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Caesar cipher

Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the 'plain' line and writes down the corresponding letter in the 'cipher' line. Deciphering is done in reverse.
The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, A = 0, B = 1,..., Z = 25. Encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as

Plaintext: maliki
cipher variations:
nbmjlj ocnkmk pdolnl qepmom rfqnpn
sgroqo thsprp uitqsq vjurtr wkvsus
xlwtvt ymxuwu znyvxv aozwyw bpaxzx
cqbyay drczbz esdaca ftebdb gufcec
hvgdfd iwhege jxifhf kyjgig lzkhjh

Decryption is performed similarly,

(There are different definitions for the modulo operation. In the above, the result is in the range 0...25. I.e., if x+n or x-n are not in the range 0...25, we have to subtract or add 26.)
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Atbash Cipher

Atbash is an ancient encryption system created in the Middle East. It was originally used in the Hebrew language.
The Atbash cipher is a simple substitution cipher that relies on transposing all the letters in the alphabet such that the resulting alphabet is backwards.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
An example plaintext to ciphertext using Atbash:
Plain: maliki
Cipher: nzorpr

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Baconian Cipher

To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters 'A' or 'B'. This replacement is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher, shown below.
a   AAAAA   g    AABBA     m    ABABB   s    BAAAB     y    BABBA
b   AAAAB   h    AABBB     n    ABBAA   t    BAABA     z    BABBB
c   AAABA   i    ABAAA     o    ABBAB   u    BAABB 
d   AAABB   j    BBBAA     p    ABBBA   v    BBBAB
e   AABAA   k    ABAAB     q    ABBBB   w    BABAA
f   AABAB   l    ABABA     r    BAAAA   x    BABAB

Plain: maliki

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Affine Cipher
In the affine cipher the letters of an alphabet of size m are first mapped to the integers in the range 0..m - 1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext letter. The encryption function for a single letter is

where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher. The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e. m = 26), there are a total of 286 non-trivial affine ciphers, not counting the 26 trivial Caesar ciphers. This number comes from the fact there are 12 numbers that are coprime with 26 that are less than 26 (these are the possible values of a). Each value of a can have 26 different addition shifts (the b value) ; therefore, there are 12*26 or 312 possible keys.
Plaintext: maliki
cipher variations:

The decryption function is

where a - 1 is the modular multiplicative inverse of a modulo m. I.e., it satisfies the equation

The multiplicative inverse of a only exists if a and m are coprime. Hence without the restriction on a decryption might not be possible. It can be shown as follows that decryption function is the inverse of the encryption function,

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ROT13 Cipher
Applying ROT13 to a piece of text merely requires examining its alphabetic characters and replacing each one by the letter 13 places further along in the alphabet, wrapping back to the beginning if necessary. A becomes N, B becomes O, and so on up to M, which becomes Z, then the sequence continues at the beginning of the alphabet: N becomes A, O becomes B, and so on to Z, which becomes M. Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged. Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse:

ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x

An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13:

Plain: maliki
Cipher: znyvxv

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Polybius Square

A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers. To give a small level of encryption, this table can be randomized and shared with the recipient. In order to fit the 26 letters of the alphabet into the 25 spots created by the table, the letters i and j are usually combined.
1 2 3 4 5
1 A B C D E
2 F G H I/J K
3 L M N O P
4 Q R S T U
5 V W X Y Z

Basic Form:
Plain: maliki
Cipher: 231113425242

Extended Methods:
Method #1

Plaintext: maliki
method variations:

Method #2
Bifid cipher
The message is converted to its coordinates in the usual manner, but they are written vertically beneath:
m a l i k i 
2 1 1 4 5 4 
3 1 3 2 2 2 
They are then read out in rows:
Then divided up into pairs again, and the pairs turned back into letters using the square:
Plain: maliki
Cipher: bquchg

