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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: manvel
cipher variations:
nbowfm ocpxgn pdqyho qerzip rfsajq
sgtbkr thucls uivdmt vjwenu wkxfov
xlygpw ymzhqx znairy aobjsz bpckta
cqdlub dremvc esfnwd ftgoxe guhpyf
hviqzg iwjrah jxksbi kyltcj lzmudk

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: manvel
Cipher: nzmevo

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: manvel

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: manvel
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: manvel
Cipher: znairy

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: manvel
Cipher: 231133155113

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: manvel
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a n v e l 
2 1 3 1 5 1 
3 1 3 5 1 3 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: manvel
Cipher: bcecxl

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Method #3

Plaintext: manvel
method variations:
clczah lczahc czahcl
zahclc ahclcz hclcza

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: manvel

all 720 cipher variations:
manvel manvle manevl manelv manlev manlve mavnel mavnle mavenl maveln mavlen
mavlne maevnl maevln maenvl maenlv maelnv maelvn malven malvne malevn malenv
malnev malnve mnavel mnavle mnaevl mnaelv mnalev mnalve mnvael mnvale mnveal
mnvela mnvlea mnvlae mneval mnevla mneavl mnealv mnelav mnelva mnlvea mnlvae
mnleva mnleav mnlaev mnlave mvnael mvnale mvneal mvnela mvnlea mvnlae mvanel
mvanle mvaenl mvaeln mvalen mvalne mveanl mvealn mvenal mvenla mvelna mvelan
mvlaen mvlane mvlean mvlena mvlnea mvlnae menval menvla menavl menalv menlav
menlva mevnal mevnla mevanl mevaln mevlan mevlna meavnl meavln meanvl meanlv
mealnv mealvn melvan melvna melavn melanv melnav melnva mlnvea mlnvae mlneva
mlneav mlnaev mlnave mlvnea mlvnae mlvena mlvean mlvaen mlvane mlevna mlevan
mlenva mlenav mleanv mleavn mlaven mlavne mlaevn mlaenv mlanev mlanve amnvel
amnvle amnevl amnelv amnlev amnlve amvnel amvnle amvenl amveln amvlen amvlne
amevnl amevln amenvl amenlv amelnv amelvn amlven amlvne amlevn amlenv amlnev
amlnve anmvel anmvle anmevl anmelv anmlev anmlve anvmel anvmle anveml anvelm
anvlem anvlme anevml anevlm anemvl anemlv anelmv anelvm anlvem anlvme anlevm
anlemv anlmev anlmve avnmel avnmle avneml avnelm avnlem avnlme avmnel avmnle
avmenl avmeln avmlen avmlne avemnl avemln avenml avenlm avelnm avelmn avlmen
avlmne avlemn avlenm avlnem avlnme aenvml aenvlm aenmvl aenmlv aenlmv aenlvm
aevnml aevnlm aevmnl aevmln aevlmn aevlnm aemvnl aemvln aemnvl aemnlv aemlnv
aemlvn aelvmn aelvnm aelmvn aelmnv aelnmv aelnvm alnvem alnvme alnevm alnemv
alnmev alnmve alvnem alvnme alvenm alvemn alvmen alvmne alevnm alevmn alenvm
alenmv alemnv alemvn almven almvne almevn almenv almnev almnve namvel namvle
namevl namelv namlev namlve navmel navmle naveml navelm navlem navlme naevml
naevlm naemvl naemlv naelmv naelvm nalvem nalvme nalevm nalemv nalmev nalmve
nmavel nmavle nmaevl nmaelv nmalev nmalve nmvael nmvale nmveal nmvela nmvlea
nmvlae nmeval nmevla nmeavl nmealv nmelav nmelva nmlvea nmlvae nmleva nmleav
