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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: matula
cipher variations:
nbuvmb ocvwnc pdwxod qexype rfyzqf
sgzarg thabsh uibcti vjcduj wkdevk
xlefwl ymfgxm znghyn aohizo bpijap
cqjkbq drklcr eslmds ftmnet gunofu
hvopgv iwpqhw jxqrix kyrsjy lzstkz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: matula
Cipher: nzgfoz

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: matula
Cipher: ABABB AAAAA BAABA BAABB ABABA AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: matula
cipher variations:
nbuvmblbgjibjbsxebhbelabfbqzwbdbcnsbzbapkbxbmdgb
vbyrcbtbkfybrbwtubpbihqbocvwncmchkjckctyfcicfmbc
gcraxcecdotcacbqlcycnehcwczsdcuclgzcscxuvcqcjirc
pdwxodndilkdlduzgdjdgncdhdsbydfdepudbdcrmdzdofid
xdatedvdmhadtdyvwdrdkjsdqexypeoejmlemevahekehode
ietczegefqvecedsneaepgjeyebufewenibeuezwxeselkte
rfyzqfpfknmfnfwbiflfipefjfudafhfgrwfdfetofbfqhkf
zfcvgfxfojcfvfaxyftfmlufsgzargqglongogxcjgmgjqfg
kgvebgighsxgegfupgcgrilgagdwhgygpkdgwgbyzgugnmvg
thabshrhmpohphydkhnhkrghlhwfchjhityhfhgvqhdhsjmh
bhexihzhqlehxhczahvhonwhuibctisinqpiqizelioilshi
mixgdikijuzigihwrieitknicifyjiairmfiyidabiwipoxi
vjcdujtjorqjrjafmjpjmtijnjyhejljkvajhjixsjfjuloj
djgzkjbjsngjzjebcjxjqpyjwkdevkukpsrkskbgnkqknujk
okzifkmklwbkikjytkgkvmpkekhalkcktohkakfcdkykrqzk
xlefwlvlqtsltlcholrlovklplajglnlmxcljlkzulhlwnql
flibmldlupilblgdelzlsralymfgxmwmrutmumdipmsmpwlm
qmbkhmomnydmkmlavmimxormgmjcnmemvqjmcmhefmamtsbm
znghynxnsvunvnejqntnqxmnrnclinpnozenlnmbwnjnypsn
hnkdonfnwrkndnifgnbnutcnaohizoyotwvowofkrouoryno
sodmjoqopafomoncxokozqtoiolepogoxsloeojghocovudo
bpijapzpuxwpxpglspvpszoptpenkprpqbgpnpodyplparup
jpmfqphpytmpfpkhipdpwvepcqjkbqaqvyxqyqhmtqwqtapq
uqfolqsqrchqoqpezqmqbsvqkqngrqiqzunqgqlijqeqxwfq
drklcrbrwzyrzrinurxrubqrvrgpmrtrsdirprqfarnrctwr
lrohsrjravorhrmjkrfryxgreslmdscsxazsasjovsysvcrs
wshqnsustejsqsrgbsosduxsmspitsksbwpsisnklsgszyhs
ftmnetdtybatbtkpwtztwdstxtirotvtufktrtshctptevyt
ntqjutltcxqtjtolmthtazitgunofueuzcbuculqxuauxetu
yujspuwuvglusutiduqufwzuourkvumudyrukupmnuiubaju
hvopgvfvadcvdvmryvbvyfuvzvktqvxvwhmvtvujevrvgxav
pvslwvnvezsvlvqnovjvcbkviwpqhwgwbedwewnszwcwzgvw
awlurwywxinwuwvkfwswhybwqwtmxwowfatwmwropwkwdclw
jxqrixhxcfexfxotaxdxahwxbxmvsxzxyjoxvxwlgxtxizcx
rxunyxpxgbuxnxspqxlxedmxkyrsjyiydgfygypubyeybixy
cynwtyayzkpywyxmhyuyjadysyvozyqyhcvyoytqrymyfeny
lzstkzjzehgzhzqvczfzcjyzdzoxuzbzalqzxzynizvzkbez
tzwpazrzidwzpzursznzgfozmatulakafihaiarwdagadkza
eapyvacabmrayazojawalcfauaxqbasajexaqavstaoahgpa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: matula
Cipher: znghyn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: matula
Cipher: 231144541311

