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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: mohler
cipher variations:
npimfs oqjngt prkohu qslpiv rtmqjw
sunrkx tvosly uwptmz vxquna wyrvob
xzswpc yatxqd zbuyre acvzsf bdwatg
cexbuh dfycvi egzdwj fhaexk gibfyl
hjcgzm ikdhan jleibo kmfjcp lngkdq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: mohler
Cipher: nlsovi

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: mohler

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: mohler
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: mohler
Cipher: zbuyre

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: mohler
Cipher: 234332135124

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: mohler
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m o h l e r 
2 4 3 1 5 2 
3 3 2 3 1 4 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: mohler
Cipher: rcknmq

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Method #3

Plaintext: mohler
method variations:
snbxfi nbxfis bxfisn
xfisnb fisnbx isnbxf

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: mohler

all 720 cipher variations:
mohler mohlre mohelr moherl mohrel mohrle molher molhre molehr molerh molreh
molrhe moelhr moelrh moehlr moehrl moerhl moerlh morleh morlhe morelh morehl
morhel morhle mholer mholre mhoelr mhoerl mhorel mhorle mhloer mhlore mhleor
mhlero mhlreo mhlroe mhelor mhelro mheolr mheorl mherol mherlo mhrleo mhrloe
mhrelo mhreol mhroel mhrole mlhoer mlhore mlheor mlhero mlhreo mlhroe mloher
mlohre mloehr mloerh mloreh mlorhe mleohr mleorh mlehor mlehro mlerho mleroh
mlroeh mlrohe mlreoh mlreho mlrheo mlrhoe mehlor mehlro meholr mehorl mehrol
mehrlo melhor melhro melohr melorh melroh melrho meolhr meolrh meohlr meohrl
meorhl meorlh merloh merlho merolh merohl merhol merhlo mrhleo mrhloe mrhelo
mrheol mrhoel mrhole mrlheo mrlhoe mrleho mrleoh mrloeh mrlohe mrelho mreloh
mrehlo mrehol mreohl mreolh mroleh mrolhe mroelh mroehl mrohel mrohle omhler
omhlre omhelr omherl omhrel omhrle omlher omlhre omlehr omlerh omlreh omlrhe
omelhr omelrh omehlr omehrl omerhl omerlh omrleh omrlhe omrelh omrehl omrhel
omrhle ohmler ohmlre ohmelr ohmerl ohmrel ohmrle ohlmer ohlmre ohlemr ohlerm
ohlrem ohlrme ohelmr ohelrm ohemlr ohemrl oherml oherlm ohrlem ohrlme ohrelm
ohreml ohrmel ohrmle olhmer olhmre olhemr olherm olhrem olhrme olmher olmhre
olmehr olmerh olmreh olmrhe olemhr olemrh olehmr olehrm olerhm olermh olrmeh
olrmhe olremh olrehm olrhem olrhme oehlmr oehlrm oehmlr oehmrl oehrml oehrlm
oelhmr oelhrm oelmhr oelmrh oelrmh oelrhm oemlhr oemlrh oemhlr oemhrl oemrhl
oemrlh oerlmh oerlhm oermlh oermhl oerhml oerhlm orhlem orhlme orhelm orheml
orhmel orhmle orlhem orlhme orlehm orlemh orlmeh orlmhe orelhm orelmh orehlm
orehml oremhl oremlh ormleh ormlhe ormelh ormehl ormhel ormhle homler homlre
homelr homerl homrel homrle holmer holmre holemr holerm holrem holrme hoelmr
hoelrm hoemlr hoemrl hoerml hoerlm horlem horlme horelm horeml hormel hormle
hmoler hmolre hmoelr hmoerl hmorel hmorle hmloer hmlore hmleor hmlero hmlreo
hmlroe hmelor hmelro hmeolr hmeorl hmerol hmerlo hmrleo hmrloe hmrelo hmreol
