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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: martir
cipher variations:
nbsujs octvkt pduwlu qevxmv rfwynw
sgxzox thyapy uizbqz vjacra wkbdsb
xlcetc ymdfud znegve aofhwf bpgixg
cqhjyh drikzi esjlaj ftkmbk gulncl
hvmodm iwnpen jxoqfo kyprgp lzqshq

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: martir
Cipher: nzigri

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: martir
Cipher: ABABB AAAAA BAAAA BAABA ABAAA BAAAA

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: martir
cipher variations:
nbsujslbagzajbispihbqefqfbyqvydbgclgzbwarwxbemhe
vbmyxmtbuknurbcwdcpbkitkoctvktmcbhabkcjtqjicrfgr
gczrwzechdmhacxbsxycfnifwcnzynucvlovscdxedqcljul
pduwlundcibcldkurkjdsghshdasxafdienibdyctyzdgojg
xdoazovdwmpwtdeyferdmkvmqevxmvoedjcdmelvslkethit
iebtybgejfojcezduzaehpkhyepbapwexnqxuefzgfsenlwn
rfwynwpfekdenfmwtmlfuijujfcuzchfkgpkdfaevabfiqli
zfqcbqxfyoryvfgahgtfomxosgxzoxqgflefognxunmgvjkv
kgdvadiglhqlegbfwbcgjrmjagrdcrygzpszwghbihugpnyp
thyapyrhgmfgphoyvonhwklwlhewbejhmirmfhcgxcdhksnk
bhsedszhaqtaxhicjivhqozquizbqzsihnghqipzwpoixlmx
mifxcfkinjsngidhydeiltolcitfetaibrubyijdkjwirpar
vjacratjiohirjqaxqpjymnynjgydgljoktohjeizefjmupm
djugfubjcsvczjkelkxjsqbswkbdsbukjpijskrbyrqkznoz
okhzehmkplupikfjafgknvqnekvhgvckdtwdaklfmlyktrct
xlcetcvlkqjktlsczsrlaopapliafinlqmvqjlgkbghlowro
flwihwdleuxeblmgnmzlusduymdfudwmlrklumtdatsmbpqb
qmjbgjomrnwrkmhlchimpxspgmxjixemfvyfcmnhonamvtev
znegvexnmslmvnuebutncqrcrnkchkpnsoxslnimdijnqytq
hnykjyfngwzgdnoipobnwufwaofhwfyontmnwovfcvuodrsd
soldilqotpytmojnejkorzuriozlkzgohxaheopjqpcoxvgx
bpgixgzpounoxpwgdwvpestetpmejmrpuqzunpkofklpsavs
jpamlahpiybifpqkrqdpywhycqhjyhaqpvopyqxhexwqftuf
uqnfknsqvravoqlpglmqtbwtkqbnmbiqjzcjgqrlsreqzxiz
drikzibrqwpqzryifyxrguvgvroglotrwsbwprmqhmnrucxu
lrconcjrkadkhrsmtsfrayjaesjlajcsrxqraszjgzyshvwh
wsphmpusxtcxqsnrinosvdyvmsdpodkslbelistnutgsbzkb
ftkmbkdtsyrsbtakhaztiwxixtqinqvtyudyrtosjoptwezw
nteqpeltmcfmjtuovuhtcalcgulncleutzstcublibaujxyj
yurjorwuzvezsuptkpquxfaxoufrqfmundgnkuvpwviudbmd
hvmodmfvuatudvcmjcbvkyzkzvskpsxvawfatvqulqrvygby
pvgsrgnvoeholvwqxwjvecneiwnpengwvbuvewdnkdcwlzal
awtlqtywbxgbuwrvmrswzhczqwhtshowpfipmwxryxkwfdof
jxoqfohxwcvwfxeoledxmabmbxumruzxcyhcvxswnstxaida
rxiutipxqgjqnxyszylxgepgkyprgpiyxdwxgyfpmfeynbcn
cyvnsvaydzidwytxotuybjebsyjvujqyrhkroyztazmyhfqh
lzqshqjzyexyhzgqngfzocdodzwotwbzeajexzuypuvzckfc
tzkwvkrzsilspzaubanzigrimartirkazfyziahrohgapdep
eaxpuxcafbkfyavzqvwadlgdualxwlsatjmtqabvcboajhsj

