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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: masada
cipher variations:
nbtbeb ocucfc pdvdgd qewehe rfxfif
sgygjg thzhkh uiaili vjbjmj wkcknk
xldlol ymempm znfnqn aogoro bphpsp
cqiqtq drjrur esksvs ftltwt gumuxu
hvnvyv iwowzw jxpxax kyqyby lzrzcz

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: masada
Cipher: nzhzwz

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: masada
Cipher: ABABB AAAAA BAAAB AAAAA AAABB AAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: masada
cipher variations:
nbtbeblbdbkbjbnbqbhbxbwbfbhbcbdbrbibzblbubxbvbab
vbfbgbtbpbmbrbzbsbpbjbybocucfcmceclckcocrcicycxc
gcicdcecscjcacmcvcycwcbcwcgchcucqcncscactcqckczc
pdvdgdndfdmdldpdsdjdzdydhdjdedfdtdkdbdndwdzdxdcd
xdhdidvdrdodtdbdudrdldadqeweheoegenemeqetekeaeze
iekefegeueleceoexeaeyedeyeiejewesepeuecevesemebe
rfxfifpfhfofnfrfuflfbfafjflfgfhfvfmfdfpfyfbfzfef
zfjfkfxftfqfvfdfwftfnfcfsgygjgqgigpgogsgvgmgcgbg
kgmghgigwgngegqgzgcgagfgagkglgygugrgwgegxgugogdg
thzhkhrhjhqhphthwhnhdhchlhnhihjhxhohfhrhahdhbhgh
bhlhmhzhvhshxhfhyhvhphehuiailisikiriqiuixioieidi
mioijikiyipigisibieicihiciminiaiwitiyigiziwiqifi
vjbjmjtjljsjrjvjyjpjfjejnjpjkjljzjqjhjtjcjfjdjij
djnjojbjxjujzjhjajxjrjgjwkcknkukmktkskwkzkqkgkfk
okqklkmkakrkikukdkgkekjkekokpkckykvkakikbkykskhk
xldlolvlnlultlxlalrlhlglplrlmlnlblsljlvlelhlflkl
flplqldlzlwlbljlclzltlilymempmwmomvmumymbmsmimhm
qmsmnmomcmtmkmwmfmimgmlmgmqmrmemamxmcmkmdmamumjm
znfnqnxnpnwnvnzncntnjninrntnonpndnunlnxngnjnhnmn
hnrnsnfnbnyndnlnenbnvnknaogoroyoqoxowoaodouokojo
souopoqoeovomoyohokoionoiosotogocozoeomofocowolo
bphpspzprpypxpbpepvplpkptpvpqprpfpwpnpzpiplpjpop
jptpuphpdpapfpnpgpdpxpmpcqiqtqaqsqzqyqcqfqwqmqlq
uqwqrqsqgqxqoqaqjqmqkqpqkquqvqiqeqbqgqoqhqeqyqnq
drjrurbrtrarzrdrgrxrnrmrvrxrsrtrhryrprbrkrnrlrqr
lrvrwrjrfrcrhrprirfrzroresksvscsusbsaseshsysosns
wsystsusiszsqscslsosmsrsmswsxsksgsdsisqsjsgsasps
ftltwtdtvtctbtftitztptotxtztutvtjtatrtdtmtptntst
ntxtytlthtetjtrtkthtbtqtgumuxueuwuducugujuauqupu
yuauvuwukubusueunuquoutuouyuzumuiufukusuluiucuru
hvnvyvfvxvevdvhvkvbvrvqvzvbvwvxvlvcvtvfvovrvpvuv
pvzvavnvjvgvlvtvmvjvdvsviwowzwgwywfwewiwlwcwswrw
awcwxwywmwdwuwgwpwswqwvwqwawbwowkwhwmwuwnwkwewtw
jxpxaxhxzxgxfxjxmxdxtxsxbxdxyxzxnxexvxhxqxtxrxwx
rxbxcxpxlxixnxvxoxlxfxuxkyqybyiyayhygykynyeyuyty
cyeyzyayoyfywyiyryuysyxysycydyqymyjyoywypymygyvy
lzrzczjzbzizhzlzozfzvzuzdzfzazbzpzgzxzjzszvztzyz
tzdzezrznzkzpzxzqznzhzwzmasadakacajaiamapagawava
eagabacaqahayakatawauazauaeafasaoalaqayaraoaiaxa

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: masada
Cipher: znfnqn

Read more ...

