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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: marzan
cipher variations:
nbsabo octbcp pducdq qevder rfwefs
sgxfgt thyghu uizhiv vjaijw wkbjkx
xlckly ymdlmz znemna aofnob bpgopc
cqhpqd driqre esjrsf ftkstg gultuh
hvmuvi iwnvwj jxowxk kypxyl lzqyzm

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: marzan
Cipher: nziazm

Read more ...

 

Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: marzan
Cipher: ABABB AAAAA BAAAA BABBB AAAAA ABBAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: marzan
cipher variations:
nbsabolbaybojbiwbohbqubofbysbodbgqbozbwmboxbekbo
vbmibotbugborbcebopbkcbooctbcpmcbzcpkcjxcpicrvcp
gcztcpechrcpacxncpycflcpwcnjcpucvhcpscdfcpqcldcp
pducdqndcadqldkydqjdswdqhdaudqfdisdqbdyodqzdgmdq
xdokdqvdwidqtdegdqrdmedqqevderoedbermelzerketxer
iebvergejtercezperaehneryeplerwexjeruefhersenfer
rfwefspfecfsnfmafslfuyfsjfcwfshfkufsdfaqfsbfiofs
zfqmfsxfykfsvfgifstfogfssgxfgtqgfdgtognbgtmgvzgt
kgdxgtiglvgtegbrgtcgjpgtagrngtygzlgtwghjgtugphgt
thyghurhgehuphochunhwahulheyhujhmwhufhcshudhkqhu
bhsohuzhamhuxhikhuvhqihuuizhivsihfivqipdivoixbiv
mifzivkinxivgidtiveilrivcitpivaibnivyijlivwirjiv
vjaijwtjigjwrjqejwpjycjwnjgajwljoyjwhjeujwfjmsjw
djuqjwbjcojwzjkmjwxjskjwwkbjkxukjhkxskrfkxqkzdkx
okhbkxmkpzkxikfvkxgkntkxekvrkxckdpkxaklnkxyktlkx
xlcklyvlkilytlsglyrlaelypliclynlqalyjlgwlyhlouly
flwslydleqlyblmolyzlumlyymdlmzwmljmzumthmzsmbfmz
qmjdmzomrbmzkmhxmzimpvmzgmxtmzemfrmzcmnpmzamvnmz
znemnaxnmknavnuinatncgnarnkenapnscnalniynajnqwna
hnyunafngsnadnoqnabnwonaaofnobyonlobwovjobuodhob
solfobqotdobmojzobkorxobiozvobgohtobeoprobcoxpob
bpgopczpompcxpwkpcvpeipctpmgpcrpuepcnpkapclpsypc
jpawpchpiupcfpqspcdpyqpccqhpqdaqpnqdyqxlqdwqfjqd
uqnhqdsqvfqdoqlbqdmqtzqdkqbxqdiqjvqdgqrtqdeqzrqd
driqrebrqorezrymrexrgkrevroiretrwgreprmcrenruare
lrcyrejrkwrehrsurefrasreesjrsfcsrpsfasznsfyshlsf
wspjsfusxhsfqsndsfosvbsfmsdzsfkslxsfistvsfgsbtsf
ftkstgdtsqtgbtaotgztimtgxtqktgvtyitgrtoetgptwctg
nteatgltmytgjtuwtghtcutggultuheutruhcubpuhaujnuh
yurluhwuzjuhsupfuhquxduhoufbuhmunzuhkuvxuhiudvuh
hvmuvifvusvidvcqvibvkovizvsmvixvakvitvqgvirvyevi
pvgcvinvoavilvwyvijvewviiwnvwjgwvtwjewdrwjcwlpwj
awtnwjywblwjuwrhwjswzfwjqwhdwjowpbwjmwxzwjkwfxwj
jxowxkhxwuxkfxesxkdxmqxkbxuoxkzxcmxkvxsixktxagxk
rxiexkpxqcxknxyaxklxgyxkkypxyliyxvylgyftyleynryl
cyvpylaydnylwytjyluybhylsyjfylqyrdyloyzbylmyhzyl
lzqyzmjzywzmhzguzmfzoszmdzwqzmbzeozmxzukzmvzcizm
tzkgzmrzsezmpzaczmnziazmmarzankazxaniahvangaptan
eaxrancafpanyavlanwadjanualhansatfanqabdanoajban

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

Read more ...