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Method #3

Plaintext: maliki
method variations:
caswrg aswrgc swrgca
wrgcas rgcasw gcaswr

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Permutation Cipher
In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. To apply a cipher, a random permutation of size E is generated (the larger the value of E the more secure the cipher). The plaintext is then broken into segments of size E and the letters within that segment are permuted according to this key.
In theory, any transposition cipher can be viewed as a permutation cipher where E is equal to the length of the plaintext; this is too cumbersome a generalisation to use in actual practice, however.
The idea behind a permutation cipher is to keep the plaintext characters unchanged, butalter their positions by rearrangement using a permutation
This cipher is defined as:
Let m be a positive integer, and K consist of all permutations of {1,...,m}
For a key (permutation) , define:
The encryption function
The decryption function
A small example, assuming m = 6, and the key is the permutation :

The first row is the value of i, and the second row is the corresponding value of (i)
The inverse permutation, is constructed by interchanging the two rows, andrearranging the columns so that the first row is in increasing order, Therefore, is:

Total variation formula:

e = 2,718281828 , n - plaintext length

Plaintext: maliki

all 720 cipher variations:
maliki maliik malkii malkii maliki maliik mailki mailik maikli maikil maiikl
maiilk makili makiil maklii maklii makili makiil maiikl maiilk maikil maikli
mailki mailik mlaiki mlaiik mlakii mlakii mlaiki mlaiik mliaki mliaik mlikai
mlikia mliika mliiak mlkiai mlkiia mlkaii mlkaii mlkiai mlkiia mliika mliiak
mlikia mlikai mliaki mliaik milaki milaik milkai milkia milika miliak mialki
mialik miakli miakil miaikl miailk mikali mikail miklai miklia mikila mikial
miiakl miialk miikal miikla miilka miilak mkliai mkliia mklaii mklaii mkliai
mkliia mkilai mkilia mkiali mkiail mkiial mkiila mkaili mkaiil mkalii mkalii
mkaili mkaiil mkiial mkiila mkiail mkiali mkilai mkilia milika miliak milkia
milkai milaki milaik miilka miilak miikla miikal miiakl miialk mikila mikial
miklia miklai mikali mikail miaikl miailk miakil miakli mialki mialik amliki
amliik amlkii amlkii amliki amliik amilki amilik amikli amikil amiikl amiilk
amkili amkiil amklii amklii amkili amkiil amiikl amiilk amikil amikli amilki
amilik almiki almiik almkii almkii almiki almiik alimki alimik alikmi alikim
aliikm aliimk alkimi alkiim alkmii alkmii alkimi alkiim aliikm aliimk alikim
alikmi alimki alimik ailmki ailmik ailkmi ailkim ailikm ailimk aimlki aimlik
aimkli aimkil aimikl aimilk aikmli aikmil aiklmi aiklim aikilm aikiml aiimkl
aiimlk aiikml aiiklm aiilkm aiilmk aklimi akliim aklmii aklmii aklimi akliim
akilmi akilim akimli akimil akiiml akiilm akmili akmiil akmlii akmlii akmili
akmiil akiiml akiilm akimil akimli akilmi akilim ailikm ailimk ailkim ailkmi
ailmki ailmik aiilkm aiilmk aiiklm aiikml aiimkl aiimlk aikilm aikiml aiklim
aiklmi aikmli aikmil aimikl aimilk aimkil aimkli aimlki aimlik lamiki lamiik
lamkii lamkii lamiki lamiik laimki laimik laikmi laikim laiikm laiimk lakimi
lakiim lakmii lakmii lakimi lakiim laiikm laiimk laikim laikmi laimki laimik
