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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: mallom
cipher variations:
nbmmpn ocnnqo pdoorp qeppsq rfqqtr
sgrrus thssvt uittwu vjuuxv wkvvyw
xlwwzx ymxxay znyybz aozzca bpaadb
cqbbec drccfd esddge fteehf guffig
hvggjh iwhhki jxiilj kyjjmk lzkknl

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
Read more ...
Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: mallom
Cipher: nzooln

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: mallom
Cipher: ABABB AAAAA ABABA ABABA ABBAB ABABB

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: mallom
cipher variations:
nbmmpnlbiirljbeetjhbaavhfbwwxfdbsszdzbkkdzxbggfx
vbcchvtbyyjtrbuulrpbqqnpocnnqomcjjsmkcffukicbbwi
gcxxygecttaeaclleaychhgywcddiwuczzkuscvvmsqcrroq
pdoorpndkktnldggvljdccxjhdyyzhfduubfbdmmfbzdiihz
xdeejxvdaalvtdwwntrdssprqeppsqoelluomehhwmkeddyk
iezzaigevvcgcenngcaejjiayeffkywebbmwuexxousettqs
rfqqtrpfmmvpnfiixnlfeezljfaabjhfwwdhdfoohdbfkkjb
zfgglzxfccnxvfyypvtfuurtsgrrusqgnnwqogjjyomgffam
kgbbckigxxeiegppiecgllkcaghhmaygddoywgzzqwugvvsu
thssvtrhooxrphkkzpnhggbnlhccdljhyyfjfhqqjfdhmmld
bhiinbzheepzxhaarxvhwwtvuittwusippysqillaqoihhco
middemkizzgkgirrkgeinnmecijjocaiffqayibbsywixxuw
vjuuxvtjqqztrjmmbrpjiidpnjeefnljaahlhjsslhfjoonf
djkkpdbjggrbzjcctzxjyyvxwkvvywukrrausknncsqkjjeq
okffgomkbbimikttmigkppogekllqeckhhscakdduaykzzwy
xlwwzxvlssbvtloodtrlkkfrplgghpnlccjnjluunjhlqqph
flmmrfdliitdbleevbzlaaxzymxxaywmttcwumppeusmllgs
qmhhiqomddkokmvvokimrrqigmnnsgemjjuecmffwcambbya
znyybzxnuudxvnqqfvtnmmhtrniijrpneelplnwwpljnssrj
hnoothfnkkvfdnggxdbncczbaozzcayovveyworrgwuonniu
sojjksqoffmqmoxxqmkottskioppuigollwgeohhyecoddac
bpaadbzpwwfzxpsshxvpoojvtpkkltrpggnrnpyyrnlpuutl
jpqqvjhpmmxhfpiizfdpeebdcqbbecaqxxgayqttiywqppkw
uqllmusqhhosoqzzsomqvvumkqrrwkiqnnyigqjjageqffce
drccfdbryyhbzruujzxrqqlxvrmmnvtriiptpraatpnrwwvn
lrssxljroozjhrkkbhfrggdfesddgecszzicasvvkaysrrmy
wsnnowusjjquqsbbuqosxxwomsttymksppakisllcigshheg
fteehfdtaajdbtwwlbztssnzxtoopxvtkkrvrtccvrptyyxp
ntuuznltqqbljtmmdjhtiifhguffigeubbkecuxxmcauttoa
yuppqywullswsuddwsquzzyqouvvaomurrcmkunnekiujjgi
hvggjhfvcclfdvyyndbvuupbzvqqrzxvmmtxtveextrvaazr
pvwwbpnvssdnlvoofljvkkhjiwhhkigwddmgewzzoecwvvqc
awrrsaywnnuyuwffyuswbbasqwxxcqowtteomwppgmkwllik
jxiiljhxeenhfxaapfdxwwrdbxsstbzxoovzvxggzvtxccbt
rxyydrpxuufpnxqqhnlxmmjlkyjjmkiyffoigybbqgeyxxse
cyttucayppwawyhhawuyddcusyzzesqyvvgqoyrriomynnkm
lzkknljzggpjhzccrhfzyytfdzuuvdbzqqxbxziibxvzeedv
tzaaftrzwwhrpzssjpnzoolnmallomkahhqkiaddsigazzug
eavvwecarrycyajjcywaffewuabbgusaxxisqattkqoappmo

