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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: mcglyn
cipher variations:
ndhmzo oeinap pfjobq qgkpcr rhlqds
simret tjnsfu ukotgv vlpuhw wmqvix
xnrwjy yosxkz zptyla aquzmb brvanc
cswbod dtxcpe euydqf fvzerg gwafsh
hxbgti iychuj jzdivk kaejwl lbfkxm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: mcglyn
Cipher: nxtobm

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: mcglyn

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: mcglyn
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: mcglyn
Cipher: zptyla

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: mcglyn
Cipher: 233122134533

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: mcglyn
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m c g l y n 
2 3 2 1 4 3 
3 1 2 3 5 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: mcglyn
Cipher: mbocmp

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Method #3

Plaintext: mcglyn
method variations:
nfbsph fbsphn bsphnf
sphnfb phnfbs hnfbsp

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: mcglyn

all 720 cipher variations:
mcglyn mcglny mcgyln mcgynl mcgnyl mcgnly mclgyn mclgny mclygn mclyng mclnyg
mclngy mcylgn mcylng mcygln mcygnl mcyngl mcynlg mcnlyg mcnlgy mcnylg mcnygl
mcngyl mcngly mgclyn mgclny mgcyln mgcynl mgcnyl mgcnly mglcyn mglcny mglycn
mglync mglnyc mglncy mgylcn mgylnc mgycln mgycnl mgyncl mgynlc mgnlyc mgnlcy
mgnylc mgnycl mgncyl mgncly mlgcyn mlgcny mlgycn mlgync mlgnyc mlgncy mlcgyn
mlcgny mlcygn mlcyng mlcnyg mlcngy mlycgn mlycng mlygcn mlygnc mlyngc mlyncg
mlncyg mlncgy mlnycg mlnygc mlngyc mlngcy myglcn myglnc mygcln mygcnl mygncl
mygnlc mylgcn mylgnc mylcgn mylcng mylncg mylngc myclgn myclng mycgln mycgnl
mycngl mycnlg mynlcg mynlgc mynclg myncgl myngcl mynglc mnglyc mnglcy mngylc
mngycl mngcyl mngcly mnlgyc mnlgcy mnlygc mnlycg mnlcyg mnlcgy mnylgc mnylcg
mnyglc mnygcl mnycgl mnyclg mnclyg mnclgy mncylg mncygl mncgyl mncgly cmglyn
cmglny cmgyln cmgynl cmgnyl cmgnly cmlgyn cmlgny cmlygn cmlyng cmlnyg cmlngy
cmylgn cmylng cmygln cmygnl cmyngl cmynlg cmnlyg cmnlgy cmnylg cmnygl cmngyl
cmngly cgmlyn cgmlny cgmyln cgmynl cgmnyl cgmnly cglmyn cglmny cglymn cglynm
cglnym cglnmy cgylmn cgylnm cgymln cgymnl cgynml cgynlm cgnlym cgnlmy cgnylm
cgnyml cgnmyl cgnmly clgmyn clgmny clgymn clgynm clgnym clgnmy clmgyn clmgny
clmygn clmyng clmnyg clmngy clymgn clymng clygmn clygnm clyngm clynmg clnmyg
clnmgy clnymg clnygm clngym clngmy cyglmn cyglnm cygmln cygmnl cygnml cygnlm
cylgmn cylgnm cylmgn cylmng cylnmg cylngm cymlgn cymlng cymgln cymgnl cymngl
cymnlg cynlmg cynlgm cynmlg cynmgl cyngml cynglm cnglym cnglmy cngylm cngyml
cngmyl cngmly cnlgym cnlgmy cnlygm cnlymg cnlmyg cnlmgy cnylgm cnylmg cnyglm
cnygml cnymgl cnymlg cnmlyg cnmlgy cnmylg cnmygl cnmgyl cnmgly gcmlyn gcmlny
gcmyln gcmynl gcmnyl gcmnly gclmyn gclmny gclymn gclynm gclnym gclnmy gcylmn
gcylnm gcymln gcymnl gcynml gcynlm gcnlym gcnlmy gcnylm gcnyml gcnmyl gcnmly
gmclyn gmclny gmcyln gmcynl gmcnyl gmcnly gmlcyn gmlcny gmlycn gmlync gmlnyc
gmlncy gmylcn gmylnc gmycln gmycnl gmyncl gmynlc gmnlyc gmnlcy gmnylc gmnycl