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: martir
Cipher: znegve

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: martir
Cipher: 231124444224

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: martir
method variations:
rfwyowwlbdtbbqgiyggvmodm

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a r t i r 
2 1 2 4 4 2 
3 1 4 4 2 4 
They are then read out in rows:
212442314424
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: martir
Cipher: brictr

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: martir
method variations:
cfttgi fttgic ttgicf
tgicft gicftt icfttg

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: martir

all 720 cipher variations:
martir martri maritr marirt marrit marrti matrir matrri matirr matirr matrir
matrri maitrr maitrr mairtr mairrt mairrt mairtr martir martri maritr marirt
marrit marrti mratir mratri mraitr mrairt mrarit mrarti mrtair mrtari mrtiar
mrtira mrtria mrtrai mritar mritra mriatr mriart mrirat mrirta mrrtia mrrtai
mrrita mrriat mrrait mrrati mtrair mtrari mtriar mtrira mtrria mtrrai mtarir
mtarri mtairr mtairr mtarir mtarri mtiarr mtiarr mtirar mtirra mtirra mtirar
mtrair mtrari mtriar mtrira mtrria mtrrai mirtar mirtra miratr mirart mirrat
mirrta mitrar mitrra mitarr mitarr mitrar mitrra miatrr miatrr miartr miarrt
miarrt miartr mirtar mirtra miratr mirart mirrat mirrta mrrtia mrrtai mrrita
mrriat mrrait mrrati mrtria mrtrai mrtira mrtiar mrtair mrtari mritra mritar
mrirta mrirat mriart mriatr mratir mratri mraitr mrairt mrarit mrarti amrtir
amrtri amritr amrirt amrrit amrrti amtrir amtrri amtirr amtirr amtrir amtrri
amitrr amitrr amirtr amirrt amirrt amirtr amrtir amrtri amritr amrirt amrrit
amrrti armtir armtri armitr armirt armrit armrti artmir artmri artimr artirm
artrim artrmi aritmr aritrm arimtr arimrt arirmt arirtm arrtim arrtmi arritm
arrimt arrmit arrmti atrmir atrmri atrimr atrirm atrrim atrrmi atmrir atmrri
atmirr atmirr atmrir atmrri atimrr atimrr atirmr atirrm atirrm atirmr atrmir
atrmri atrimr atrirm atrrim atrrmi airtmr airtrm airmtr airmrt airrmt airrtm
aitrmr aitrrm aitmrr aitmrr aitrmr aitrrm aimtrr aimtrr aimrtr aimrrt aimrrt
aimrtr airtmr airtrm airmtr airmrt airrmt airrtm arrtim arrtmi arritm arrimt
arrmit arrmti artrim artrmi artirm artimr artmir artmri aritrm aritmr arirtm
arirmt arimrt arimtr armtir armtri armitr armirt armrit armrti ramtir ramtri
ramitr ramirt ramrit ramrti ratmir ratmri ratimr ratirm ratrim ratrmi raitmr
raitrm raimtr raimrt rairmt rairtm rartim rartmi raritm rarimt rarmit rarmti
rmatir rmatri rmaitr rmairt rmarit rmarti rmtair rmtari rmtiar rmtira rmtria
rmtrai rmitar rmitra rmiatr rmiart rmirat rmirta rmrtia rmrtai rmrita rmriat
rmrait rmrati rtmair rtmari rtmiar rtmira rtmria rtmrai rtamir rtamri rtaimr
rtairm rtarim rtarmi rtiamr rtiarm rtimar rtimra rtirma rtiram rtraim rtrami
rtriam rtrima rtrmia rtrmai rimtar rimtra rimatr rimart rimrat rimrta ritmar
