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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: memery
cipher variations:
nfnfsz ogogta phphub qiqivc rjrjwd
skskxe tltlyf umumzg vnvnah wowobi
xpxpcj yqyqdk zrzrel asasfm btbtgn
cucuho dvdvip ewewjq fxfxkr gygyls
hzhzmt iaianu jbjbov kckcpw ldldqx

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: memery
Cipher: nvnvib

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: memery
Cipher: ABABB AABAA ABABB AABAA BAAAA BABBA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: memery
cipher variations:
nfnfszlnlnavjvjvirhdhdqnflflyjdtdtgfzjzjwxxrxret
vzvzmpththulrprpchpxpxkdogogtamomobwkwkwjsieiero
gmgmzkeueuhgakakxyysysfuwawanquiuivmsqsqdiqyqyle
phphubnpnpcxlxlxktjfjfsphnhnalfvfvihblblyzztztgv
xbxborvjvjwntrtrejrzrzmfqiqivcoqoqdymymylukgkgtq
ioiobmgwgwjicmcmzaauauhwycycpswkwkxoususfksasang
rjrjwdprpreznznzmvlhlhurjpjpcnhxhxkjdndnabbvbvix
zdzdqtxlxlypvtvtgltbtbohskskxeqsqsfaoaoanwmimivs
kqkqdoiyiylkeoeobccwcwjyaeaeruymymzqwuwuhmucucpi
tltlyfrtrtgbpbpboxnjnjwtlrlrepjzjzmlfpfpcddxdxkz
bfbfsvznznarxvxvinvdvdqjumumzgsusuhcqcqcpyokokxu
msmsfqkakanmgqgqdeeyeylacgcgtwaoaobsywywjowewerk
vnvnahtvtvidrdrdqzplplyvntntgrlblbonhrhreffzfzmb
dhdhuxbpbpctzxzxkpxfxfslwowobiuwuwjeseseraqmqmzw
ououhsmcmcpoisisfggaganceieivycqcqduayaylqygygtm
xpxpcjvxvxkftftfsbrnrnaxpvpvitndndqpjtjtghhbhbod
fjfjwzdrdrevbzbzmrzhzhunyqyqdkwywylgugugtcsosoby
qwqwjuoeoerqkukuhiicicpegkgkxaesesfwcacansaiaivo
zrzrelxzxzmhvhvhudtptpczrxrxkvpfpfsrlvlvijjdjdqf
hlhlybftftgxdbdbotbjbjwpasasfmyayaniwiwiveuquqda
sysylwqgqgtsmwmwjkkekergimimzcguguhyececpuckckxq
btbtgnzbzbojxjxjwfvrvrebtztzmxrhrhutnxnxkllflfsh
jnjnadhvhvizfdfdqvdldlyrcucuhoacacpkykykxgwswsfc
uauanysisivuoyoylmmgmgtikokobeiwiwjagegerwememzs
dvdvipbdbdqlzlzlyhxtxtgdvbvboztjtjwvpzpzmnnhnhuj
lplpcfjxjxkbhfhfsxfnfnatewewjqcecermamamziyuyuhe
wcwcpaukukxwqaqanooioivkmqmqdgkykylcigigtygogobu
fxfxkrdfdfsnbnbnajzvzvifxdxdqbvlvlyxrbrboppjpjwl
nrnrehlzlzmdjhjhuzhphpcvgygylsegegtococobkawawjg
yeyercwmwmzyscscpqqkqkxmososfimamanekikivaiqiqdw
hzhzmtfhfhupdpdpclbxbxkhzfzfsdxnxnaztdtdqrrlrlyn
ptptgjnbnbofljljwbjrjrexiaianugigivqeqeqdmcycyli
agagteyoyobaueuerssmsmzoququhkococpgmkmkxcksksfy
jbjbovhjhjwrfrfrendzdzmjbhbhufzpzpcbvfvfsttntnap
rvrvilpdpdqhnlnlydltltgzkckcpwikikxsgsgsfoeaeank
cicivgaqaqdcwgwgtuuouobqswswjmqeqeriomomzemumuha
ldldqxjljlyththtgpfbfboldjdjwhbrbredxhxhuvvpvpcr
txtxknrfrfsjpnpnafnvnvibmemerykmkmzuiuiuhqgcgcpm
ekekxicscsfeyiyivwwqwqdsuyuylosgsgtkqoqobgowowjc