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x


An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: mallom
Cipher: znyybz

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: mallom
Cipher: 231113134323

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: mallom
method variations:
rfqqtrwlvvywbqaadbgvffig

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a l l o m 
2 1 1 1 4 2 
3 1 3 3 3 3 
They are then read out in rows:
211142313333
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: mallom
Cipher: baicnn

Read more ...
Method #3

Plaintext: mallom
method variations:
cacshh acshhc cshhca
shhcac hhcacs hcacsh

Read more ...[RUS] , [EN]

 

Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: mallom

all 720 cipher variations:
mallom mallmo malolm maloml malmol malmlo mallom mallmo malolm maloml malmol
malmlo maollm maolml maollm maolml maomll maomll mamlol mamllo mamoll mamoll
mamlol mamllo mlalom mlalmo mlaolm mlaoml mlamol mlamlo mllaom mllamo mlloam
mlloma mllmoa mllmao mlolam mlolma mloalm mloaml mlomal mlomla mlmloa mlmlao
mlmola mlmoal mlmaol mlmalo mllaom mllamo mlloam mlloma mllmoa mllmao mlalom
mlalmo mlaolm mlaoml mlamol mlamlo mloalm mloaml mlolam mlolma mlomla mlomal
mlmaol mlmalo mlmoal mlmola mlmloa mlmlao mollam mollma molalm molaml molmal
molmla mollam mollma molalm molaml molmal molmla moallm moalml moallm moalml
moamll moamll momlal momlla momall momall momlal momlla mmlloa mmllao mmlola
mmloal mmlaol mmlalo mmlloa mmllao mmlola mmloal mmlaol mmlalo mmolla mmolal
mmolla mmolal mmoall mmoall mmalol mmallo mmaoll mmaoll mmalol mmallo amllom
amllmo amlolm amloml amlmol amlmlo amllom amllmo amlolm amloml amlmol amlmlo
amollm amolml amollm amolml amomll amomll ammlol ammllo ammoll ammoll ammlol
ammllo almlom almlmo almolm almoml almmol almmlo allmom allmmo allomm allomm
allmom allmmo alolmm alolmm alomlm alomml alomml alomlm almlom almlmo almolm
almoml almmol almmlo allmom allmmo allomm allomm allmom allmmo almlom almlmo
almolm almoml almmol almmlo alomlm alomml alolmm alolmm alomlm alomml almmol
almmlo almoml almolm almlom almlmo aollmm aollmm aolmlm aolmml aolmml aolmlm
aollmm aollmm aolmlm aolmml aolmml aolmlm aomllm aomlml aomllm aomlml aommll
aommll aomlml aomllm aommll aommll aomlml aomllm amllom amllmo amlolm amloml
amlmol amlmlo amllom amllmo amlolm amloml amlmol amlmlo amollm amolml amollm
amolml amomll amomll ammlol ammllo ammoll ammoll ammlol ammllo lamlom lamlmo
lamolm lamoml lammol lammlo lalmom lalmmo lalomm lalomm lalmom lalmmo laolmm
laolmm laomlm laomml laomml laomlm lamlom lamlmo lamolm lamoml lammol lammlo
lmalom lmalmo lmaolm lmaoml lmamol lmamlo lmlaom lmlamo lmloam lmloma lmlmoa
lmlmao lmolam lmolma lmoalm lmoaml lmomal lmomla lmmloa lmmlao lmmola lmmoal
lmmaol lmmalo llmaom llmamo llmoam llmoma llmmoa llmmao llamom llammo llaomm
llaomm llamom llammo lloamm lloamm llomam llomma llomma llomam llmaom llmamo