ritmra ritamr ritarm ritram ritrma riatmr riatrm riamtr riamrt riarmt riartm
rirtam rirtma riratm riramt rirmat rirmta rrmtia rrmtai rrmita rrmiat rrmait
rrmati rrtmia rrtmai rrtima rrtiam rrtaim rrtami rritma rritam rrimta rrimat
rriamt rriatm rratim rratmi rraitm rraimt rramit rramti tarmir tarmri tarimr
tarirm tarrim tarrmi tamrir tamrri tamirr tamirr tamrir tamrri taimrr taimrr
tairmr tairrm tairrm tairmr tarmir tarmri tarimr tarirm tarrim tarrmi tramir
tramri traimr trairm trarim trarmi trmair trmari trmiar trmira trmria trmrai
trimar trimra triamr triarm triram trirma trrmia trrmai trrima trriam trraim
trrami tmrair tmrari tmriar tmrira tmrria tmrrai tmarir tmarri tmairr tmairr
tmarir tmarri tmiarr tmiarr tmirar tmirra tmirra tmirar tmrair tmrari tmriar
tmrira tmrria tmrrai tirmar tirmra tiramr tirarm tirram tirrma timrar timrra
timarr timarr timrar timrra tiamrr tiamrr tiarmr tiarrm tiarrm tiarmr tirmar
tirmra tiramr tirarm tirram tirrma trrmia trrmai trrima trriam trraim trrami
trmria trmrai trmira trmiar trmair trmari trimra trimar trirma triram triarm
triamr tramir tramri traimr trairm trarim trarmi iartmr iartrm iarmtr iarmrt
iarrmt iarrtm iatrmr iatrrm iatmrr iatmrr iatrmr iatrrm iamtrr iamtrr iamrtr
iamrrt iamrrt iamrtr iartmr iartrm iarmtr iarmrt iarrmt iarrtm iratmr iratrm
iramtr iramrt irarmt irartm irtamr irtarm irtmar irtmra irtrma irtram irmtar
irmtra irmatr irmart irmrat irmrta irrtma irrtam irrmta irrmat irramt irratm
itramr itrarm itrmar itrmra itrrma itrram itarmr itarrm itamrr itamrr itarmr
itarrm itmarr itmarr itmrar itmrra itmrra itmrar itramr itrarm itrmar itrmra
itrrma itrram imrtar imrtra imratr imrart imrrat imrrta imtrar imtrra imtarr
imtarr imtrar imtrra imatrr imatrr imartr imarrt imarrt imartr imrtar imrtra
imratr imrart imrrat imrrta irrtma irrtam irrmta irrmat irramt irratm irtrma
irtram irtmra irtmar irtamr irtarm irmtra irmtar irmrta irmrat irmart irmatr
iratmr iratrm iramtr iramrt irarmt irartm rartim rartmi raritm rarimt rarmit
rarmti ratrim ratrmi ratirm ratimr ratmir ratmri raitrm raitmr rairtm rairmt
raimrt raimtr ramtir ramtri ramitr ramirt ramrit ramrti rratim rratmi rraitm
rraimt rramit rramti rrtaim rrtami rrtiam rrtima rrtmia rrtmai rritam rritma
rriatm rriamt rrimat rrimta rrmtia rrmtai rrmita rrmiat rrmait rrmati rtraim
rtrami rtriam rtrima rtrmia rtrmai rtarim rtarmi rtairm rtaimr rtamir rtamri
rtiarm rtiamr rtiram rtirma rtimra rtimar rtmair rtmari rtmiar rtmira rtmria
rtmrai rirtam rirtma riratm riramt rirmat rirmta ritram ritrma ritarm ritamr
ritmar ritmra riatrm riatmr riartm riarmt riamrt riamtr rimtar rimtra rimatr
rimart rimrat rimrta rmrtia rmrtai rmrita rmriat rmrait rmrati rmtria rmtrai
rmtira rmtiar rmtair rmtari rmitra rmitar rmirta rmirat rmiart rmiatr rmatir
rmatri rmaitr rmairt rmarit rmarti

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History of cryptography
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