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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: merell
cipher variations:
nfsfmm ogtgnn phuhoo qivipp rjwjqq
skxkrr tlylss umzmtt vnanuu wobovv
xpcpww yqdqxx zreryy asfszz btgtaa
cuhubb dvivcc ewjwdd fxkxee gylyff
hzmzgg ianahh jbobii kcpcjj ldqdkk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: merell
Cipher: nvivoo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: merell
Cipher: ABABB AABAA BAAAA AABAA ABABA ABABA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: merell
cipher variations:
nfsfmmlnaniijviveehdqdaaflylwwdtgtsszjwjkkxrergg
vzmzccthuhyyrpcpuupxkxqqogtgnnmobojjkwjwffierebb
gmzmxxeuhuttakxkllysfshhwanadduivizzsqdqvvqylyrr
phuhoonpcpkklxkxggjfsfcchnanyyfvivuublylmmztgtii
xbobeevjwjaatrerwwrzmzssqivippoqdqllmylyhhkgtgdd
iobozzgwjwvvcmzmnnauhujjycpcffwkxkbbusfsxxsanatt
rjwjqqprermmnzmziilhuheejpcpaahxkxwwdnanoobvivkk
zdqdggxlylccvtgtyytbobuuskxkrrqsfsnnoanajjmiviff
kqdqbbiylyxxeoboppcwjwllaerehhymzmddwuhuzzucpcvv
tlylssrtgtoopbobkknjwjgglrerccjzmzyyfpcpqqdxkxmm
bfsfiiznaneexvivaavdqdwwumzmttsuhuppqcpcllokxkhh
msfsddkanazzgqdqrreylynncgtgjjaoboffywjwbbwerexx
vnanuutvivqqrdqdmmplyliintgteelbobaahrerssfzmzoo
dhuhkkbpcpggzxkxccxfsfyywobovvuwjwrrserennqmzmjj
ouhuffmcpcbbisfsttganappeivillcqdqhhaylyddygtgzz
xpcpwwvxkxsstfsfoornankkpvivggndqdccjtgtuuhbobqq
fjwjmmdreriibzmzeezhuhaayqdqxxwylyttugtgppsoboll
qwjwhhoereddkuhuvvicpcrrgkxknnesfsjjcanaffaivibb
zreryyxzmzuuvhuhqqtpcpmmrxkxiipfsfeelvivwwjdqdss
hlylooftgtkkdbobggbjwjccasfszzyanavvwivirruqdqnn
sylyjjqgtgffmwjwxxkerettimzmppguhullecpchhckxkdd
btgtaazbobwwxjwjssvrerootzmzkkrhuhggnxkxyylfsfuu
jnanqqhvivmmfdqdiidlyleecuhubbacpcxxykxkttwsfspp
uanallsivihhoylyzzmgtgvvkoborriwjwnngerejjemzmff
dvivccbdqdyyzlyluuxtgtqqvbobmmtjwjiipzmzaanhuhww
lpcpssjxkxoohfsfkkfnanggewjwddcerezzamzmvvyuhurr
wcpcnnukxkjjqanabboivixxmqdqttkylyppigtgllgobohh
fxkxeedfsfaabnanwwzvivssxdqdoovlylkkrbobccpjwjyy
nreruulzmzqqjhuhmmhpcpiigylyffegtgbbcoboxxawjwtt
yereppwmzmllscpcddqkxkzzosfsvvmanarrkivinniqdqjj
hzmzggfhuhccdpcpyybxkxuuzfsfqqxnanmmtdqdeerlylaa
ptgtwwnbobssljwjoojrerkkianahhgividdeqdqzzcylyvv
agtgrryobonnuereffsmzmbbquhuxxocpcttmkxkppksfsll
jbobiihjwjeefreraadzmzwwbhuhsszpcpoovfsfggtnancc
rvivyypdqduunlylqqltgtmmkcpcjjikxkffgsfsbbeanaxx
civittaqdqppwgtghhuoboddswjwzzqerevvomzmrrmuhunn
ldqdkkjlylgghtgtccfbobyydjwjuubrerqqxhuhiivpcpee
txkxaarfsfwwpnanssnvivoomerellkmzmhhiuhuddgcpczz
ekxkvvcsfsrryivijjwqdqffuylybbsgtgxxqobottowjwpp

