otmtpn otmntp
otmnpt otmpnt otmptn otptmn otptnm otpmtn otpmnt otpnmt otpntm onttmp onttpm
ontmtp ontmpt ontpmt ontptm onttmp onttpm ontmtp ontmpt ontpmt ontptm onmttp
onmtpt onmttp onmtpt onmptt onmptt onptmt onpttm onpmtt onpmtt onptmt onpttm
otntmp otntpm otnmtp otnmpt otnpmt otnptm ottnmp ottnpm ottmnp ottmpn ottpmn
ottpnm otmtnp otmtpn otmntp otmnpt otmpnt otmptn otptmn otptnm otpmtn otpmnt
otpnmt otpntm omnttp omntpt omnttp omntpt omnptt omnptt omtntp omtnpt omttnp
omttpn omtptn omtpnt omttnp omttpn omtntp omtnpt omtpnt omtptn ompttn omptnt
ompttn omptnt ompntt ompntt opntmt opnttm opnmtt opnmtt opntmt opnttm optnmt
optntm optmnt optmtn opttmn opttnm opmtnt opmttn opmntt opmntt opmtnt opmttn
opttmn opttnm optmtn optmnt optnmt optntm ptntom ptntmo ptnotm ptnomt ptnmot
ptnmto pttnom pttnmo pttonm pttomn pttmon pttmno ptotnm ptotmn ptontm ptonmt
ptomnt ptomtn ptmton ptmtno ptmotn ptmont ptmnot ptmnto pnttom pnttmo pntotm
pntomt pntmot pntmto pnttom pnttmo pntotm pntomt pntmot pntmto pnottm pnotmt
pnottm pnotmt pnomtt pnomtt pnmtot pnmtto pnmott pnmott pnmtot pnmtto ptntom
ptntmo ptnotm ptnomt ptnmot ptnmto pttnom pttnmo pttonm pttomn pttmon pttmno
ptotnm ptotmn ptontm ptonmt ptomnt ptomtn ptmton ptmtno ptmotn ptmont ptmnot
ptmnto ponttm pontmt ponttm pontmt ponmtt ponmtt potntm potnmt pottnm pottmn
potmtn potmnt pottnm pottmn potntm potnmt potmnt potmtn pomttn pomtnt pomttn
pomtnt pomntt pomntt pmntot pmntto pmnott pmnott pmntot pmntto pmtnot pmtnto
pmtont pmtotn pmtton pmttno pmotnt pmottn pmontt pmontt pmotnt pmottn pmtton
pmttno pmtotn pmtont pmtnot pmtnto

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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