 

Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: masada
Cipher: 231134114111

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: masada
method variations:
rfxfifwlclolbqhqtqgvnvyv

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a s a d a 
2 1 3 1 4 1 
3 1 4 1 1 1 
They are then read out in rows:
213141314111
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: masada
Cipher: bcdcda

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: masada
method variations:
cldqaf ldqafc dqafcl
qafcld afcldq fcldqa

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: masada

all 720 cipher variations:
masada masaad masdaa masdaa masada masaad maasda maasad maadsa maadas maaads
maaasd madasa madaas madsaa madsaa madasa madaas maaads maaasd maadas maadsa
maasda maasad msaada msaaad msadaa msadaa msaada msaaad msaada msaaad msadaa
msadaa msaada msaaad msdaaa msdaaa msdaaa msdaaa msdaaa msdaaa msaada msaaad
msadaa msadaa msaada msaaad masada masaad masdaa masdaa masada masaad maasda
maasad maadsa maadas maaads maaasd madasa madaas madsaa madsaa madasa madaas
maaads maaasd maadas maadsa maasda maasad mdsaaa mdsaaa mdsaaa mdsaaa mdsaaa
mdsaaa mdasaa mdasaa mdaasa mdaaas mdaaas mdaasa mdaasa mdaaas mdasaa mdasaa
mdaasa mdaaas mdaaas mdaasa mdaaas mdaasa mdasaa mdasaa masada masaad masdaa
masdaa masada masaad maasda maasad maadsa maadas maaads maaasd madasa madaas
madsaa madsaa madasa madaas maaads maaasd maadas maadsa maasda maasad amsada
amsaad amsdaa amsdaa amsada amsaad amasda amasad amadsa amadas amaads amaasd
amdasa amdaas amdsaa amdsaa amdasa amdaas amaads amaasd amadas amadsa amasda
amasad asmada asmaad asmdaa asmdaa asmada asmaad asamda asamad asadma asadam
asaadm asaamd asdama asdaam asdmaa asdmaa asdama asdaam asaadm asaamd asadam
asadma asamda asamad aasmda aasmad aasdma aasdam aasadm aasamd aamsda aamsad
aamdsa aamdas aamads aamasd aadmsa aadmas aadsma aadsam aadasm aadams aaamds
aaamsd aaadms aaadsm aaasdm aaasmd adsama adsaam adsmaa adsmaa adsama adsaam
adasma adasam adamsa adamas adaams adaasm admasa admaas admsaa admsaa admasa
admaas adaams adaasm adamas adamsa adasma adasam aasadm aasamd aasdam aasdma
aasmda aasmad aaasdm aaasmd aaadsm aaadms aaamds aaamsd aadasm aadams aadsam
aadsma aadmsa aadmas aamads aamasd aamdas aamdsa aamsda aamsad samada samaad
samdaa samdaa samada samaad saamda saamad saadma saadam saaadm saaamd sadama
sadaam sadmaa sadmaa sadama sadaam saaadm saaamd saadam saadma saamda saamad
smaada smaaad smadaa smadaa smaada smaaad smaada smaaad smadaa smadaa smaada
smaaad smdaaa smdaaa smdaaa smdaaa smdaaa smdaaa smaada smaaad smadaa smadaa
smaada smaaad samada samaad samdaa samdaa samada samaad saamda saamad saadma
saadam saaadm saaamd sadama sadaam sadmaa sadmaa sadama sadaam saaadm saaamd
saadam saadma saamda saamad sdmaaa sdmaaa sdmaaa sdmaaa sdmaaa sdmaaa sdamaa