lmaiki lmaiik lmakii lmakii lmaiki lmaiik lmiaki lmiaik lmikai lmikia lmiika
lmiiak lmkiai lmkiia lmkaii lmkaii lmkiai lmkiia lmiika lmiiak lmikia lmikai
lmiaki lmiaik limaki limaik limkai limkia limika limiak liamki liamik liakmi
liakim liaikm liaimk likami likaim likmai likmia likima likiam liiakm liiamk
liikam liikma liimka liimak lkmiai lkmiia lkmaii lkmaii lkmiai lkmiia lkimai
lkimia lkiami lkiaim lkiiam lkiima lkaimi lkaiim lkamii lkamii lkaimi lkaiim
lkiiam lkiima lkiaim lkiami lkimai lkimia limika limiak limkia limkai limaki
limaik liimka liimak liikma liikam liiakm liiamk likima likiam likmia likmai
likami likaim liaikm liaimk liakim liakmi liamki liamik ialmki ialmik ialkmi
ialkim ialikm ialimk iamlki iamlik iamkli iamkil iamikl iamilk iakmli iakmil
iaklmi iaklim iakilm iakiml iaimkl iaimlk iaikml iaiklm iailkm iailmk ilamki
ilamik ilakmi ilakim ilaikm ilaimk ilmaki ilmaik ilmkai ilmkia ilmika ilmiak
ilkmai ilkmia ilkami ilkaim ilkiam ilkima ilimka ilimak ilikma ilikam iliakm
iliamk imlaki imlaik imlkai imlkia imlika imliak imalki imalik imakli imakil
imaikl imailk imkali imkail imklai imklia imkila imkial imiakl imialk imikal
imikla imilka imilak iklmai iklmia iklami iklaim ikliam iklima ikmlai ikmlia
ikmali ikmail ikmial ikmila ikamli ikamil ikalmi ikalim ikailm ikaiml ikimal
ikimla ikiaml ikialm ikilam ikilma iilmka iilmak iilkma iilkam iilakm iilamk
iimlka iimlak iimkla iimkal iimakl iimalk iikmla iikmal iiklma iiklam iikalm
iikaml iiamkl iiamlk iiakml iiaklm iialkm iialmk kalimi kaliim kalmii kalmii
kalimi kaliim kailmi kailim kaimli kaimil kaiiml kaiilm kamili kamiil kamlii
kamlii kamili kamiil kaiiml kaiilm kaimil kaimli kailmi kailim klaimi klaiim
klamii klamii klaimi klaiim kliami kliaim klimai klimia kliima kliiam klmiai
klmiia klmaii klmaii klmiai klmiia kliima kliiam klimia klimai kliami kliaim
kilami kilaim kilmai kilmia kilima kiliam kialmi kialim kiamli kiamil kiaiml
kiailm kimali kimail kimlai kimlia kimila kimial kiiaml kiialm kiimal kiimla
kiilma kiilam kmliai kmliia kmlaii kmlaii kmliai kmliia kmilai kmilia kmiali
kmiail kmiial kmiila kmaili kmaiil kmalii kmalii kmaili kmaiil kmiial kmiila
kmiail kmiali kmilai kmilia kilima kiliam kilmia kilmai kilami kilaim kiilma
kiilam kiimla kiimal kiiaml kiialm kimila kimial kimlia kimlai kimali kimail
kiaiml kiailm kiamil kiamli kialmi kialim ialikm ialimk ialkim ialkmi ialmki
ialmik iailkm iailmk iaiklm iaikml iaimkl iaimlk iakilm iakiml iaklim iaklmi
iakmli iakmil iamikl iamilk iamkil iamkli iamlki iamlik ilaikm ilaimk ilakim
ilakmi ilamki ilamik iliakm iliamk ilikam ilikma ilimka ilimak ilkiam ilkima
ilkaim ilkami ilkmai ilkmia ilmika ilmiak ilmkia ilmkai ilmaki ilmaik iilakm
iilamk iilkam iilkma iilmka iilmak iialkm iialmk iiaklm iiakml iiamkl iiamlk
iikalm iikaml iiklam iiklma iikmla iikmal iimakl iimalk iimkal iimkla iimlka
iimlak ikliam iklima iklaim iklami iklmai iklmia ikilam ikilma ikialm ikiaml
ikimal ikimla ikailm ikaiml ikalim ikalmi ikamli ikamil ikmial ikmila ikmail
ikmali ikmlai ikmlia imlika imliak imlkia imlkai imlaki imlaik imilka imilak
imikla imikal imiakl imialk imkila imkial imklia imklai imkali imkail imaikl
imailk imakil imakli imalki imalik

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History of cryptography
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