 

ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: marzan
Cipher: znemna

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: marzan
Cipher: 231124551133

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: marzan
method variations:
rfwefswlbklxbqgpqcgvmuvh

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a r z a n 
2 1 2 5 1 3 
3 1 4 5 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
212513314513
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: marzan
Cipher: bwlcyl

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: marzan
method variations:
cfyelh fyelhc yelhcf
elhcfy lhcfye hcfyel

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: marzan

all 720 cipher variations:
marzan marzna marazn maranz marnaz marnza mazran mazrna mazarn mazanr maznar
maznra maazrn maaznr maarzn maarnz maanrz maanzr manzar manzra manazr manarz
manraz manrza mrazan mrazna mraazn mraanz mranaz mranza mrzaan mrzana mrzaan
mrzana mrznaa mrznaa mrazan mrazna mraazn mraanz mranaz mranza mrnzaa mrnzaa
mrnaza mrnaaz mrnaaz mrnaza mzraan mzrana mzraan mzrana mzrnaa mzrnaa mzaran
mzarna mzaarn mzaanr mzanar mzanra mzaarn mzaanr mzaran mzarna mzanra mzanar
mznaar mznara mznaar mznara mznraa mznraa marzan marzna marazn maranz marnaz
marnza mazran mazrna mazarn mazanr maznar maznra maazrn maaznr maarzn maarnz
maanrz maanzr manzar manzra manazr manarz manraz manrza mnrzaa mnrzaa mnraza
mnraaz mnraaz mnraza mnzraa mnzraa mnzara mnzaar mnzaar mnzara mnazra mnazar
mnarza mnaraz mnaarz mnaazr mnazar mnazra mnaazr mnaarz mnaraz mnarza amrzan
amrzna amrazn amranz amrnaz amrnza amzran amzrna amzarn amzanr amznar amznra
amazrn amaznr amarzn amarnz amanrz amanzr amnzar amnzra amnazr amnarz amnraz
amnrza armzan armzna armazn armanz armnaz armnza arzman arzmna arzamn arzanm
arznam arznma arazmn araznm aramzn aramnz aranmz aranzm arnzam arnzma arnazm
arnamz arnmaz arnmza azrman azrmna azramn azranm azrnam azrnma azmran azmrna
azmarn azmanr azmnar azmnra azamrn azamnr azarmn azarnm azanrm azanmr aznmar
aznmra aznamr aznarm aznram aznrma aarzmn aarznm aarmzn aarmnz aarnmz aarnzm
aazrmn aazrnm aazmrn aazmnr aaznmr aaznrm aamzrn aamznr aamrzn aamrnz aamnrz
aamnzr aanzmr aanzrm aanmzr aanmrz aanrmz aanrzm anrzam anrzma anrazm anramz
anrmaz anrmza anzram anzrma anzarm anzamr anzmar anzmra anazrm anazmr anarzm
anarmz anamrz anamzr anmzar anmzra anmazr anmarz anmraz anmrza ramzan ramzna
ramazn ramanz ramnaz ramnza razman razmna razamn razanm raznam raznma raazmn
raaznm raamzn raamnz raanmz raanzm ranzam ranzma ranazm ranamz ranmaz ranmza
rmazan rmazna rmaazn rmaanz rmanaz rmanza rmzaan rmzana rmzaan rmzana rmznaa
rmznaa rmazan rmazna rmaazn rmaanz rmanaz rmanza rmnzaa rmnzaa rmnaza rmnaaz
rmnaaz rmnaza rzmaan rzmana rzmaan rzmana rzmnaa rzmnaa rzaman rzamna rzaamn
rzaanm rzanam rzanma rzaamn rzaanm rzaman rzamna rzanma rzanam rznaam rznama
rznaam rznama rznmaa rznmaa ramzan ramzna ramazn ramanz ramnaz ramnza razman