gmncyl gmncly glmcyn glmcny glmycn glmync glmnyc glmncy glcmyn glcmny glcymn
glcynm glcnym glcnmy glycmn glycnm glymcn glymnc glynmc glyncm glncym glncmy
glnycm glnymc glnmyc glnmcy gymlcn gymlnc gymcln gymcnl gymncl gymnlc gylmcn
gylmnc gylcmn gylcnm gylncm gylnmc gyclmn gyclnm gycmln gycmnl gycnml gycnlm
gynlcm gynlmc gynclm gyncml gynmcl gynmlc gnmlyc gnmlcy gnmylc gnmycl gnmcyl
gnmcly gnlmyc gnlmcy gnlymc gnlycm gnlcym gnlcmy gnylmc gnylcm gnymlc gnymcl
gnycml gnyclm gnclym gnclmy gncylm gncyml gncmyl gncmly lcgmyn lcgmny lcgymn
lcgynm lcgnym lcgnmy lcmgyn lcmgny lcmygn lcmyng lcmnyg lcmngy lcymgn lcymng
lcygmn lcygnm lcyngm lcynmg lcnmyg lcnmgy lcnymg lcnygm lcngym lcngmy lgcmyn
lgcmny lgcymn lgcynm lgcnym lgcnmy lgmcyn lgmcny lgmycn lgmync lgmnyc lgmncy
lgymcn lgymnc lgycmn lgycnm lgyncm lgynmc lgnmyc lgnmcy lgnymc lgnycm lgncym
lgncmy lmgcyn lmgcny lmgycn lmgync lmgnyc lmgncy lmcgyn lmcgny lmcygn lmcyng
lmcnyg lmcngy lmycgn lmycng lmygcn lmygnc lmyngc lmyncg lmncyg lmncgy lmnycg
lmnygc lmngyc lmngcy lygmcn lygmnc lygcmn lygcnm lygncm lygnmc lymgcn lymgnc
lymcgn lymcng lymncg lymngc lycmgn lycmng lycgmn lycgnm lycngm lycnmg lynmcg
lynmgc lyncmg lyncgm lyngcm lyngmc lngmyc lngmcy lngymc lngycm lngcym lngcmy
lnmgyc lnmgcy lnmygc lnmycg lnmcyg lnmcgy lnymgc lnymcg lnygmc lnygcm lnycgm
lnycmg lncmyg lncmgy lncymg lncygm lncgym lncgmy ycglmn ycglnm ycgmln ycgmnl
ycgnml ycgnlm yclgmn yclgnm yclmgn yclmng yclnmg yclngm ycmlgn ycmlng ycmgln
ycmgnl ycmngl ycmnlg ycnlmg ycnlgm ycnmlg ycnmgl ycngml ycnglm ygclmn ygclnm
ygcmln ygcmnl ygcnml ygcnlm yglcmn yglcnm yglmcn yglmnc yglnmc yglncm ygmlcn
ygmlnc ygmcln ygmcnl ygmncl ygmnlc ygnlmc ygnlcm ygnmlc ygnmcl ygncml ygnclm
ylgcmn ylgcnm ylgmcn ylgmnc ylgnmc ylgncm ylcgmn ylcgnm ylcmgn ylcmng ylcnmg
ylcngm ylmcgn ylmcng ylmgcn ylmgnc ylmngc ylmncg ylncmg ylncgm ylnmcg ylnmgc
ylngmc ylngcm ymglcn ymglnc ymgcln ymgcnl ymgncl ymgnlc ymlgcn ymlgnc ymlcgn
ymlcng ymlncg ymlngc ymclgn ymclng ymcgln ymcgnl ymcngl ymcnlg ymnlcg ymnlgc
ymnclg ymncgl ymngcl ymnglc ynglmc ynglcm yngmlc yngmcl yngcml yngclm ynlgmc
ynlgcm ynlmgc ynlmcg ynlcmg ynlcgm ynmlgc ynmlcg ynmglc ynmgcl ynmcgl ynmclg
ynclmg ynclgm yncmlg yncmgl yncgml yncglm ncglym ncglmy ncgylm ncgyml ncgmyl
ncgmly nclgym nclgmy nclygm nclymg nclmyg nclmgy ncylgm ncylmg ncyglm ncygml
ncymgl ncymlg ncmlyg ncmlgy ncmylg ncmygl ncmgyl ncmgly ngclym ngclmy ngcylm
ngcyml ngcmyl ngcmly nglcym nglcmy nglycm nglymc nglmyc nglmcy ngylcm ngylmc
ngyclm ngycml ngymcl ngymlc ngmlyc ngmlcy ngmylc ngmycl ngmcyl ngmcly nlgcym
nlgcmy nlgycm nlgymc nlgmyc nlgmcy nlcgym nlcgmy nlcygm nlcymg nlcmyg nlcmgy
nlycgm nlycmg nlygcm nlygmc nlymgc nlymcg nlmcyg nlmcgy nlmycg nlmygc nlmgyc
nlmgcy nyglcm nyglmc nygclm nygcml nygmcl nygmlc nylgcm nylgmc nylcgm nylcmg
nylmcg nylmgc nyclgm nyclmg nycglm nycgml nycmgl nycmlg nymlcg nymlgc nymclg
nymcgl nymgcl nymglc nmglyc nmglcy nmgylc nmgycl nmgcyl nmgcly nmlgyc nmlgcy
nmlygc nmlycg nmlcyg nmlcgy nmylgc nmylcg nmyglc nmygcl nmycgl nmyclg nmclyg
nmclgy nmcylg nmcygl nmcgyl nmcgly

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History of cryptography
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