sdamaa sdaama sdaaam sdaaam sdaama sdaama sdaaam sdamaa sdamaa sdaama sdaaam
sdaaam sdaama sdaaam sdaama sdamaa sdamaa samada samaad samdaa samdaa samada
samaad saamda saamad saadma saadam saaadm saaamd sadama sadaam sadmaa sadmaa
sadama sadaam saaadm saaamd saadam saadma saamda saamad aasmda aasmad aasdma
aasdam aasadm aasamd aamsda aamsad aamdsa aamdas aamads aamasd aadmsa aadmas
aadsma aadsam aadasm aadams aaamds aaamsd aaadms aaadsm aaasdm aaasmd asamda
asamad asadma asadam asaadm asaamd asmada asmaad asmdaa asmdaa asmada asmaad
asdmaa asdmaa asdama asdaam asdaam asdama asamda asamad asadma asadam asaadm
asaamd amsada amsaad amsdaa amsdaa amsada amsaad amasda amasad amadsa amadas
amaads amaasd amdasa amdaas amdsaa amdsaa amdasa amdaas amaads amaasd amadas
amadsa amasda amasad adsmaa adsmaa adsama adsaam adsaam adsama admsaa admsaa
admasa admaas admaas admasa adamsa adamas adasma adasam adaasm adaams adamas
adamsa adaams adaasm adasam adasma aasmda aasmad aasdma aasdam aasadm aasamd
aamsda aamsad aamdsa aamdas aamads aamasd aadmsa aadmas aadsma aadsam aadasm
aadams aaamds aaamsd aaadms aaadsm aaasdm aaasmd dasama dasaam dasmaa dasmaa
dasama dasaam daasma daasam daamsa daamas daaams daaasm damasa damaas damsaa
damsaa damasa damaas daaams daaasm daamas daamsa daasma daasam dsaama dsaaam
dsamaa dsamaa dsaama dsaaam dsaama dsaaam dsamaa dsamaa dsaama dsaaam dsmaaa
dsmaaa dsmaaa dsmaaa dsmaaa dsmaaa dsaama dsaaam dsamaa dsamaa dsaama dsaaam
dasama dasaam dasmaa dasmaa dasama dasaam daasma daasam daamsa daamas daaams
daaasm damasa damaas damsaa damsaa damasa damaas daaams daaasm daamas daamsa
daasma daasam dmsaaa dmsaaa dmsaaa dmsaaa dmsaaa dmsaaa dmasaa dmasaa dmaasa
dmaaas dmaaas dmaasa dmaasa dmaaas dmasaa dmasaa dmaasa dmaaas dmaaas dmaasa
dmaaas dmaasa dmasaa dmasaa dasama dasaam dasmaa dasmaa dasama dasaam daasma
daasam daamsa daamas daaams daaasm damasa damaas damsaa damsaa damasa damaas
daaams daaasm daamas daamsa daasma daasam aasadm aasamd aasdam aasdma aasmda
aasmad aaasdm aaasmd aaadsm aaadms aaamds aaamsd aadasm aadams aadsam aadsma
aadmsa aadmas aamads aamasd aamdas aamdsa aamsda aamsad asaadm asaamd asadam
asadma asamda asamad asaadm asaamd asadam asadma asamda asamad asdaam asdama
asdaam asdama asdmaa asdmaa asmada asmaad asmdaa asmdaa asmada asmaad aasadm
aasamd aasdam aasdma aasmda aasmad aaasdm aaasmd aaadsm aaadms aaamds aaamsd
aadasm aadams aadsam aadsma aadmsa aadmas aamads aamasd aamdas aamdsa aamsda
aamsad adsaam adsama adsaam adsama adsmaa adsmaa adasam adasma adaasm adaams
adamas adamsa adaasm adaams adasam adasma adamsa adamas admaas admasa admaas
admasa admsaa admsaa amsada amsaad amsdaa amsdaa amsada amsaad amasda amasad
amadsa amadas amaads amaasd amdasa amdaas amdsaa amdsaa amdasa amdaas amaads
amaasd amadas amadsa amasda amasad

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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