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: matula
method variations:
rfyzqfwldevlbqikaqgvopfv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a t u l a 
2 1 4 5 1 1 
3 1 4 4 3 1 
They are then read out in rows:
214511314431
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: matula
Cipher: byactc

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: matula
method variations:
cqydcf qydcfc ydcfcq
dcfcqy cfcqyd fcqydc

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: matula

all 720 cipher variations:
matula matual matlua matlau matalu mataul mautla mautal maulta maulat maualt
mauatl maluta maluat maltua maltau malatu malaut maault maautl maalut maaltu
maatlu maatul mtaula mtaual mtalua mtalau mtaalu mtaaul mtuala mtuaal mtulaa
mtulaa mtuala mtuaal mtluaa mtluaa mtlaua mtlaau mtlaau mtlaua mtaula mtaual
mtalua mtalau mtaalu mtaaul mutala mutaal mutlaa mutlaa mutala mutaal muatla
muatal mualta mualat muaalt muaatl mulata mulaat multaa multaa mulata mulaat
muaalt muaatl mualat mualta muatla muatal mltuaa mltuaa mltaua mltaau mltaau
mltaua mlutaa mlutaa mluata mluaat mluaat mluata mlauta mlauat mlatua mlatau
mlaatu mlaaut mlauat mlauta mlaaut mlaatu mlatau mlatua matula matual matlua
matlau matalu mataul mautla mautal maulta maulat maualt mauatl maluta maluat
maltua maltau malatu malaut maault maautl maalut maaltu maatlu maatul amtula
amtual amtlua amtlau amtalu amtaul amutla amutal amulta amulat amualt amuatl
amluta amluat amltua amltau amlatu amlaut amault amautl amalut amaltu amatlu
amatul atmula atmual atmlua atmlau atmalu atmaul atumla atumal atulma atulam
atualm atuaml atluma atluam atlmua atlmau atlamu atlaum ataulm atauml atalum
atalmu atamlu atamul autmla autmal autlma autlam autalm autaml aumtla aumtal
aumlta aumlat aumalt aumatl aulmta aulmat aultma aultam aulatm aulamt auamlt
auamtl aualmt aualtm auatlm auatml altuma altuam altmua altmau altamu altaum
alutma alutam alumta alumat aluamt aluatm almuta almuat almtua almtau almatu
almaut alaumt alautm alamut alamtu alatmu alatum aatulm aatuml aatlum aatlmu
aatmlu aatmul aautlm aautml aaultm aaulmt aaumlt aaumtl aalutm aalumt aaltum
aaltmu aalmtu aalmut aamult aamutl aamlut aamltu aamtlu aamtul tamula tamual
tamlua tamlau tamalu tamaul taumla taumal taulma taulam taualm tauaml taluma
taluam talmua talmau talamu talaum taaulm taauml taalum taalmu taamlu taamul
tmaula tmaual tmalua tmalau tmaalu tmaaul tmuala tmuaal tmulaa tmulaa tmuala
tmuaal tmluaa tmluaa tmlaua tmlaau tmlaau tmlaua tmaula tmaual tmalua tmalau
tmaalu tmaaul tumala tumaal tumlaa tumlaa tumala tumaal tuamla tuamal tualma
tualam tuaalm tuaaml tulama tulaam tulmaa tulmaa tulama tulaam tuaalm tuaaml
tualam tualma tuamla tuamal tlmuaa tlmuaa tlmaua tlmaau tlmaau tlmaua tlumaa
tlumaa tluama tluaam tluaam tluama tlauma tlauam tlamua tlamau tlaamu tlaaum