llmoam llmoma llmmoa llmmao lomlam lomlma lomalm lomaml lommal lommla lolmam
lolmma lolamm lolamm lolmam lolmma loalmm loalmm loamlm loamml loamml loamlm
lomlam lomlma lomalm lomaml lommal lommla lmmloa lmmlao lmmola lmmoal lmmaol
lmmalo lmlmoa lmlmao lmloma lmloam lmlaom lmlamo lmolma lmolam lmomla lmomal
lmoaml lmoalm lmalom lmalmo lmaolm lmaoml lmamol lmamlo lalmom lalmmo lalomm
lalomm lalmom lalmmo lamlom lamlmo lamolm lamoml lammol lammlo laomlm laomml
laolmm laolmm laomlm laomml lammol lammlo lamoml lamolm lamlom lamlmo llamom
llammo llaomm llaomm llamom llammo llmaom llmamo llmoam llmoma llmmoa llmmao
llomam llomma lloamm lloamm llomam llomma llmmoa llmmao llmoma llmoam llmaom
llmamo lmlaom lmlamo lmloam lmloma lmlmoa lmlmao lmalom lmalmo lmaolm lmaoml
lmamol lmamlo lmoalm lmoaml lmolam lmolma lmomla lmomal lmmaol lmmalo lmmoal
lmmola lmmloa lmmlao lolmam lolmma lolamm lolamm lolmam lolmma lomlam lomlma
lomalm lomaml lommal lommla loamlm loamml loalmm loalmm loamlm loamml lommal
lommla lomaml lomalm lomlam lomlma lmlmoa lmlmao lmloma lmloam lmlaom lmlamo
lmmloa lmmlao lmmola lmmoal lmmaol lmmalo lmomla lmomal lmolma lmolam lmoalm
lmoaml lmamol lmamlo lmaoml lmaolm lmalom lmalmo oallmm oallmm oalmlm oalmml
oalmml oalmlm oallmm oallmm oalmlm oalmml oalmml oalmlm oamllm oamlml oamllm
oamlml oammll oammll oamlml oamllm oammll oammll oamlml oamllm olalmm olalmm
olamlm olamml olamml olamlm ollamm ollamm ollmam ollmma ollmma ollmam olmlam
olmlma olmalm olmaml olmmal olmmla olmlma olmlam olmmla olmmal olmaml olmalm
ollamm ollamm ollmam ollmma ollmma ollmam olalmm olalmm olamlm olamml olamml
olamlm olmalm olmaml olmlam olmlma olmmla olmmal olmaml olmalm olmmal olmmla
olmlma olmlam omllam omllma omlalm omlaml omlmal omlmla omllam omllma omlalm
omlaml omlmal omlmla omallm omalml omallm omalml omamll omamll ommlal ommlla
ommall ommall ommlal ommlla omllma omllam omlmla omlmal omlaml omlalm omllma
omllam omlmla omlmal omlaml omlalm ommlla ommlal ommlla ommlal ommall ommall
omalml omallm omamll omamll omalml omallm mallom mallmo malolm maloml malmol
malmlo mallom mallmo malolm maloml malmol malmlo maollm maolml maollm maolml
maomll maomll mamlol mamllo mamoll mamoll mamlol mamllo mlalom mlalmo mlaolm
mlaoml mlamol mlamlo mllaom mllamo mlloam mlloma mllmoa mllmao mlolam mlolma
mloalm mloaml mlomal mlomla mlmloa mlmlao mlmola mlmoal mlmaol mlmalo mllaom
mllamo mlloam mlloma mllmoa mllmao mlalom mlalmo mlaolm mlaoml mlamol mlamlo
mloalm mloaml mlolam mlolma mlomla mlomal mlmaol mlmalo mlmoal mlmola mlmloa
mlmlao mollam mollma molalm molaml molmal molmla mollam mollma molalm molaml
molmal molmla moallm moalml moallm moalml moamll moamll momlal momlla momall
momall momlal momlla mmlloa mmllao mmlola mmloal mmlaol mmlalo mmlloa mmllao
mmlola mmloal mmlaol mmlalo mmolla mmolal mmolla mmolal mmoall mmoall mmalol
mmallo mmaoll mmaoll mmalol mmallo

Read more ...[1] , [2] , [3]

History of cryptography
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