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: merell
Cipher: zreryy

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: merell
Cipher: 235124511313

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: merell
method variations:
rkwkqqwpbpvvbuguaagzmzff

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m e r e l l 
2 5 2 5 1 1 
3 1 4 1 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
252511314133
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: merell
Cipher: wwacdn

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: merell
method variations:
xfyach fyachx yachxf
achxfy chxfya hxfyac

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: merell

all 720 cipher variations:
merell merell merlel merlle merlle merlel meerll meerll meelrl meellr meellr
meelrl melerl melelr melrel melrle mellre meller melelr melerl meller mellre
melrle melrel mreell mreell mrelel mrelle mrelle mrelel mreell mreell mrelel
mrelle mrelle mrelel mrleel mrlele mrleel mrlele mrllee mrllee mrlele mrleel
mrllee mrllee mrlele mrleel merell merell merlel merlle merlle merlel meerll
meerll meelrl meellr meellr meelrl melerl melelr melrel melrle mellre meller
melelr melerl meller mellre melrle melrel mlreel mlrele mlreel mlrele mlrlee
mlrlee mlerel mlerle mleerl mleelr mleler mlelre mleerl mleelr mlerel mlerle
mlelre mleler mlleer mllere mlleer mllere mllree mllree mlrele mlreel mlrlee
mlrlee mlrele mlreel mlerle mlerel mlelre mleler mleelr mleerl mllere mlleer
mllree mllree mllere mlleer mleelr mleerl mleler mlelre mlerle mlerel emrell
emrell emrlel emrlle emrlle emrlel emerll emerll emelrl emellr emellr emelrl
emlerl emlelr emlrel emlrle emllre emller emlelr emlerl emller emllre emlrle
emlrel ermell ermell ermlel ermlle ermlle ermlel eremll eremll erelml erellm
erellm erelml erleml erlelm erlmel erlmle erllme erllem erlelm erleml erllem
erllme erlmle erlmel eermll eermll eerlml eerllm eerllm eerlml eemrll eemrll
eemlrl eemllr eemllr eemlrl eelmrl eelmlr eelrml eelrlm eellrm eellmr eelmlr
eelmrl eellmr eellrm eelrlm eelrml elreml elrelm elrmel elrmle elrlme elrlem
elerml elerlm elemrl elemlr elelmr elelrm elmerl elmelr elmrel elmrle elmlre
elmler ellemr ellerm ellmer ellmre ellrme ellrem elrelm elreml elrlem elrlme
elrmle elrmel elerlm elerml elelrm elelmr elemlr elemrl ellerm ellemr ellrem
ellrme ellmre ellmer elmelr elmerl elmler elmlre elmrle elmrel remell remell
remlel remlle remlle remlel reemll reemll reelml reellm reellm reelml releml
relelm relmel relmle rellme rellem relelm releml rellem rellme relmle relmel
rmeell rmeell rmelel rmelle rmelle rmelel rmeell rmeell rmelel rmelle rmelle
rmelel rmleel rmlele rmleel rmlele rmllee rmllee rmlele rmleel rmllee rmllee
rmlele rmleel remell remell remlel remlle remlle remlel reemll reemll reelml
reellm reellm reelml releml relelm relmel relmle rellme rellem relelm releml
rellem rellme relmle relmel rlmeel rlmele rlmeel rlmele rlmlee rlmlee rlemel