tlauam tlauma tlaaum tlaamu tlamau tlamua tamula tamual tamlua tamlau tamalu
tamaul taumla taumal taulma taulam taualm tauaml taluma taluam talmua talmau
talamu talaum taaulm taauml taalum taalmu taamlu taamul uatmla uatmal uatlma
uatlam uatalm uataml uamtla uamtal uamlta uamlat uamalt uamatl ualmta ualmat
ualtma ualtam ualatm ualamt uaamlt uaamtl uaalmt uaaltm uaatlm uaatml utamla
utamal utalma utalam utaalm utaaml utmala utmaal utmlaa utmlaa utmala utmaal
utlmaa utlmaa utlama utlaam utlaam utlama utamla utamal utalma utalam utaalm
utaaml umtala umtaal umtlaa umtlaa umtala umtaal umatla umatal umalta umalat
umaalt umaatl umlata umlaat umltaa umltaa umlata umlaat umaalt umaatl umalat
umalta umatla umatal ultmaa ultmaa ultama ultaam ultaam ultama ulmtaa ulmtaa
ulmata ulmaat ulmaat ulmata ulamta ulamat ulatma ulatam ulaatm ulaamt ulamat
ulamta ulaamt ulaatm ulatam ulatma uatmla uatmal uatlma uatlam uatalm uataml
uamtla uamtal uamlta uamlat uamalt uamatl ualmta ualmat ualtma ualtam ualatm
ualamt uaamlt uaamtl uaalmt uaaltm uaatlm uaatml latuma latuam latmua latmau
latamu lataum lautma lautam laumta laumat lauamt lauatm lamuta lamuat lamtua
lamtau lamatu lamaut laaumt laautm laamut laamtu laatmu laatum ltauma ltauam
ltamua ltamau ltaamu ltaaum ltuama ltuaam ltumaa ltumaa ltuama ltuaam ltmuaa
ltmuaa ltmaua ltmaau ltmaau ltmaua ltauma ltauam ltamua ltamau ltaamu ltaaum
lutama lutaam lutmaa lutmaa lutama lutaam luatma luatam luamta luamat luaamt
luaatm lumata lumaat lumtaa lumtaa lumata lumaat luaamt luaatm luamat luamta
luatma luatam lmtuaa lmtuaa lmtaua lmtaau lmtaau lmtaua lmutaa lmutaa lmuata
lmuaat lmuaat lmuata lmauta lmauat lmatua lmatau lmaatu lmaaut lmauat lmauta
lmaaut lmaatu lmatau lmatua latuma latuam latmua latmau latamu lataum lautma
lautam laumta laumat lauamt lauatm lamuta lamuat lamtua lamtau lamatu lamaut
laaumt laautm laamut laamtu laatmu laatum aatulm aatuml aatlum aatlmu aatmlu
aatmul aautlm aautml aaultm aaulmt aaumlt aaumtl aalutm aalumt aaltum aaltmu
aalmtu aalmut aamult aamutl aamlut aamltu aamtlu aamtul ataulm atauml atalum
atalmu atamlu atamul atualm atuaml atulam atulma atumla atumal atluam atluma
atlaum atlamu atlmau atlmua atmula atmual atmlua atmlau atmalu atmaul autalm
autaml autlam autlma autmla autmal auatlm auatml aualtm aualmt auamlt auamtl
aulatm aulamt aultam aultma aulmta aulmat aumalt aumatl aumlat aumlta aumtla
aumtal altuam altuma altaum altamu altmau altmua alutam alutma aluatm aluamt
alumat alumta alautm alaumt alatum alatmu alamtu alamut almuat almuta almaut
almatu almtau almtua amtula amtual amtlua amtlau amtalu amtaul amutla amutal
amulta amulat amualt amuatl amluta amluat amltua amltau amlatu amlaut amault
amautl amalut amaltu amatlu amatul

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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