razmna razamn razanm raznam raznma raazmn raaznm raamzn raamnz raanmz raanzm
ranzam ranzma ranazm ranamz ranmaz ranmza rnmzaa rnmzaa rnmaza rnmaaz rnmaaz
rnmaza rnzmaa rnzmaa rnzama rnzaam rnzaam rnzama rnazma rnazam rnamza rnamaz
rnaamz rnaazm rnazam rnazma rnaazm rnaamz rnamaz rnamza zarman zarmna zaramn
zaranm zarnam zarnma zamran zamrna zamarn zamanr zamnar zamnra zaamrn zaamnr
zaarmn zaarnm zaanrm zaanmr zanmar zanmra zanamr zanarm zanram zanrma zraman
zramna zraamn zraanm zranam zranma zrmaan zrmana zrmaan zrmana zrmnaa zrmnaa
zraman zramna zraamn zraanm zranam zranma zrnmaa zrnmaa zrnama zrnaam zrnaam
zrnama zmraan zmrana zmraan zmrana zmrnaa zmrnaa zmaran zmarna zmaarn zmaanr
zmanar zmanra zmaarn zmaanr zmaran zmarna zmanra zmanar zmnaar zmnara zmnaar
zmnara zmnraa zmnraa zarman zarmna zaramn zaranm zarnam zarnma zamran zamrna
zamarn zamanr zamnar zamnra zaamrn zaamnr zaarmn zaarnm zaanrm zaanmr zanmar
zanmra zanamr zanarm zanram zanrma znrmaa znrmaa znrama znraam znraam znrama
znmraa znmraa znmara znmaar znmaar znmara znamra znamar znarma znaram znaarm
znaamr znamar znamra znaamr znaarm znaram znarma aarzmn aarznm aarmzn aarmnz
aarnmz aarnzm aazrmn aazrnm aazmrn aazmnr aaznmr aaznrm aamzrn aamznr aamrzn
aamrnz aamnrz aamnzr aanzmr aanzrm aanmzr aanmrz aanrmz aanrzm arazmn araznm
aramzn aramnz aranmz aranzm arzamn arzanm arzman arzmna arznma arznam armzan
armzna armazn armanz armnaz armnza arnzma arnzam arnmza arnmaz arnamz arnazm
azramn azranm azrman azrmna azrnma azrnam azarmn azarnm azamrn azamnr azanmr
azanrm azmarn azmanr azmran azmrna azmnra azmnar aznamr aznarm aznmar aznmra
aznrma aznram amrzan amrzna amrazn amranz amrnaz amrnza amzran amzrna amzarn
amzanr amznar amznra amazrn amaznr amarzn amarnz amanrz amanzr amnzar amnzra
amnazr amnarz amnraz amnrza anrzma anrzam anrmza anrmaz anramz anrazm anzrma
anzram anzmra anzmar anzamr anzarm anmzra anmzar anmrza anmraz anmarz anmazr
anazmr anazrm anamzr anamrz anarmz anarzm narzam narzma narazm naramz narmaz
narmza nazram nazrma nazarm nazamr nazmar nazmra naazrm naazmr naarzm naarmz
naamrz naamzr namzar namzra namazr namarz namraz namrza nrazam nrazma nraazm
nraamz nramaz nramza nrzaam nrzama nrzaam nrzama nrzmaa nrzmaa nrazam nrazma
nraazm nraamz nramaz nramza nrmzaa nrmzaa nrmaza nrmaaz nrmaaz nrmaza nzraam
nzrama nzraam nzrama nzrmaa nzrmaa nzaram nzarma nzaarm nzaamr nzamar nzamra
nzaarm nzaamr nzaram nzarma nzamra nzamar nzmaar nzmara nzmaar nzmara nzmraa
nzmraa narzam narzma narazm naramz narmaz narmza nazram nazrma nazarm nazamr
nazmar nazmra naazrm naazmr naarzm naarmz naamrz naamzr namzar namzra namazr
namarz namraz namrza nmrzaa nmrzaa nmraza nmraaz nmraaz nmraza nmzraa nmzraa
nmzara nmzaar nmzaar nmzara nmazra nmazar nmarza nmaraz nmaarz nmaazr nmazar
nmazra nmaazr nmaarz nmaraz nmarza

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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