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: memery
Cipher: zrzrel

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: memery
Cipher: 235123512445

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: memery
method variations:
rkrkwdwpwpbibubugogzgzmt

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m e m e r y 
2 5 2 5 2 4 
3 1 3 1 4 5 
They are then read out in rows:
252524313145
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: memery
Cipher: wwrccy

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: memery
method variations:
xfxftk fxftkx xftkxf
ftkxfx tkxfxf kxfxft

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: memery

all 720 cipher variations:
memery memeyr memrey memrye memyre memyer meemry meemyr meermy meerym meeyrm
meeymr meremy mereym mermey mermye meryme meryem meyerm meyemr meyrem meyrme
meymre meymer mmeery mmeeyr mmerey mmerye mmeyre mmeyer mmeery mmeeyr mmerey
mmerye mmeyre mmeyer mmreey mmreye mmreey mmreye mmryee mmryee mmyere mmyeer
mmyree mmyree mmyere mmyeer memery memeyr memrey memrye memyre memyer meemry
meemyr meermy meerym meeyrm meeymr meremy mereym mermey mermye meryme meryem
meyerm meyemr meyrem meyrme meymre meymer mrmeey mrmeye mrmeey mrmeye mrmyee
mrmyee mremey mremye mreemy mreeym mreyem mreyme mreemy mreeym mremey mremye
mreyme mreyem mryeem mryeme mryeem mryeme mrymee mrymee mymere mymeer mymree
mymree mymere mymeer myemre myemer myerme myerem myeerm myeemr myreme myreem
myrmee myrmee myreme myreem myeerm myeemr myerem myerme myemre myemer emmery
emmeyr emmrey emmrye emmyre emmyer ememry ememyr emermy emerym emeyrm emeymr
emremy emreym emrmey emrmye emryme emryem emyerm emyemr emyrem emyrme emymre
emymer emmery emmeyr emmrey emmrye emmyre emmyer ememry ememyr emermy emerym
emeyrm emeymr emremy emreym emrmey emrmye emryme emryem emyerm emyemr emyrem
emyrme emymre emymer eemmry eemmyr eemrmy eemrym eemyrm eemymr eemmry eemmyr
eemrmy eemrym eemyrm eemymr eermmy eermym eermmy eermym eerymm eerymm eeymrm
eeymmr eeyrmm eeyrmm eeymrm eeymmr ermemy ermeym ermmey ermmye ermyme ermyem
eremmy eremym eremmy eremym ereymm ereymm ermemy ermeym ermmey ermmye ermyme
ermyem eryemm eryemm erymem erymme erymme erymem eymerm eymemr eymrem eymrme
eymmre eymmer eyemrm eyemmr eyermm eyermm eyemrm eyemmr eyremm eyremm eyrmem
eyrmme eyrmme eyrmem eymerm eymemr eymrem eymrme eymmre eymmer memery memeyr
memrey memrye memyre memyer meemry meemyr meermy meerym meeyrm meeymr meremy
mereym mermey mermye meryme meryem meyerm meyemr meyrem meyrme meymre meymer
mmeery mmeeyr mmerey mmerye mmeyre mmeyer mmeery mmeeyr mmerey mmerye mmeyre
mmeyer mmreey mmreye mmreey mmreye mmryee mmryee mmyere mmyeer mmyree mmyree
mmyere mmyeer memery memeyr memrey memrye memyre memyer meemry meemyr meermy
meerym meeyrm meeymr meremy mereym mermey mermye meryme meryem meyerm meyemr
meyrem meyrme meymre meymer mrmeey mrmeye mrmeey mrmeye mrmyee mrmyee mremey