rlemle rleeml rleelm rlelem rlelme rleeml rleelm rlemel rlemle rlelme rlelem
rlleem rlleme rlleem rlleme rllmee rllmee rlmele rlmeel rlmlee rlmlee rlmele
rlmeel rlemle rlemel rlelme rlelem rleelm rleeml rlleme rlleem rllmee rllmee
rlleme rlleem rleelm rleeml rlelem rlelme rlemle rlemel eermll eermll eerlml
eerllm eerllm eerlml eemrll eemrll eemlrl eemllr eemllr eemlrl eelmrl eelmlr
eelrml eelrlm eellrm eellmr eelmlr eelmrl eellmr eellrm eelrlm eelrml eremll
eremll erelml erellm erellm erelml ermell ermell ermlel ermlle ermlle ermlel
erlmel erlmle erleml erlelm erllem erllme erlmle erlmel erllme erllem erlelm
erleml emrell emrell emrlel emrlle emrlle emrlel emerll emerll emelrl emellr
emellr emelrl emlerl emlelr emlrel emlrle emllre emller emlelr emlerl emller
emllre emlrle emlrel elrmel elrmle elreml elrelm elrlem elrlme elmrel elmrle
elmerl elmelr elmler elmlre elemrl elemlr elerml elerlm elelrm elelmr ellmer
ellmre ellemr ellerm ellrem ellrme elrmle elrmel elrlme elrlem elrelm elreml
elmrle elmrel elmlre elmler elmelr elmerl ellmre ellmer ellrme ellrem ellerm
ellemr elemlr elemrl elelmr elelrm elerlm elerml lereml lerelm lermel lermle
lerlme lerlem leerml leerlm leemrl leemlr leelmr leelrm lemerl lemelr lemrel
lemrle lemlre lemler lelemr lelerm lelmer lelmre lelrme lelrem lreeml lreelm
lremel lremle lrelme lrelem lreeml lreelm lremel lremle lrelme lrelem lrmeel
lrmele lrmeel lrmele lrmlee lrmlee lrleme lrleem lrlmee lrlmee lrleme lrleem
lereml lerelm lermel lermle lerlme lerlem leerml leerlm leemrl leemlr leelmr
leelrm lemerl lemelr lemrel lemrle lemlre lemler lelemr lelerm lelmer lelmre
lelrme lelrem lmreel lmrele lmreel lmrele lmrlee lmrlee lmerel lmerle lmeerl
lmeelr lmeler lmelre lmeerl lmeelr lmerel lmerle lmelre lmeler lmleer lmlere
lmleer lmlere lmlree lmlree llreme llreem llrmee llrmee llreme llreem llerme
llerem llemre llemer lleemr lleerm llmere llmeer llmree llmree llmere llmeer
lleemr lleerm llemer llemre llerme llerem lerelm lereml lerlem lerlme lermle
lermel leerlm leerml leelrm leelmr leemlr leemrl lelerm lelemr lelrem lelrme
lelmre lelmer lemelr lemerl lemler lemlre lemrle lemrel lreelm lreeml lrelem
lrelme lremle lremel lreelm lreeml lrelem lrelme lremle lremel lrleem lrleme
lrleem lrleme lrlmee lrlmee lrmele lrmeel lrmlee lrmlee lrmele lrmeel lerelm
lereml lerlem lerlme lermle lermel leerlm leerml leelrm leelmr leemlr leemrl
lelerm lelemr lelrem lelrme lelmre lelmer lemelr lemerl lemler lemlre lemrle
lemrel llreem llreme llreem llreme llrmee llrmee llerem llerme lleerm lleemr
llemer llemre lleerm lleemr llerem llerme llemre llemer llmeer llmere llmeer
llmere llmree llmree lmrele lmreel lmrlee lmrlee lmrele lmreel lmerle lmerel
lmelre lmeler lmeelr lmeerl lmlere lmleer lmlree lmlree lmlere lmleer lmeelr
lmeerl lmeler lmelre lmerle lmerel

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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