hmroel hmrole hlmoer hlmore hlmeor hlmero hlmreo hlmroe hlomer hlomre hloemr
hloerm hlorem hlorme hleomr hleorm hlemor hlemro hlermo hlerom hlroem hlrome
hlreom hlremo hlrmeo hlrmoe hemlor hemlro hemolr hemorl hemrol hemrlo helmor
helmro helomr helorm helrom helrmo heolmr heolrm heomlr heomrl heorml heorlm
herlom herlmo herolm heroml hermol hermlo hrmleo hrmloe hrmelo hrmeol hrmoel
hrmole hrlmeo hrlmoe hrlemo hrleom hrloem hrlome hrelmo hrelom hremlo hremol
hreoml hreolm hrolem hrolme hroelm hroeml hromel hromle lohmer lohmre lohemr
loherm lohrem lohrme lomher lomhre lomehr lomerh lomreh lomrhe loemhr loemrh
loehmr loehrm loerhm loermh lormeh lormhe loremh lorehm lorhem lorhme lhomer
lhomre lhoemr lhoerm lhorem lhorme lhmoer lhmore lhmeor lhmero lhmreo lhmroe
lhemor lhemro lheomr lheorm lherom lhermo lhrmeo lhrmoe lhremo lhreom lhroem
lhrome lmhoer lmhore lmheor lmhero lmhreo lmhroe lmoher lmohre lmoehr lmoerh
lmoreh lmorhe lmeohr lmeorh lmehor lmehro lmerho lmeroh lmroeh lmrohe lmreoh
lmreho lmrheo lmrhoe lehmor lehmro lehomr lehorm lehrom lehrmo lemhor lemhro
lemohr lemorh lemroh lemrho leomhr leomrh leohmr leohrm leorhm leormh lermoh
lermho leromh lerohm lerhom lerhmo lrhmeo lrhmoe lrhemo lrheom lrhoem lrhome
lrmheo lrmhoe lrmeho lrmeoh lrmoeh lrmohe lremho lremoh lrehmo lrehom lreohm
lreomh lromeh lromhe lroemh lroehm lrohem lrohme eohlmr eohlrm eohmlr eohmrl
eohrml eohrlm eolhmr eolhrm eolmhr eolmrh eolrmh eolrhm eomlhr eomlrh eomhlr
eomhrl eomrhl eomrlh eorlmh eorlhm eormlh eormhl eorhml eorhlm eholmr eholrm
ehomlr ehomrl ehorml ehorlm ehlomr ehlorm ehlmor ehlmro ehlrmo ehlrom ehmlor
ehmlro ehmolr ehmorl ehmrol ehmrlo ehrlmo ehrlom ehrmlo ehrmol ehroml ehrolm
elhomr elhorm elhmor elhmro elhrmo elhrom elohmr elohrm elomhr elomrh elormh
elorhm elmohr elmorh elmhor elmhro elmrho elmroh elromh elrohm elrmoh elrmho
elrhmo elrhom emhlor emhlro emholr emhorl emhrol emhrlo emlhor emlhro emlohr
emlorh emlroh emlrho emolhr emolrh emohlr emohrl emorhl emorlh emrloh emrlho
emrolh emrohl emrhol emrhlo erhlmo erhlom erhmlo erhmol erhoml erholm erlhmo
erlhom erlmho erlmoh erlomh erlohm ermlho ermloh ermhlo ermhol ermohl ermolh
erolmh erolhm eromlh eromhl erohml erohlm rohlem rohlme rohelm roheml rohmel
rohmle rolhem rolhme rolehm rolemh rolmeh rolmhe roelhm roelmh roehlm roehml
roemhl roemlh romleh romlhe romelh romehl romhel romhle rholem rholme rhoelm
rhoeml rhomel rhomle rhloem rhlome rhleom rhlemo rhlmeo rhlmoe rhelom rhelmo
rheolm rheoml rhemol rhemlo rhmleo rhmloe rhmelo rhmeol rhmoel rhmole rlhoem
rlhome rlheom rlhemo rlhmeo rlhmoe rlohem rlohme rloehm rloemh rlomeh rlomhe
rleohm rleomh rlehom rlehmo rlemho rlemoh rlmoeh rlmohe rlmeoh rlmeho rlmheo
rlmhoe rehlom rehlmo reholm rehoml rehmol rehmlo relhom relhmo relohm relomh
relmoh relmho reolhm reolmh reohlm reohml reomhl reomlh remloh remlho remolh
remohl remhol remhlo rmhleo rmhloe rmhelo rmheol rmhoel rmhole rmlheo rmlhoe
rmleho rmleoh rmloeh rmlohe rmelho rmeloh rmehlo rmehol rmeohl rmeolh rmoleh
rmolhe rmoelh rmoehl rmohel rmohle

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History of cryptography
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