mremye mreemy mreeym mreyem mreyme mreemy mreeym mremey mremye mreyme mreyem
mryeem mryeme mryeem mryeme mrymee mrymee mymere mymeer mymree mymree mymere
mymeer myemre myemer myerme myerem myeerm myeemr myreme myreem myrmee myrmee
myreme myreem myeerm myeemr myerem myerme myemre myemer eemmry eemmyr eemrmy
eemrym eemyrm eemymr eemmry eemmyr eemrmy eemrym eemyrm eemymr eermmy eermym
eermmy eermym eerymm eerymm eeymrm eeymmr eeyrmm eeyrmm eeymrm eeymmr ememry
ememyr emermy emerym emeyrm emeymr emmery emmeyr emmrey emmrye emmyre emmyer
emrmey emrmye emremy emreym emryem emryme emymre emymer emyrme emyrem emyerm
emyemr emmery emmeyr emmrey emmrye emmyre emmyer ememry ememyr emermy emerym
emeyrm emeymr emremy emreym emrmey emrmye emryme emryem emyerm emyemr emyrem
emyrme emymre emymer ermmey ermmye ermemy ermeym ermyem ermyme ermmey ermmye
ermemy ermeym ermyem ermyme eremmy eremym eremmy eremym ereymm ereymm erymem
erymme eryemm eryemm erymem erymme eymmre eymmer eymrme eymrem eymerm eymemr
eymmre eymmer eymrme eymrem eymerm eymemr eyrmme eyrmem eyrmme eyrmem eyremm
eyremm eyemrm eyemmr eyermm eyermm eyemrm eyemmr rememy remeym remmey remmye
remyme remyem reemmy reemym reemmy reemym reeymm reeymm rememy remeym remmey
remmye remyme remyem reyemm reyemm reymem reymme reymme reymem rmeemy rmeeym
rmemey rmemye rmeyme rmeyem rmeemy rmeeym rmemey rmemye rmeyme rmeyem rmmeey
rmmeye rmmeey rmmeye rmmyee rmmyee rmyeme rmyeem rmymee rmymee rmyeme rmyeem
rememy remeym remmey remmye remyme remyem reemmy reemym reemmy reemym reeymm
reeymm rememy remeym remmey remmye remyme remyem reyemm reyemm reymem reymme
reymme reymem rmmeey rmmeye rmmeey rmmeye rmmyee rmmyee rmemey rmemye rmeemy
rmeeym rmeyem rmeyme rmeemy rmeeym rmemey rmemye rmeyme rmeyem rmyeem rmyeme
rmyeem rmyeme rmymee rmymee rymeme rymeem rymmee rymmee rymeme rymeem ryemme
ryemem ryemme ryemem ryeemm ryeemm rymeme rymeem rymmee rymmee rymeme rymeem
ryeemm ryeemm ryemem ryemme ryemme ryemem yemerm yememr yemrem yemrme yemmre
yemmer yeemrm yeemmr yeermm yeermm yeemrm yeemmr yeremm yeremm yermem yermme
yermme yermem yemerm yememr yemrem yemrme yemmre yemmer ymeerm ymeemr ymerem
ymerme ymemre ymemer ymeerm ymeemr ymerem ymerme ymemre ymemer ymreem ymreme
ymreem ymreme ymrmee ymrmee ymmere ymmeer ymmree ymmree ymmere ymmeer yemerm
yememr yemrem yemrme yemmre yemmer yeemrm yeemmr yeermm yeermm yeemrm yeemmr
yeremm yeremm yermem yermme yermme yermem yemerm yememr yemrem yemrme yemmre
yemmer yrmeem yrmeme yrmeem yrmeme yrmmee yrmmee yremem yremme yreemm yreemm
yremem yremme yreemm yreemm yremem yremme yremme yremem yrmeem yrmeme yrmeem
yrmeme yrmmee yrmmee ymmere ymmeer ymmree ymmree ymmere ymmeer ymemre ymemer
ymerme ymerem ymeerm ymeemr ymreme ymreem ymrmee ymrmee ymreme ymreem ymeerm
ymeemr ymerem ymerme ymemre ymemer

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History of cryptography
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