nmlaev nmlave nvmael nvmale nvmeal nvmela nvmlea nvmlae nvamel nvamle nvaeml
nvaelm nvalem nvalme nveaml nvealm nvemal nvemla nvelma nvelam nvlaem nvlame
nvleam nvlema nvlmea nvlmae nemval nemvla nemavl nemalv nemlav nemlva nevmal
nevmla nevaml nevalm nevlam nevlma neavml neavlm neamvl neamlv nealmv nealvm
nelvam nelvma nelavm nelamv nelmav nelmva nlmvea nlmvae nlmeva nlmeav nlmaev
nlmave nlvmea nlvmae nlvema nlveam nlvaem nlvame nlevma nlevam nlemva nlemav
nleamv nleavm nlavem nlavme nlaevm nlaemv nlamev nlamve vanmel vanmle vaneml
vanelm vanlem vanlme vamnel vamnle vamenl vameln vamlen vamlne vaemnl vaemln
vaenml vaenlm vaelnm vaelmn valmen valmne valemn valenm valnem valnme vnamel
vnamle vnaeml vnaelm vnalem vnalme vnmael vnmale vnmeal vnmela vnmlea vnmlae
vnemal vnemla vneaml vnealm vnelam vnelma vnlmea vnlmae vnlema vnleam vnlaem
vnlame vmnael vmnale vmneal vmnela vmnlea vmnlae vmanel vmanle vmaenl vmaeln
vmalen vmalne vmeanl vmealn vmenal vmenla vmelna vmelan vmlaen vmlane vmlean
vmlena vmlnea vmlnae venmal venmla venaml venalm venlam venlma vemnal vemnla
vemanl vemaln vemlan vemlna veamnl veamln veanml veanlm vealnm vealmn velman
velmna velamn velanm velnam velnma vlnmea vlnmae vlnema vlneam vlnaem vlname
vlmnea vlmnae vlmena vlmean vlmaen vlmane vlemna vleman vlenma vlenam vleanm
vleamn vlamen vlamne vlaemn vlaenm vlanem vlanme eanvml eanvlm eanmvl eanmlv
eanlmv eanlvm eavnml eavnlm eavmnl eavmln eavlmn eavlnm eamvnl eamvln eamnvl
eamnlv eamlnv eamlvn ealvmn ealvnm ealmvn ealmnv ealnmv ealnvm enavml enavlm
enamvl enamlv enalmv enalvm envaml envalm envmal envmla envlma envlam enmval
enmvla enmavl enmalv enmlav enmlva enlvma enlvam enlmva enlmav enlamv enlavm
evnaml evnalm evnmal evnmla evnlma evnlam evanml evanlm evamnl evamln evalmn
evalnm evmanl evmaln evmnal evmnla evmlna evmlan evlamn evlanm evlman evlmna
evlnma evlnam emnval emnvla emnavl emnalv emnlav emnlva emvnal emvnla emvanl
emvaln emvlan emvlna emavnl emavln emanvl emanlv emalnv emalvn emlvan emlvna
emlavn emlanv emlnav emlnva elnvma elnvam elnmva elnmav elnamv elnavm elvnma
elvnam elvmna elvman elvamn elvanm elmvna elmvan elmnva elmnav elmanv elmavn
elavmn elavnm elamvn elamnv elanmv elanvm lanvem lanvme lanevm lanemv lanmev
lanmve lavnem lavnme lavenm lavemn lavmen lavmne laevnm laevmn laenvm laenmv
laemnv laemvn lamven lamvne lamevn lamenv lamnev lamnve lnavem lnavme lnaevm
lnaemv lnamev lnamve lnvaem lnvame lnveam lnvema lnvmea lnvmae lnevam lnevma
lneavm lneamv lnemav lnemva lnmvea lnmvae lnmeva lnmeav lnmaev lnmave lvnaem
lvname lvneam lvnema lvnmea lvnmae lvanem lvanme lvaenm lvaemn lvamen lvamne
lveanm lveamn lvenam lvenma lvemna lveman lvmaen lvmane lvmean lvmena lvmnea
lvmnae lenvam lenvma lenavm lenamv lenmav lenmva levnam levnma levanm levamn
levman levmna leavnm leavmn leanvm leanmv leamnv leamvn lemvan lemvna lemavn
lemanv lemnav lemnva lmnvea lmnvae lmneva lmneav lmnaev lmnave lmvnea lmvnae
lmvena lmvean lmvaen lmvane lmevna lmevan lmenva lmenav lmeanv lmeavn lmaven
lmavne lmaevn lmaenv lmanev lmanve

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History of cryptography
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